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Andrew Hewett

(d. 1533) [Fines]

of Faversham, Kent. Apprentice tailor; condemned with Frith and burnt with him

Andrew Hewett met with William Holt, who suspected him of heretical beliefs. Holt followed him to a bookseller's house and brought officers to search it. Hewett was arrested there, taken to the bishop's house and put in irons. He had a file passed to him by Valentine Freese, filed off the irons and escaped. 1563, pp. 419, 506; 1570, p. 1179; 1576, p. 1008; 1583, p. 1036.

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Wythers, knowing that Andrew Hewett had no idea where to go after his escape from prison, offered to help. He took him into the country and then to the house of John Chapman, where he brought William Holt. He and Holt betrayed Hewett, John Tybal and John Chapman. The three men were arrested. Tybal and Chapman were both bound with ropes and taken to the bishop's house, but kept apart. Hewett was sent to Lollards' Tower. 1563, p. 506; 1570, p. 1179; 1576, p. 1008; 1583, p. 1036.

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Hewett was examined by Stokesley, Gardiner and Longland. He was condemned and burnt at Smithfield with John Frith. 1563, p. 506; 1570, p. 1180; 1576, p. 1009; 1583, p. 1036.

 
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John Chapman

of Hosier Lane, London

Wythers brought Andrew Hewett to John Chapman's house, where he stayed for two days. Wythers then brought William Holt to the house, and he and Holt betrayed Hewett, John Tybal and John Chapman. Chapman and Tybal were bound with ropes and taken to the bishop's house, but kept apart. Chapman was imprisoned for five weeks, three of them in the stocks, but was released after an appeal to the lord chancellor. 1563, p. 506; 1570, pp. 1179-80; 1576, pp. 1008-09; 1583, p. 1036.

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John Coke

Rector of All Hallows, Honey Lane; imprisoned with John Frith

At the burning of John Frith and Andrew Hewett, Dr Coke urged the onlookers not to pray for them. 1563, p. 507; 1570, p. 1180; 1576, p. 1009; 1583, p. 1036.

 
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John Tybal

of Steeple Bumpstead, Essex [Fines]

Confessed in 1528; often attended meetings of a sect in Colchester; imprisoned several times

John Tybal came to John Chapman's house as he was prevented by injunction from going to his own. Through the betrayal of Wythers and William Holt, Tybal, John Chapman and Andrew Hewett were arrested. Tybal and Chapman were both bound with ropes and taken to the bishop's house, but kept apart. Tybal was released from prison, but had to sell his estate because of the injunction. 1563, p. 506; 1570, p. 1179; 1576, p. 1008; 1583, p. 1036.

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John Tybal, his mother, his wife and his two sons and two daughters abjured. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
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Mr Malte

Tailor to Henry VIII

William Holt was foreman to Mr Malte. 1563, p. 506; 1570, p. 1179; 1576, p. 1008; 1583, p. 1036.

 
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Mr Warren

Tailor in Watling Street, London

Mr Warren was Andrew Hewett's master. 1563, p. 506; 1570, p. 1179; 1576, p. 1008; 1583, p. 1036.

 
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Richard Reynold and John Preste

Sheriffs of London in July 1533 [PRO:List of Sheriffs]

John Frith was turned over to Sir Stephen Pecocke, mayor of London, and the sheriffs of London by John Stokesley, bishop of London, to be burnt. 1563, p. 504; 1570, p. 1178; 1576, p. 1008; 1583, p. 1036.

 
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Sergeant Wever

Accompanied Thomas Baghe in searching out heretics

Sergeant Wever went to John Chapman's house with Thomas Baghe to arrest Chapman, Andrew Hewett and John Tybal. He brought the ropes used to bind Chapman and Tybal. 1563, p. 506; 1570, p. 1179; 1576, p. 1108; 1583, p. 1036.

 
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Sir Stephen Pecocke

Mayor of London (1532 - 33) [www.cityoflondon.gov.uk/]

John Frith was turned over to Sir Stephen Pecocke, mayor of London, and the sheriffs of London by John Stokesley, bishop of London, to be burnt. 1563, p. 504; 1570, p. 1178; 1576, p. 1008; 1583, p. 1036.

 
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Sir Thomas Audley

(1487/8 - 1544) [ODNB]

Attorney of the duchy of Lancaster; speaker of the House of Commons; lord chancellor (1533 - 44); baron Audley of Walden (1538 - 44)

Thomas Audley was elected speaker of the House of Commons in 1530. He was sent, with 30 other members of the House, to the king to complain of slurs cast upon them by the clergy when the Commons proposed a bill relating to probate. 1570, pp. 1130-31; 1576, p. 968; 1583, pp. 994-95.

Thomas Temys asked parliament to urge the king to take Queen Catherine back as his wife. The king replied via the speaker, Sir Thomas Audley. The king also had the speaker read in the Commons the two oaths taken by clergy, one to the pope and one to the king, to demonstrate that they were irreconcilable. 1563, p. 509; 1570, p. 1197; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1053.

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After the deprivation of Sir Thomas More, Audley was made lord chancellor. 1563, p. 509; 1570, p. 1198; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1054.

John Chapman was imprisoned for five weeks, three of them in the stocks, but was released after an appeal to the lord chancellor, Lord Audley. 1563, p. 506; 1570, pp. 1179-80; 1576, pp. 1008-09; 1583, p. 1036.

Many were imprisoned in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. They were released after Lord Audley had obtained pardons from the king. 1570, p. 1380; 1576, p. 1178; 1583, p. 1206.

Thomas Audeley discharged the men of Calais imprisoned in the Fleet and brought them the king's pardon, although they were deprived of their livings. 1563, p. 668; 1570, p. 1406; 1576, p. 1198; 1583, p. 1228.

 
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Thomas Baghe or Williams

(d. by 7/2/1558) [Fasti]

BTh; DD; chancellor of St Paul's (1530 - 58); archdeacon of Surrey (1531 - 55)

Thomas Baghe was present and agreed to the pronouncement of sentence against Richard Bayfield. 1563, p. 489; 1570, p. 1164; 1576, p.996 ; 1583, p. 1024.

Thomas Baghe, with Sergeant Wever, arrested Andrew Hewett, John Tybal and John Chapman at Chapman's house. They bound Tybal and Chapman with ropes and took them to the bishop's house and sent Hewett to Lollards' Tower. 1563, p. 506; 1570, p. 1179; 1576, p.1008 ; 1583, p. 1036.

Baghe took part in the first examination of Anne Askew and rebuked her for speaking scripture, which he said was forbidden to women. 1563, pp. 669-70; 1570, p. 1414; 1576, p. 1205; 1583, p. 1235.

The chancellor was mentioned in a letter sent by the king and council to Edmund Bonner, rebuking Bonner and urging him to use the Book of Common Prayer. 1563, pp. 693-94; 1570, p. 1494; 1576, p. 1266; 1583, p. 1303.

 
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Wythers

Betrayer of Andrew Hewett

Wythers, knowing that Andrew Hewett had no idea where to go after his escape from prison, offered to help. He took him into the country and then to the house of John Chapman, where he brought William Holt. He and Holt betrayed Hewett, John Tybal and John Chapman. 1563, p. 506; 1570, p. 1179; 1576, p. 1008; 1583, p. 1036.

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Faversham

[Feuersham]

Kent

OS grid ref: TR 015 615

 
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Fulham

west London

OS grid ref: TQ 241 761

 
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Smithfield

in the northwest part of the city of London

OS grid ref: TQ 31574 81732

Historic livestock market and place of execution

1060 [1036]

K. Henry. 8. The constant Martyrdome of Iohn Fryth, and John Hewet.

that thou wylt not vnderstande the voyce of thy sheapeheard, which with a fatherly affection doth seeke after thee, nor wilt not be allured with his godly and fatherly admonitions. We therefore Iohn the Bishop aforesaid, not willyng that thou whiche arte wicked, shouldest become more wicked, and infecte the Lordes flocke wyth thy heresye, which we are greatly afrayde of, do iudge thee, and definitiuely condemne thee, the sayde Iohn Frith, thy demerites and faultes beyng aggrauate through thy damnable obstinacie, as gyltie of most detestable heresies, and as an obstinate vnpenitent sinner, refusing penitently to returne to þe lappe and vnitie of the holy mother Church, and that thou haste bene, and arte by Lawe excommunicate, and pronounce and declare thee to be an excōmunicate person: also wee pronounce and declare thee to bee an heretique to be cast out from the Church, and left vnto the iudgement of the secular power, and nowe presentlye so do leaue thee vnto the secular power, and their iudgement, moste earnestly requiring them in the bowels of our Lorde Iesus Chryst, MarginaliaModeration pretended but none shewed. that this execution and punishment worthily to be done vppon thee, maye so bee moderate, that the rigour thereof be not too extreme, nor yet the gentlenesse too muche mitigated, but that it may bee to the saluation of thy soule, to the extirpation, terrour, and conuersion of heretiques, to the vnitie of the Catholique fayth, by this our sentence definitiue or finall decree, which we here promulgate in this fourme aforesayde. 

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This is the judgement of Bishop Stokesley made against Frith, prior to turning him over to the temporal authorities for execution. Stokesley was a rather doctrinaire conservative and Foxe probably rightly suspected that where the bishop speaks of charity he was rather quite pleased to see another 'heretic' removed.

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This sentence thus readde, the Byshop of London directed hys letter to Syr Steuen Pecocke, Mayor of London, and the Sheriffes of the same Citie, for the receyuyng of the foresayde Iohn Frith into their charge. MarginaliaIohn Fryth deliuered to the secular handes.Who being so deliuered ouer vnto them the fourth daye of Iulie, in the yeare aforesayde, was by them caryed into Smithfield to be burned, MarginaliaThe constant death of Iohn Fryth. 

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This is Foxe's description of Frith's burning.

and when he was tyed vnto the stake, there it sufficiently appeared with what constancye and courage he suffered death: for when as the fagots and fire were put vnto hym, hee willingly embraced the same, therby declaring with what vprightnesse of mynde he suffered hys death for Christes sake, and the true doctryne, whereof that daye hee gaue with his bloud, a perfect and firme testimonie. The wynde made hys death somewhat the more longer, which bare away the flame from him vnto his felowe that was tyed to his backe: but hee had established hys minde with such pacience, God geuinge hym strength, that euen as though he had felt no paine in that long torment, he seemed rather to reioyce for his felow, thē to be careful for himselfe.

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This truely is the power and strength of Christ, stryuing & vanquishing in his Saintes: who sanctifye vs together with them, and direct vs in all thinges to the glory of his holy name. Amen.

This day before the burning of these worthye men of God, the Bishop of London certified king Henry the eight of his worthy, ye rather wooluish proceeding against these men: the tenour whereof, for as muche as it proceedeth as the other do before, we therefore omit it, referryng the reader to the same.

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¶ Andrewe Hewet burned with Maister Frith.

Marginalia

Andrew Hewet, Martyr.

Anno. 1533.

ANdrewe Hewet borne in Feuersham, in the county of Kent, a yong man of the age of foure and twenty yeres 
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These limited biographical details do not appear in the 1563 edition.

, was apprentise with one maister Warren Taylor, in Watlyng streete. And as it happened that hee went vppon a holy daye into Fleete streate, towarde Saint Dunstanes, he met with one William Holt, which was foreman with the kyngs Taylour at that present, called maister Malte: and beynge suspected by the same Holt, (which was a dissemblyng wretche) to be one that fauoured the Gospel, after a litle talke had with hym, he went into an honest house about Fleete Bridge, whiche was a bookesellers house. Then Holt thynking he had founde good occasion to shew foorth some fruit of his wickednesse, sent for certaine offycers, and searched the house, & fynding the same Andrew, MarginaliaAndrew Hewet, apprehended.apprehended hym, and caryed hym to the Byshops house, where he was cast into yrons, and being there a good space by the meanes of a certaine honest man, MarginaliaThe man that gaue him this file was Valentine Freese the Painters brother, who was afterward with his wyfe burned in Yorke.he had a File conueyed vnto hym, wherewith he fyled of his yrons, & when he spyed his tyme, he got out of the gate. 
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Foxe is suggesting here that William Holt, one of the chancellor's spies, set up Andrew Huet (or Hewet) as part of a seemingly wider scheme to uncover a brethren cell. The story of the Freez family is an interesting side bar to Huet's release. Valentine Freez was the brother of Edward (an apprentice painter), the two sons of Frederick (a book printer of York). Foxe relates the story of Edward's arrest for heresy (c.1529) and his going insane while imprisoned in Lollard's Tower. Valentine evaded capture in London, but was taken by bishop Rowland Lee of Coventry and Lichfield after 1534 (L & P, vii, p.514) later to be executed as a sacramentarian in York, condemned not by the church courts but by the council in the North under the terms of the recent 'Act of Six Articles' - see 'Tudor York: Religion and the Reformation', in A History of the County of York: the City of York (London 1961), pp.142-155, which can be found on-line at http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=36342.

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But being a man unskilfull to hyde hym selfe, for lacke of good acquaintance he went into Smythfielde, and there mette with one Wythers, whych was an hypocrite as Holt was, Which Wythers vnderstandynge howe he had escaped, and that hee knewe not wyther to goe, pretendyng a faire countenāce vnto hym, willed hym to go wyth him, promysing that heshoulde bee prouyded for, and so kept hym in the countrey where he had to do, from Lowe Sunday til Whitsuntide, and then brought him to London, to þe house of one Iohn Chapman MarginaliaIohn Chapman. in Hosier lane beside Smithfielde, and there left him by the space of two dayes.

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Then he came to the sayde Chapmans house againe, and brought Holt with hym. And when they mette wyth the sayde Andrewe, they seemed as though they meant to doe hym verye much good: and Holt for hys part sayd, MarginaliaW. Holte playeth the Iudas. that if he should bryng any man in trouble (as the voyce was that he had done the sayde Andrewe) it were pitie but that the earth should open and swalow him vp: in so much that they would needes sup there that night, & prepared meate of their owne charges. At nyght they came & brought certaine geasts with them, because they would haue the matter to seeme as though it had come out by others. When they had supped, they went their way, and Holt tooke out of his purse two groates, and gaue them to the sayde Andrewe, and embraced him in hys armes. 

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Huet must have been rather naïve and Holt and his accomplice played him skilfully. John Chapman was a 'known man' (a member of the Christian Brethren or Lollards) and provided a safe-house/cell near Smithfield. 'Wythers' could be another tailor, Christopher Ravyns of Witham who had previously abjured his radical beliefs.

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As they were gone out, there came in one Iohn Tibaulde, MarginaliaIohn Tybauld fiue times in bandes for Christ. whiche was banished from his own house by an Iniunction, for he had bene foure times in prison for Christes Cause. 
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John Tibald (Tybal) was a Lutheran sympathizer of Steeple Bumpstead in Essex, who had abjured his beliefs before Tunstal in 1528, had been in London since c.1526 when he and his Thomas Hills had come to purchase an English New Testament from Robert Barnes - see J E Oxley, The Reformation in Essex (Manchester, 1965), pp.10-14; Davis, pp.61-2.]. Tybal was not allowed to return to his home by virtue of injunction.

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And wythin an houre after that Holt and Wythers were gone, the Bishoppes Chauncelour, and one called Sergeaunt Weuer came and brought with them the watche, and searched the house, where they founde the sayde Iohn Chapman and the forenamed Andrewe, MarginaliaAndrewe Hewet agayne taken. and Iohn Tibalde, whom they bounde wyth ropes, which Sergeaunt weuer had brought with hym, and so caryed them vnto the Bishops house: 
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Stokesley's chancellor and vicar-general was Richard Foxford 'the persecutor and common butcher of good families of God' (BL Lansdowne MS. 979, fols.90,92v & 98). Chapman, Huet and Tibald were captured in possession of heretical books but taken to separate locations.

but Andrewe Hewet they sent vnto the Lollardes Tower 
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There were two prison-towers in London at this time, each known as Lollard's Tower. The old water tower at Lambeth Palace had been converted and was often used to hold accused heretics, often in stocks, and the bishop of London's prison within the precincts of St Paul's. Huet was probably taken to the latter.

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, and kept Chapman and Tibaulde asunder,, watched with two Priestes seruauntes. The next daye Byshop Stokesley came from Fulham, and after they were examined wyth a fewe threatnynge woordes, MarginaliaChapmā in the stockes.Chapman was commytted to the stockes with this threate, that hee shoulde tell an other tale, or els he shoulde sitte there tyll hys heeles dyd droppe from hys arse, and Tibaulde was shutte vp in a close chamber, but by Gods prouisyon hee was well deliuered oute of pryson: albeit hee coulde not enioy hys house and lande, because of the Bishoppes Iniunction, but was fayne to sell all that he had in Essex, for the tenour of hys Iniūction was, that he should not come wythin seuen myles of hys owne house, MarginaliaTibauld inioyned, not to come within 7. myle of his house. and the foresayde Chapman, after fiue weekes imprisonment (wherof three weekes he sate in the stockes) by much suit made vnto the Lorde Chauncelour, whiche at that tyme was Lord Audley, after many threatnyngs was deliuered: 
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Chapman was eventually freed through the intervention of Sir Thomas Audley, More's successor as Lord Chancellor. Why he would put pressure on London's ecclesiastical machine is unknown, although Susan Brigden supplies a hint that Chapman and others had found favour with the new queen, Anne Boleyn (see, S. Brigden, London and the Reformation (Oxford, 1989), p.197). Huet had found no such favour, which suggests that he was a disciple of Frith and considered a sacramentarian (which condemned him in the eyes of the king).

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but the sayde Andrew Hewet after long & cruel imprisonment, was cōdemned to death, & burned with Iohn Frith: whose examination here foloweth.

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MarginaliaAndrewe Hewet brought and examined before the Bishop.The twentie day of the moneth of Aprill, Andrew Hewet was brought before the Chauncelour of London 

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Huet's examination before Stokesley, Longland and Gardiner is very similar to Frith's, and his beliefs on the eucharist seem to feature heavily.

, where was obiected agaynst hym, that hee beleeued the Sacrament of the aultar after the consecration, to bee but a signification of the bodye of Chryst, and that the host cōsecrated was not the verye bodye of Christe. Nowe for so muche as thys article seemed haynous vnto them, theye woulde do nothynge in it without the consent of learned counsayle. whereupon the Byshoppe of London, associate with the Byshops of Lincolne and Winchester, called him agayne before him. Where he being demaunded what hee thought as touchyng the Sacrament of the last Supper, aunsweared: euen as Iohn Frith doth. Then sayd one of the Bishoppes vnto hym: dost thou not beleeue that it is reallie the bodye of Christe, borne of the virgin Marye? 
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Foxe provides here some details of the Huet examination. It seems that he was being manoeuvred into admitting more than sacramentarian beliefs. There were many ancient heresies, like monophysitism, which denied one or the other aspect of Christ's dual nature and these accusations were often thrown around in controversial writings. It seems Huet fell into this trap, much to the bishops' amusement.

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So (sayth he) do not I beleue. MarginaliaChrist not to be beleeued to be really in the Sacrament.Why not, sayd the Bishop? Because (saith he) Christ cōmaunded me, not to geue credit rashly vnto al mē, which saith: Behold here is Christ, & there is Christ, for many false prophets shal rise vp, saith the Lorde.

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Then certayne of the Bishoppes smyled at him, and Stokesley the Bishop of London sayd: Why, Fryth is an heretique, and already iudged to bee burned, & except thou reuoke thyne opiniō, thou shalt be burned also wyth him. MarginaliaHewet burned with Iohn Fryth. Truelye (sayth hee) I am contented therewithall. Then the Bishop asked him if hee woulde forsake hys opinions, Whereunto he answeared, that he would do as Frith did. Marginalia

Hewet constant in the Fayth.

Hewet holdeth with Iohn Fryth.

Whereupon he was sent vnto the prison to Frith, and afterwarde they were caryed together to the fire. The Byshops vsed many perswasions to allure this good man frō the truth, to folow them: but he manfully persisting in the truth, would not recant. Wherfore the fourth day of Iuly at after noone, he was caryed into Smythfilde with Frith, and there burned. When they were at þe stake, one Doctor Cooke a person in London, openly admonished al the people, that they should in no wise pray for them, no more thē they woulde doe for a dogge. 
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Foxe mentioned Dr John Coke here, the rector of All Hallow's Honey Lane, who had been imprisoned with Frith for a time. Coke was not a heretic, however, but a reactionary Catholic who opposed the royal supremacy and the divorce. He was probably well aware of Frith and Huet's opinions and considered them dangerous subversives.

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At which wordes Fryth

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smiling,
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