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Anthony Dalaber

(d. 1562) [Emden; Fines]

Student of Gloucester College, Oxford; student of John Clerk and friend and associate of Thomas Garrard

John Clerk warned Anthony Dalaber that if he continued to follow him, he would be subjected to scorn, persecution and imprisonment. Dalaber refused to leave him, and on his behalf visited the many students and scholars influenced by Clerk. 1563, p. 609; 1570, p. 1369; 1576, p. 1168; 1583, p. 1196.

Anthony Dalaber witnessed and recounted the story of Thomas Garrard's trouble in Oxford. 1563, pp. 604-609; 1570, pp. 1366-69; 1576, pp. 1166-68; 1583, pp. 1194-97.

When Thomas Garrard was sought in Oxford, Dalaber planned to help him escape to Dalaber's brother in Dorset to become his curate and then escape overseas. 1563, p. 604; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1166; 1583, p. 1194.

After Garrard's escape, Dalaber's room was searched in his absence. He was sent for by Anthony Dunstan and examined. Dunstan refused to believe Dalaber's account. 1563, p. 607; 1570, p. 1368; 1576, p. 1167; 1583, p. 1195.

Dalaber was then brought before Cottisford, John Hygdon and John London and examined. He was put into the stocks. He was condemned as a heretic and made to bear a faggot with Thomas Garrard, who had been apprehended. They were then imprisoned. 1563, pp. 608-09; 1570, pp. 1368-69; 1576, pp. 1167-68; 1583, pp. 1196-97.

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When John Frith heard of the examination and bearing of faggots of Dalaber and Garrard, he fled overseas. 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

 
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Geoffrey or Godfrey Harman

(d. 1534) [Emden]

BA Cambridge 1521-2; MA 1524-25; called to Cardinal College, Oxford 1525; canon; BTh 1531; fellow of Eton College (1532 - 34)

Harman was one of the scholars Wolsey gathered for Cardinal College. 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

 
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Goodman

Caught in the Oxford troubles of 1528; died as result of incarceration [Fines]

Goodman was one of the scholars Wolsey gathered for Cardinal College. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

 
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Henry Sumner [Sommers]

(d. 1528) [Emden; Fines]

King's College, Cambridge; then Cardinal College, Oxford; MA 1526; charged with having heretical books, imprisoned in the salt-fish cellar, where he died

Anthony Dalaber went to John Clerk to tell him about the arrest of Thomas Garrard and his escape. Clerk was glad to hear of it. He sent for Henry Sumner and William Bettes and had Dalaber relate the story to them, who were equally glad. 1563, p. 606; 1570, p. 1367; 1576, p. 1167; 1583, p. 1195.

Those suspected of heresy at Oxford at the time of the trial of Thomas Garrard and Anthony Dalaber included John Clerk, Henry Sumner, William Bettes, John Taverner, Radley, Nicholas Udall, John Diet, William Eden, John Langport, John Salisbury and Robert Ferrar. 1563, p. 609; 1570, p. 1369; 1576, p. 1168; 1583, p. 1197.

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Henry Sumner was one of the scholars Wolsey gathered for Cardinal College. He died in prison after a diet solely of salt fish. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

Sumner was one of the scholars imprisoned at Cardinal College for attending an illegal assembly. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

 
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John Bayly

(d. 1528?) [Emden]

BA Cambridge; one of those called into Cardinal's College, Oxford 1525-26; charged with possession of heretical books in connection with the reforming activities of Thomas Garrett

John Bayly was one of the scholars Wolsey gathered for Cardinal College. He died in prison there after a diet solely of salt fish. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

 
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John Clerk

(c. 1501 - 1528?) [Emden]

BA Cambridg; MA 1521-22; called from Cambridge to Cardinal's College (Christ Church) Oxford in 1525; BTh 1527; one of those suspected of having done mischief at the time of the visit of Thomas Garrett to Oxford in 1528

John Clerk warned Anthony Dalaber that if he continued to follow him, he would be subjected to scorn, persecution and imprisonment. Many students and scholars throughout Oxford were influenced by Clerk's disputations and lectures. 1563, p. 609; 1570, p. 1369; 1576, p. 1168; 1583, p. 1196.

Anthony Dalaber went to John Clerk to tell him about the arrest of Thomas Garrard and his escape. Clerk was glad to hear of it. He sent for Henry Sumner and William Bettes and had Dalaber relate the story to them, who were equally glad. 1563, p. 606; 1570, p. 1367; 1576, p. 1167; 1583, p. 1195.

Those suspected of heresy at Oxford at the time of the trial of Thomas Garrard and Anthony Dalaber included John Clerk, Henry Sumner, William Bettes, John Taverner, Radley, Nicholas Udall, John Diet, William Eden, John Langport, John Salisbury and Robert Ferrar. 1563, p. 609; 1570, p. 1369; 1576, p. 1168; 1583, p. 1197.

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John Clerk was one of the scholars Wolsey gathered for Cardinal College. He died in prison after a diet of solely salt fish. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

Clerk was imprisoned in Cardinal College for holding an illegal assembly and died of illness. 1563, p. 441; 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

 
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John Cottisford

)d. 1540) [ODNB]

Master of Lincoln College, Oxford; chancellor's commissary at Oxford

Thomas Garrard was arrested and taken to John Cottisford, who kept him imprisoned in his own chamber. 1563, p. 605; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1166; 1583, p. 1194.

After Thomas Garrard escaped, Cottisford was blamed by John Hygdon and John London. 1563, p. 606; 1570, p. 1367; 1576, p. 1167; 1583, p. 1195.

Anthony Dalaber was brought before Cottisford, John Hygdon and John London and examined. 1563, p. 608; 1570, p. 1368; 1576, p. 1167; 1583, p. 1196.

Thomas Garrard was apprehended after his escape and examined by Cottisford, Hygdon and London. He was condemned as a heretic and made to bear a faggot. 1563, p. 609; 1570, p. 1369; 1576, p. 1168; 1583, p. 1197.

Cottisford was one of the examiners of the reformers at Cardinal College, Oxford. 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

 
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John Fryer (Freer)

(1498/9 - 1563) [ODNB]

b. Balsham, Cambridgeshire; physician; BA Cambridge 1522; MA 1525; appointed to Wolsey's Cardinal College, Oxford 1525; imprisoned 1528; MD Padua 1535; fellow of the College of Physicians 1536, president 1549, 1550; returned to Catholicism in later life; imprisoned in 1561 in the Tower; died of plague

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John Fryer was one of the scholars Wolsey gathered for Cardinal College. 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

 
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John Hygdon

(d. 1532) [ODNB]

MA OXford by 1498; lecturer in sophistry, senior dean of arts, second bursar of Magdalen College, vice-president 1504-5; DTh 1514; president of Magdalen (1516 - 25); dean of Cardinal College, Oxford 1525, and dean of the refounded King Henry VIII College 1532

The arrest of Thomas Garrard at Oxford brought great joy to John London and John Hygdon. 1563, p. 605; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1166; 1583, p. 1194.

After Thomas Garrard escaped, John Cottisford was blamed by the John Hygdon and John London. They sent out spies to search. 1563, p. 606; 1570, p. 1367; 1576, p. 1167; 1583, p. 1195.

Anthony Dalaber was brought before Hygdon, John Cottisford and John London and examined. 1563, p. 608; 1570, p. 1368; 1576, p. 1167; 1583, p. 1196.

Thomas Garrard was apprehended after his escape and examined by Hygdon, Cottisford and London. He was condemned as a heretic and made to bear a faggot. 1563, p. 609; 1570, p. 1369; 1576, p. 1168; 1583, p. 1197.

John Hygdon was one of the examiners of the reformers in Cardinal College, Oxford. 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

 
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John London

(1485/6 - 1543) [ODNB; Emden]

Administrator; native of Hambleden, Buckinghamshire

BCL Oxford 1513; DCL 1519; warden of New College, Oxford (1526 - 42); regarded in Oxford and elsewhere as a great opponent of reform; notary public by 1533; dean of Wallingford 1536; canon and prebendary of Salisbury and Windsor 1540; dean of Oxford 1542; participated in the dissolution of the monasteries; convicted of perjury in 1543, died in prison

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Alice Doly's servant was brought before John London to give evidence against her mistress in Buckinghamshire in 1520. 1570, p. 1118; 1576, p. 957; 1583, p. 984.

The arrest of Thomas Garrard at Oxford brought great joy to John London and John Hygdon. 1563, p. 605; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1166; 1583, p. 1194.

After Thomas Garrard escaped, John Cottisford was blamed by the John Hygdon and John London. They sent out spies to search. 1563, p. 606; 1570, p. 1367; 1576, p. 1167; 1583, p. 1195.

Anthony Dalaber was brought before London, John Hygdon and John Cottisford and examined. 1563, p. 608; 1570, p. 1368; 1576, p. 1167; 1583, p. 1196.

Thomas Garrard was apprehended after his escape and examined by Cottisford, Hygdon and London. He was condemned as a heretic and made to bear a faggot. 1563, p. 609; 1570, p. 1369; 1576, p. 1168; 1583, p. 1197.

John London was one of the examiners of the reformers in Cardinal College, Oxford. 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

Some plate was stolen from New College, Oxford, and sold to William Callaway in London. Callaway bought the goods in good faith. When John London, warden of the college, discovered that he had bought it and that he was a protestant, he brought a charge of felony against him. 1563, pp. 626-27; 1570, p. 1408; 1576, pp. 1200-01; 1583, p. 1230.

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London was one of the chief persecutors of Robert Testwood, Henry Filmer and Anthony Pearson at Windsor. 1563, p. 630; 1570, p. 1386; 1576, p. 1182; 1583, p. 1211.

Anthony Pearson often preached in Windsor, where his sermons were very popular with the people, but not with the conservative clerics, especially William Symonds and John London. 1570, p. 1389; 1576, p. 1185; 1583, p. 1213.

After London had been in Windsor a while, he learned of the views of Robert Testwood and was shown the broken nose of the image of the Virgin. 1570, p. 1389; 1576, p. 1185; 1583, p. 1213.

Symonds and London kept notes of Pearson's sermons. They included the names of all those who frequented the sermons. They reported all of these to Stephen Gardiner. 1570, p. 1389; 1576, p. 1185; 1583, pp. 1213-14.

Henry Filmer's wife pleaded with the bishops who were commissioners for the Six Articles to give her husband an audience. She eventually found the bishops of Ely, Salisbury and Hereford together and put her case. However, John London and William Symonds ensured that Filmer was never brought before the bishops. 1570, p. 1395; 1576, p. 1189; 1583, p. 1218.

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Symonds brought Henry Filmer's brother to John London's house, where he was won over with food, drink and promises of friendship and plenty. London retained him as one of his household men until the day of Henry Filmer's trial, when his brother gave testimony against him. 1570, p. 1396; 1576, p. 1190; 1583, p. 1219.

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After the secret indictments against members of the privy council were discovered and the king's pardon granted, John London, William Symonds and Robert Ockham were brought before the council and found guilty of perjury. They were sentenced to ride backwards on horses, wearing papers, and to stand in the pillories of Windsor, Reading and Newbury. 1570, p. 1399; 1576, p. 1193; 1583, p. 1221.

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John Taverner

(c. 1490 - 1545) [ODNB]

Composer; of Boston Lincolnshire; inaugural master of choristers of the choir of Cardinal College, Oxford (1526 - 30)

After Thomas Garrard's imprisonment and escape, Anthony Dalaber went to evensong at Cardinal College, where he heard John Taverner play. 1563, p. 606; 1570, p. 1367; 1576, p. 1167; 1583, p. 1195.

Those suspected of heresy at Oxford at the time of the trial of Thomas Garrard and Anthony Dalaber included John Clerk, Henry Sumner, William Bettes, John Taverner, Radley, Nicholas Udall, John Diet, William Eden, John Langport, John Salisbury and Robert Ferrar. 1563, p. 609; 1570, p. 1369; 1576, p. 1168; 1583, p. 1197.

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John Taverner was one of the scholars Wolsey gathered for Cardinal College. He was accused of hiding John Clerk's books under the floorboards in his school, but was released because he was only a musician. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

 
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Leonard Cox

(c. 1495 - in or after 1549) [ODNB]

Schoolmaster; studied at Prague, Tuebingen and Cracow; lectured at Cracow; returned to England in 1529; master of a grammar school at Reading

When John Frith was in the stocks at Reading, he asked to see Leonard Cox, who helped to free him. 1563, p. 498; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

 
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Michael Drome (Drumme)

Clergyman of London diocese [Fines]; one of the migrants from Cambridge to Cardinal College, Oxford

Michael Drome was one of the scholars Wolsey gathered for Cardinal College. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

 
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Richard Coxe

(1500 - 1581) [ODNB]

BA Cambridge 1524; MA 1526; headmaster at Eton 1529; BTh 1535, DTh 1537

Chaplain to Henry VIII and to Archbishop Cranmer by 1540; archdeacon of Ely 1540; first dean of Osney Cathedral, Oxford 1544

Tutor and almoner to Prince Edward; chancellor of Oxford (1547 - 52)

Bishop of Ely (1559 - 1581). Marian exile

Richard Coxe was one of the scholars Wolsey gathered for Cardinal College. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

Coxe was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Stephen Gardiner complained to the king about the sermon of Robert Barnes preached during Lent at Paul's Cross. He disputed with Barnes, and Richard Coxe and Thomas Robinson acted as arbiters. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, p. 1169; 1583, p. 1198.

Richard Coxe and Thomas Robinson came in to see Anne Askew after a session of questioning at her second examination. 1563, p. 683; 1570, p. 1417; 1576, p. 1208; 1583, p. 1238.

Thomas Cranmer praised the learning and wisdom of Prince Edward to his tutor, Richard Coxe. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Richard Coxe wrote to Thomas Cranmer, praising the young Prince Edward. 1570, p. 1564; 1576, p. 1334; 1583, p. 1395.

Henry Holbeach, Richard Coxe, Simon Haynes, Richard Morison and Christopher Nevinson, king's visitors, were present at the disputations at Oxford in 1549 with Peter Martyr. 1570, pp. 1552; 1576, p. 1323; 1583, p. 1373.

Richard Coxe was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, pp. 808-9

Richard Coxe was present at the scaffold in January 1552 as counsellor and spiritual advisor to Edward Seymour at his execution. 1563, p. 882; 1570, p. 1551; 1576, p. 1322; 1583, p. 1372.

 
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Rudolf Gwalther

(1519 - 1586) [ODNB]

born Zurich. Theologian; in 1537 visited England with Nicholas Partridge; later provided refuge for English protestants in Zurich

Rudolf Gwalther saw the buildings Cardinal Wolsey had begun for Cardinal College. 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

 
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Sir Thomas More

(1478 - 1535) [ODNB]

Humanist, author. Studied at Oxford (1492 - 94); Lincoln Inn (1496 - 1501/2); joined king's council 1518; royal secretary (1521 - 26); lord chancellor (1529 - 32); strong opponent of heresy; martyr

Both Sir Thomas More and William Tyndale related the story of how Humphrey of Lancaster proved the miracle of the blind man regaining his sight at St Albans to be fraudulant. 1563, p. 883.

Thomas Cromwell, Thomas More and Stephen Gardiner served together in Thomas Wolsey's household. 1563, p. 592; 1570, p. 1347; 1576, p. 1150; 1583, p. 1178.

Thomas Wolsey, having obtained large sums from the king's treasury, went to the French court to contribute to the ransom of Clement VII, hiring soldiers and furnishing the French army. He took with him Cuthbert Tunstall, William Sandys, the earl of Derby, Sir Henry Guildford and Sir Thomas More. 1563, p. 439; 1570, p. 1123; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 988.

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More became chancellor after Thomas Wolsey was deprived of office. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 994.

Thomas Phillips was handed over by Sir Thomas More to Bishop Stokesley in 1530. As well as holding heretical opinions, Phillips was charged with having a copy of William Tracy's will and butter and cheese during Lent. He was examined by More and Stokesley. 1570, p. 1185; 1576, p. 1014; 1583, p. 1042.

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More was prevented from persecuting Simon Fish because the king had given him his signet, but he sent for Fish's wife to appear before him. She was saved from molestation because her daughter was ill with plague. 1570, p. 448; 1570, p. 1153; 1576, p. 987; 1583, p. 1014.

More wrote The Supplication of Purgatory in opposition to Simon Fish's Supplication for the Beggars. 1570, p. 1156; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

More intercepted and confiscated a consignment of protestant books sent to England by Richard Bayfield. 1563, p. 486; 1570, p. 1162; 1576, p. 994; 1583, p. 1022.

About four days before Bayfield was arrested, a boy of Colchester was charged in London with bringing books to him. The boy was imprisoned by Sir Thomas More and died there. 1570, p. 1189; 1576, p. 1017; 1583, p. 1046.

More examined John Tewkesbury, and sentence was pronounced in More's house. 1563, p. 493; 1570, p. 1167; 1576, p. 998; 1583, p. 1026.

More pursued John Frith in England and abroad and promised large rewards for news of him. 1563, p. 498; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

John Fisher and More had Frith burnt. 1570, p. 1216; 1576, p. 1042; 1583, p. 1068.

When the king heard of the exhumation and burning of William Tracy's corpse, he angrily sent for Sir Thomas More. More blamed the now deceased archbishop of Canterbury, but was fined three hundred pounds to have his pardon. 1570, p. 1186; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1042.

Bishop Stokesley complained to More of the behaviour of his clergy in objecting to contributing large sums to the lifting of the praemunire on the higher clergy. More had the mayor of London arrest and imprison a number of clergy and laymen. 1570, p. 1196; 1576, p. 1024; 1583, p. 1052.

The king sent More to speak to parliament, giving the opinion of the universities on the validity of the king's marriage to Catherine. 1563, p. 459.

Because More opposed the king's separation from the pope, he was deprived of the chancellorship. 1570, p. 1198; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1054.

William Tyndale mentioned the martyr Thomas Hitten in his Apology against Sir Thomas More and in The Practice of Prelates. 1570, p. 1134; 1576, p. 971; 1583, pp. 997-98.

In the preface to his book against Tyndale, More gave evidence that Thomas Bilney had recanted before his burning. 1570, p. 1146; 1576, p. 981; 1583, p. 1008.

John Fisher, Sir Thomas More and Nicholas Wilson refused to swear an oath on the king's supremacy and were imprisoned in the Tower. Fisher and More were executed. 1570, pp. 1200, 1216; 1576, pp. 1028, 1042; 1583, pp. 1056, 1068.

 
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Thomas Garrard (Garret)

(1498 - 1540) [ODNB; Fines]

of Lincolnshire; clergyman and protestant reformer

BA Oxford 1518; MA 1524, BTh by 1535; chancellor to Latimer and Cranmer

Burnt as a heretic

Garrard preached repentance and had his books burned. 1570, p. 39; 1576, p. 32; 1583, p. 32.

Thomas Garrard took prohibited books to Oxford and was sought for the same offence in London. 1563, p. 604; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1166; 1583, p. 1194.

Garrard was arrested and taken into custody. He undid the lock and went to see Anthony Dalaber, who gave him his cloak to disguise his escape. 1563, p. 605; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1166; 1583, p. 1194.

After Garrard had escaped, he was apprehended by Cole and returned to the university. He was examined by Cottisford, Hygdon and London, condemned as a heretic and made to bear a faggot with Anthony Dalaber. They were then imprisoned. 1563, p. 609; 1570, p. 1369; 1576, p. 1168; 1583, p. 1197.

When John Frith heard of the examination and bearing of faggots of Dalaber and Garrard, he fled overseas. 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

Thomas Wolsey forced Thomas Arthur, Thomas Bilney, Geoffrey Lome and Thomas Garrard to abjure for speaking against the authority of the pope. 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 994.

Thomas Garrard had been curate of All Hallows in Honey Lane. He abjured before the bishops of London, Lincoln and Bath and Wells.1563, pp. 419, 480-81.

Richard Champion and Thomas Garrard were sent to Calais to preach. 1563, p. 658; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1195; 1583, p. 1224.

King Henry commanded that Robert Barnes, Thomas Garrard and William Jerome recant the doctrine they had been preaching. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, p. 1170; 1583, p. 1198.

Garrard first recanted in his sermon and then continued the sermon contrary to his recantation. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, p. 1170; 1583, p. 1198.

Barnes, Garrard and Jerome were committed to the Tower. They were brought together to Smithfield and burnt. 1563, pp. 611-12; 1570, pp. 1371-72; 1576, p. 1170-71; 1583, p. 1199-1200.

Garrard was burnt at Smithfield with Robert Barnes and William Jerome. 1563, p. 610; 1570, p. 1370; 1576, p. 1168; 1583, p. 1197.

 
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Thomas Goodrich

(1494 - 1554) [ODNB]

BA Cambridge 1510; MA 1514; DCL 1520s

Bishop of Ely (1534 - 54); lord chancellor (1552 - 53)

Goodrich was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Goodrich attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Goodrich opposed retaining the seven sacraments. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

John Marbeck's fourth examination was conducted by John Capon, John Skip, Thomas Goodrich, Robert Oking and William May. 1570, pp. 1393-94; 1576, pp. 1188-89; 1583, pp. 1216-17.

Goodrich recommended Richard Coxe to Henry VIII. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

Goodrich was a signatory to a letter from the king and privy council to Nicholas Ridley, directing him to remove and destroy all altars within the churches of his diocese and install communion tables. 1563, p. 727; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1288; 1583, p. 1331.

Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Sir John Cheke, William May and Thomas Wendy, king's visitors, attended the disputation at Cambridge in 1549. 1570, p. 1555; 1576, p. 1326; 1583, p. 1376.

After Edmund Bonner was sentenced to prison and deprived of his bishopric, the king appointed Richard Rich, Henry marquess of Dorset, Thomas Goodrich, Lord Wentworth, Sir Anthony Wingfield, Sir William Herbert, Nicholas Wotton, Edward Montague, Sir John Baker, Judge Hales, John Gosnold, John Oliver and Griffith Leyson to examine his documents. They confirmed the sentence against him. 1563, p. 725; 1570, p. 1519; 1576, pp. 1287-88; 1583, p. 1330.

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After Stephen Gardiner's sequestration, Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Henry Holbeach, Sir William Petre, Sir James Hales, Griffith Leyson, John Oliver and John Gosnold were commissioned to examine him. 1563, p. 776; 1570, p. 1535; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1358.

 
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Thomas Lawney

Priest; migrated from Cambridge to a chaplaincy at Cardinal College, Oxford in 1525; kept in ward by the dean after the arrest of Thomas Garrett; preaching in Kent 1536; chaplain to the duke of Norfolk; intimate of Cranmer; chaplain to Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk in 1540 [Emden; Fines]

Thomas Lawney was one of the scholars Wolsey gathered for Cardinal College. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

 
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William Bettes

d. by April 1535 [Emden]

Gonville Hall; Corpus Christi College, Cambridge (1531 - 33); BA Cambridge 1523; MA 1526; BTh 1531; recruited to Cardinal College, Oxford c. 1526; came under suspicion of heresy through association with Thomas Garrett 1528; canon of Salisbury (1533 - 35); chaplain to Queen Anne Boleyn; chaplain to the king by 1535

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Anthony Dalaber went to John Clerk to tell him about the arrest of Thomas Garrard and his escape. Clerk was glad to hear of it. He sent for Henry Sumner and William Bettes and had Dalaber relate the story to them, who were equally glad. 1563, p. 606; 1570, p. 1367; 1576, p. 1167; 1583, p. 1195.

Those suspected of heresy at Oxford at the time of the trial of Thomas Garrard and Anthony Dalaber included John Clerk, Henry Sumner, William Bettes, John Taverner, Radley, Nicholas Udall, John Diet, William Eden, John Langport, John Salisbury and Robert Ferrar. 1563, p. 609; 1570, p. 1369; 1576, p. 1168; 1583, p. 1197.

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William Bettes was one of the scholars Wolsey gathered for Cardinal College. He was imprisoned in the college, but released because no heretical books were found in his chamber. 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

 
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William Holt

London tailor; foreman with Master Malte, Henry VIII's tailor

John Frith had written against Sir Thomas More to a friend. Holt persuaded the friend to show him the letter, and he took it straight to More. 1563, p. 498; 1570, p. 1175; 1576, p. 1005; 1583, p. 1032.

Holt met with Andrew Hewett and suspected him of heretical beliefs. He followed him to a bookseller's house and brought officers to search it and arrest Hewett. 1563, p. 506; 1570, p. 1179; 1576, p. 1008; 1583, p. 1036.

Wythers, knowing that Andrew Hewett had no idea where to go after his escape from prison, offered to help. He took him into the country and then to the house of John Chapman, where he brought William Holt. He and Holt betrayed Hewett, John Tybal and John Chapman. 1563, p. 506; 1570, p. 1179; 1576, p. 1008; 1583, p. 1036.

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1056 [1032]

K. Henry. 8. The story of Iohn Frythe. Clarke, Sumner, Baylye, Goodman, Martyrs.

sire of glory & renoume, & to leaue a perpetual name vnto the posteritie. But that building, he being cut of by þe stroke of death (for he was sent for vnto þe king, accused vpon certaine crimes, and in the waye by immoderate purgations killed him self) leaft partly begun, partly halfe ended & vnperfect, and nothing els saue only the kitchin was fully finished Wherupon Rodulphus Gualterus a learned mā 

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No mention of this man appears in the 1563 edition. He was Rodulphus Gualterus of Zürich, who published (among other things) the first translation of the Koran into German.

, being then in Oxford, & beholding the Colledge, sayd these wordes in Latin. MarginaliaThe saying of Rodolphus Cualterus touching the Cardinals Colledg.Egregium opus Cardinalis iste instituit collegium, et absoluit popinam. Howe large & ample those buildings should haue ben, what sumptuous cost should haue bene bestowed vpon the same, may easily be perceiued by þt that which is already buylded, as the kitchin, the hall, and certain chambers, where as there is such curious grauing and workemanship of stone cutters, that all things on euery side did glitter for the excellency of the workmāship, for the finesse of þe matter, with the gilt antikes, & embossings, in so muche that if all the rest had bene finyshed to that determinate end as it was begun, it might well haue excelled not onelye all Colledges of studentes, but also palaces of Princes. This ambitious Cardinal gathered together into that Colledge, what soeuer excellent thing there was in the whole realme, eyther vestments, vessels, or other ornaments, beside prouision of all kind of precious things. Besides that, he also appointed vnto that cōpany, all such men as were found to excell in anye kinde of learning & knowledge. Whose names to recite all in order, would be to lōg. 
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The text is similar to the 1563 edition, except here (below) Foxe lists more names.

The chiefe of them whiche were called from Cambridge were these.

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M Clarke, Maister of art, of xxxiiij. yeares of age.
M. Fryer, afterward Doctour of Phisicke, after that a strong
papist.
M. Sumner, maister of Art.
M. Harman, maister of Art, and after felow of Eaton Col-
ledge, after that a papist.
M. Bettes, maister of Art, a good man and zelous, and so re-
mayned.
M. Coxe, maister of Art, who conueyed him selfe away
toward the North, and aftrr was Schoolemaister of Ea-
ton, and then Chaplayne to
Doctor Goodrich Bishop
of Ely, and by him preferred to king Henry, and late By-
shop of Ely.
Iohn Frith, Bacheler of Art.
Bayly, Bacheler of Art.
Goodman, who being sicke in the prison with the other,
was had out, and dyed in the towne.
Drumme, who afterwardes fell away, and forsooke the
truth.
Thomas Lawney, Chapleine of the house, prisoner with
Iohn Frith.

MarginaliaThis Tauerner repented him very muche that he had made songes to Popishe ditties in the tyme of hys blindenes.To these ioyne also Tauerner of Boston, the good Musitian 

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The identifiable names are John Clerke (senior canon), Henry Sumner, Godfrey Harman, William Bettes, Richard Cox, John Fryer, William Baily, John Frith, Michael Drumm, John Radley, Thomas Lawney and John Taverner. See Brian Raynor, John Frith: Scholar and Martyr (Peterborough, 2000), p.60].

, besides manye other called also out of other places moste pyked young men of graue iudgement and sharpe wittes, who conferring together vpon the abuses of relygion, being at þt time crept into þe Church 
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This refers to the scandal of 1528, in which a number of indexed books were found to be in circulation at the college. See Eric Ives, The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn (Oxford, 2004), p.267.

, were therfore accused of heresie vnto the Cardinall, and cast into a prison, within a deepe caue vnder the groūd, of the same Colledge where their salt fyshe was layde, so that through the fylthie stinche thereof, they were all infected, and certaine of them taking their death in the same prison, shortly vpon þe same being taken out of the prison into their chambers, there deceased.

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MarginaliaPersecuters.The troublers and examiners of these good men were these, Doct. London, Doctor Higdon, Deane of the same Colledge, and Doct. Cottesford, Commissary. 

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These men are Dr John London, warden of New College (c.1526), Dr John Higden, president of Magdalen College (1516-25) and dean of Cardinal College, and Dr Thomas Cottesford, Commissary.

MarginaliaM. Clarke, M. Sumner, Syr Baily, killed. through imprisonment.Maister Clarke, maister Sumner, and Syr Bayly, eating nothing but saltfishe from Februarie, to the middest of August, dyed all three together within the compasse of one weeke. 

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Clarke died in the custody of Bishop Longland of Lincoln.

Maister Bettes a wittie man, hauying no bookes foūd in hys chamber, through entreatie and suertie gote out of prison, and so remayning a space in þe Colledge, at last slipt away to Cambridge, and after was Chapleine to Queene Anne, and in great fauour with her. 

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William Betts was chaplain to Anne Boleyn - see Eric Ives, The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn (Oxford, 2004), p.266.

Tauerner, although he was accused and suspected for hidinge of Clarkes bookes vnder the bordes in his schoole, yet the Cardinal for his musicke excused him, saying, that he was but a Musitian, and so he escaped. 

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As noted in the 1563 edition commentary, Taverner was recruited (as early as 1524 but declined the offer until 1526) and became the 'Informator Choristarum' (or director of music and instructor of the choristers) - a prestigious position. He is now recognized as one of the most influential musicians of the period and, although later arrested for holding heretical views, his talent, ignorance of theological matters, and Wolsey's opinion that Lutheranism was exclusively a clerical issue saved him from death. See TNA, State Papers 1/47, fol.111A. For more details on his music, see the biography at http://www.classical.net/music/comp.lst/ taverner.html or the listing in David M Greene, Greene's Biographical Encyclopedia of Composers (London, 1985), pp.30-1. Also see, Roger Bowers, 'Taverner, John (c.1490-1545)', in ODNB (Oxford, 2004), 53, pp.836-40.

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After the death of these men, Iohn Frith, with other, by the Cardinalles letter, which sent word that he would not haue them so straightly handled, were dismissed out of prison vpon condition, not to passe aboue ten myles out of Oxford. Which Frith after hearing of the examination of Dalaber MarginaliaOf this Dalaber reade more in the story of Tho. Garret. and Garret, which bare then fagottes 

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This refers to the abjurations of Anthony Dalaber - a bookseller - and Thomas Garrett in 1528.

, went ouer the sea, and after two yeares 
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Frith was released from imprisonment in 1528 and spent the next four years travelling Europe, sometimes in the company of William Tyndale. He was, for instance, with Tyndale at Marburg and Antwerp, but Frith also travelled around the centres of Reformed Protestantism (e.g., Basel and Zurich). The influence of Oecolampadius is obvious in his later doctrine.

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he came ouer for exhibition ofthe Prior of Reading (as is thought) and had þe Prior euer with him.

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Beyng at Reading, it happened that he was there taken for a vacabond, & brought to examination: where the simple man whiche coulde not craftily enough colour him selfe, was set in the stockes. MarginaliaIohn Fryth set in the stockes at Reading. Where after he had sitten a lōg time, and was almost pined with hunger, and woulde not for all that declare what he was, at the last hee desired that the Scholemaister of the towne might be brought to hym, which at that time was one Leonard Coxe, MarginaliaLeonard Coxe, Schoolemaister of Reading. a mā very wel learned. 

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There may be more to the story here than Foxe relates. Although not mentioned in S F Ryle's biography of Cox in the ODNB (but according to Frederic Carpenter), Cox (Coxes or Cockes) was a friend of both Erasmus and Melanchthon. In 1524, he was the schoolmaster of Reading Grammar School and was much noted for his The Arte or Crafte of Rhethoryck which was the first such book published in England in the vernacular. Much of it is a translation of Melanchthon's Institutiones Rhetoricae (1521). While Ryle notes its publication in 1530, Carpenter notes that this was a second edition. See Frederic Ives Carpenter, 'Leonard Cox and the First English Rhetoric', in Modern Language Notes 13:5 (May 1898), pp.146-7 and S F Ryle, 'Cox, Leonard', in ODNB, 13, pp.854-6].

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As soone as he came vnto him, Frith by and by began in the Latine tongue to bewaile his captiuitie.

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The Schoolemaister by and by beinge ouercome wyth his eloquence, did not onely take pitie and compassion vppon him, but also began to loue and embrace such an excellent witte and disposition vnlooked for, especially in such a state & miserie. Afterward, they conferring more together vpon many things as touching the Vniuersities, scholes, and tongues, fell from the Latine into the Greeke, Wherin Frith dyd so inflame the loue of that Schoolemaister towardes him, that he brought him into a marueilous admiration, especiallye when the Schoolemaister hearde him so promptly by hart, rehearse Homers verses out of his first booke of Illiades. 

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The earliest translation of Homer's Iliad into English was in 1598 by the dramatist George Chapman.

Whereuppon the Schoolemaister wēt with all speede, vnto the Magistrates, greeuously complaining of the iniurie which they did shew vnto so excellent and innocent a young man.

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MarginaliaIohn Frith through the helpe of the Schoolemaister, was deliuered out of the stockes.Thus Frith, through the helpe of the schoolemaster, was freely dimitted out of the stockes, & set at libertie without punishment. Albeit this his safetie continued not lōg, thorow the great hatred and deadly pursuit of sir Tho. More, MarginaliaSyr Tho. More a deadly persecuter of Iohn Fryth. who at that time being Chauncelour of Englande, persecuted him both by land and sea, besetting all the waies and hauens, yea & promising great rewardes, if any mā could bring him any newes or tydings of him.

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Thus Frith beinge on euerye part beset with troubles, not knowing whiche way to turne hym, seeketh for some place to hyde him in. Thus fleeting from one place to an other, and often chaunging both his garmentes and place, yet coulde he be in safetie in no place, no not long amongst his frindes: so that at the last, being trayterouslye taken 

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This would be October 1532. Frith appears to have been preaching at Bow Lane.

, (as ye shall after heare) hee was sent vnto the Tower of London, wheras he had many conflicts with the bishops, but specially in writyng with Syr Thomas Moore. 
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Foxe does not go into the chain of events very deeply at this point which is unfortunate as the events are quite interesting. Simon Fish, in exile in Antwerp in 1529, had written a vehemently anti-clerical short pamphlet entitled Supplication of the Beggars in which he disputed the existence of purgatory (from a 'sola scriptura' perspective) and, consequently, the validity of papal indulgences as he construes them to be. He also made the argument that the clergy had usurped certain temporal powers. Such an argument as this was, of course, calculated to appeal to a king who was, at the time, vying with papal obstructionism over his effort to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. In October 1529, Thomas More responded to the pamphlet with his The Supplycatyon of Soulys (in two books) defending the doctrine of purgatory with all the wit and logic at his command. It was on this point of purgatorial doctrine that Frith comes into the picture, determined to undertake an answer to More's book on Fish's behalf and in defence of his anti-purgatorial theology.

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The first occasion of his writyng was this: 
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Frith had published two books in 1529. One of these was entitled Patrick's Places - the translation of a short treatise of the Scottish reformer, Patrick Hamilton, covering such issues as law, gospel, charity and good works. The other work of that year was the much more important The Revelation of Antichrist written under the pseudonym Richard Brightwell. This treatise consists of an introductory letter and three sections dedicated to doctrine, of which only the first section - 'An Epistle unto the Christian Reader' - is original. The other two sections - 'The Revelation of Antichrist' and 'Antithesis between Christ and the Pope' - are respectively translations of Luther's Concerning Antichrist (1521) and Melanchthon's Suffering of Christ and Antichrist (1521). Frith, in this way, presented the doctrine of 'sola fide' to the English reading public. In 1531, while still in exile, Frith wrote two considerable more original treatises. The lesser of the two is a commentary on the last will of the executed heretic William Tracy, entitled Tracy's Testament. The greater work - entitled A disputation of Purgatory - is an attack on the traditional Catholic orthodoxy as presented in three other recent English works. These are John Rastell's rationalist account New Book of Purgatory (1530), Thomas More's scriptural account The Supplycatyon of Soulys (1529) and Bishop John Fisher's patristic account Confutation of Lutheran Assertions (1523). These are discussed in Carl R Trueman, Luther's Legacy: Salvation and English Reformers, 1525-1556 (Oxford, 1994), pp.121-56.

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MarginaliaThe occasiō of Frythes writing agaynst More.Vppon a tyme hee had communicatiō with a certaine olde familiar freende of his, touching the Sacramēt of the body & bloud of Christ. The whole effecte of which disputation, consisted speciallyin these foure poyntes.

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1 FIrst that the matter of the sacrament is no necessarye article of fayth vnder payne of damnation.

2. Secondly, that for somuch as Christes naturall bodye in like condition hath all properties of our bodye, sinne onely except, it it cannot be, neyther is it agreable vnto reason, that he should be in two places or moe at once, contrarye to the nature of oure bodye.

3. Moreouer it shall not seeme meete or necessarye, that wee should in this place vnderstand Christes words, according to the literall sense, but rather accordyng to the order and phrase of speache, comparing phrase wyth phrase, accordyng to the Analogie of the Scripture.

4. Last of all, how that it ought to be receaued accordyng to the true and right institution of Christ, albeit that the order which at thys tyme is crept into the Church, and is vsed now a dayes by the Priestes, do neuer so much differ from it. 

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According to William Gordon (referencing the work of Germain Marc'hadour) there was another Frith work, a short, preliminary draft to his larger Tower work (Quid veteres senserint de sacramento eucharistiae (A Book Answering More's Letter) on the doctrine of the Eucharist, entitled A christen sentenceand true iudgement of the moste honorable Sacrament of Christes body and bloude declared both by the auctorite of the ho1y Scriptures and the auncient Doctores (STC-5190) - subsequently used by Tyndale. See, Germain Marc'hadour, Thomas More et la Bible (Paris, 1969), p.298 and Walter M Gordon, 'A Scholastic Problem in Thomas More's Controversy with John Frith', in The Harvard Theological Review 69:1/2 (January - April, 1976), pp.131-149. The influence of Oecolampadius and the figurative interpretation of the key biblical texts on the real presence in the Eucharist is clear from this treatise. Here Foxe extracts the four main points of Frith's doctrine. In essence, Frith wrote that interpretation of the presence was adiaphoric with regards to salvation, that the ubiquity theory of many medieval thinkers (and Luther) was unreasonable, that the text of Matthew 26.36 should be given an analogical rather than literal reading, and that the Mass ceremonial itself also needs to be brought more in line with Christ's own words. Frith made use of two works of Oecolampadius, De genuine verborum Domini, "hoc est corpus meum" juxta vetustissimos autores expositione (1525) and Dialogus quo patrum sententiam de coena Domini bonafide explanat (1530). [For discussion of these works see, William A Clebsch, England's Earliest Protestants (New Haven, 1964), p.126]. That Frith had been influenced by Oecolampadius was no secret to Thomas Cranmer who, after his interrogation of Frith in the Tower, wrote that Frith's doctrine was 'most after the opinion of Oecolampadius' - see Thomas Cranmer, Miscellaneous Writings and Letters, ed. J E Cox (Cambridge, 1846), letter no.xiv, p.246. It was against this shorter tract that More wrote his Letter Against Frith (which can be found in volume seven of the Yale edition of More's works), which Frith answered in his larger treatise which was not answered before his execution. More's The answere to the first parte of the poysened booke whych a namelesse heretyke hath named the souper of the lorde was published in 1534 (which can be found in volume eleven of the Yale edition). Frith became the first English theologian to address the Eucharist related issues of presence and efficacy of the Mass (and which Cranmer later incorporated into 1552 edition of the Book of Common Prayer).

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MarginaliaThe occasiō of Frythes writyng vppon the Sacrament.And for somuche as the treatise of this disputation seemed somewhat lōg, his frend desired hym that such things as he had reasoned vpon, he would briefly committe vnto writing, and geue vnto hym for the helpe of his memory. Frith, albeit he was vnwilling, and not ignoraunt howe daungerous a thing it was to enter into suche a contentious matter, at þe last notwithstanding he being ouercome by the intreaty of hys frend, rather followed hys wil, then looked to his owne safegard.

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There was at that tyme in London a Taylor named William Holt, MarginaliaWilliam Holte, a Iudas.  

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Holt, seemingly a part of More's spy network, was the foreman of the shop of one Mr Malte, tailor to the king.

which fayning a great frendshyp towarde this party, instantly required of him to geue him licence to read ouer that same writing of Frithes, whiche when hee vnaduisedly dyd, the other by and by caryed it vnto More being thē Chauncellour, MarginaliaSyr Tho. More Chaūceler. which thing afterward was occasion of great trouble, and also of death vnto þe said Frith. For More hauing gotten a copy of this booke, not onely of this Sicophant, but also two other copies, whiche at the same time, in a maner were sent hym by other promoters he whetted his wittes, and called his spirites together as

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