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Henry VIII

(1491 - 1547) [ODNB]

Duke of York 1494; duke of Cornwall 1502; prince of Wales, earl of Chester 1503

King of England (1509 - 47)

After the death of Prince Arthur, his widow Catherine married his brother Henry. 1563, p. 456; 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Henry issued a proclamation against the heresies of Luther. 1570, p. 1159; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1019.

Through Thomas Wolsey, Henry received the title of defender of the faith from the pope. 1570, p. 1124; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 989.

After Clement VII had been taken prisoner by imperial forces, Wolsey urged Henry VIII to go to the pope's assistance. The king refused to send troops, but allowed Wolsey to take money out of the treasury to help. 1563, p. 439; 1570, pp. 1123; 1576, p. 961; 1583, p. 988.

Henry, encouraged by Cardinal Wolsey, began to question the validity of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. He sought the advice of universities and learned men, but needed the assent of the pope and the emperor to a divorce. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Stephen Gardiner was sent as ambassador to Rome by Henry VIII during the time of Clement VII to deal with the matter of the king's divorce and to promote Thomas Wolsey as pope. Both the king and Wolsey wrote letters to him. Nicholas Harvey was sent as ambassador to Emperor Charles V. 1570, pp. 1125-29, 1192; 1576, pp. 963-67, 1021; 1583, pp. 990-93, 1049.

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Wolsey and Cardinal Campeggi had a legatine commission to consider the matter of the king's divorce. Henry began to suspect that Wolsey was not fully supportive. 1570, pp. 1129, 1193; 1576, pp. 967, 1021; 1583, pp. 994, 1049.

Henry gave an oration at Bridewell setting out his reasons for the divorce. 1563, pp. 456-57; 1570, p. 1193; 1576, pp. 1021-22; 1583, p. 1050.

Henry and Queen Catherine were summoned to appear before the papal legates, Cardinals Wolsey and Campeggi, who had a commission to judge the matter of the divorce. Henry sent two proxies; Catherine arrived in person, accompanied by ladies and counsellors, including four bishops. Finally the king himself appeared, delivering an oration to the legates. 1563, pp. 456-57; 1570, p. 1194; 1576, p. 1022; 1583, p. 1050.

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Anne Boleyn was sent a copy of Simon Fish's Supplication for the Beggars and showed it to the king. He offered his protection to Fish, allowing him to return to England. 1563, p. 448; 1570, p. 1153; 1576, p. 986; 1583, p. 1014.

After Wolsey had been deprived of most of his offices and the associated lands and goods returned to the king, Henry allowed Cardinal College, Oxford, to continue, endowing it and renaming it King's College. 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 994.

When the king heard of the exhumation and burning of William Tracy's corpse, he angrily sent for Sir Thomas More. More blamed the now deceased archbishop of Canterbury, but was fined three hundred pounds to have his pardon. 1570, p. 1186; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1042.

Henry, failing to get a positive response from the pope on the question of his divorce, associated the clergy in Wolsey's praemunire and demanded over £100,000 for their pardon. 1570, p. 1195; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1052.

Henry had published the opinions of the universities against his marriage to Catherine. 1570, p. 1196; 1576, p. 1024; 1583, p. 1052.

Parliament approved Thomas Cranmer's separation of Henry and Catherine and his marriage to Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1197; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1053.

Thomas Temys asked parliament to urge the king to take Queen Catherine back as his wife. The king replied via the Speaker, Sir Thomas Audeley. The king also had the Speaker read in the Commons the two oaths taken by clergy, one to the pope and one to the king, to demonstrate that they were irreconcilable. 1570, p. 1197; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1053.

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Henry married Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1198; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1054.

The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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The king sent Edward Lee, under Cromwell, to visit the monasteries and nunneries to release all those in religious orders who wished to leave. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

Henry VIII ordered a religious procession in London in 1535 because the French king was ill. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

After the Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII attempted to improve relations with other monarchs by sending ambassadors. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

Messages were sent between Henry and François I about the pope's refusal of Henry's divorce from Catherine and his supremacy over the English church. 1570, pp. 1218-22; 1576, pp. 1043-46; 1583, pp. 1070-73.

Henry VIII wrote to Bonner commanding that excess holy days be abolished. 1563, p. 682; 1570, p. 1441; 1576, p. 1229; 1583, p. 1259.

Henry had Queen Anne imprisoned in the Tower with her brother and others. She was then beheaded. 1563, p. 526; 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1055; 1583, p. 1082.

Stephen Gardiner was suspected of involvement in the downfall of Anne Boleyn, and urged the king to disinherit Elizabeth. 1570, pp. 1233, 1243; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, pp. 1082, 1083.

Henry married Jane Seymour shortly after the execution of Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1234; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, p. 1083.

Cromwell urged King Henry to destroy the monastic houses and to grant the lands to the nobility and gentlemen. 1570, p. 1350; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1181.

The king answered the rebels in Lincolnshire and sent the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, the marquess of Exeter and the earl of Shrewsbury into Yorkshire to put down the Pilgrimage of Grace. 1570, pp. 1237-38; 1576, pp. 1059-60; 1583, pp. 1086-87.

Along with the protestant German princes, Henry refused to send delegates to the council in Mantua called by Pope Paul III. 1570, p. 1234; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, p. 1083.

The emperor and other princes requested Henry to attend the council or to send delegates. He again refused, sending a protestation. 1570, pp. 1293-94; 1576, pp. 1106-08; 1583, pp. 1132-33.

François I of France and Emperor Charles V retained Robert Granceter, a condemned traitor, and refused to hand him over to Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

Francis I had allied himself with Pope Clement VII in marrying his son to Clement's niece. He also married his daughter to James V of Scotland, breaking an agreement with Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1088.

Stephen Gardiner urged Henry to withdraw his defence of religious reform in order to ensure peace within the realm and to restore good relations with foreign rulers. 1570, p. 1296; 1576, p. 1109; 1583, p. 1135.

Stephen Gardiner urged Henry VIII to use the case against John Lambert as a means of displaying the king's willingness to deal harshly with heresy. The king himself would sit in judgement. 1563, pp. 533-34; 1570, p. 1281; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, pp. 1121-22.

At the end of Lambert's trial, the king had Cromwell read the sentence of condemnation. 1563, p. 537; 1570, p. 1283; 1576, p. 1097; 1583, p. 1123.

Cromwell was instrumental in getting Edmund Bonner's nomination to the bishopric of London. He procured letters from King Henry to François I that resulted in a licence being granted to print bibles in English at the University of Paris. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1191.

Although Edmund Bonner performed his ambassadorial duties well as far as Henry VIII was concerned, he displeased the king of France, who asked for him to be recalled. Henry recalled him, giving him the bishopric of London, and sent Sir John Wallop to replace him. 1570, p. 1245; 1576, p. 1066; 1583, p. 1093.

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The king sent Thomas Cromwell and the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk to dine with Thomas Cranmer to reassure him after his opposition to the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1298; 1576, p. 1111; 1583, p. 1136.

Henry asked for a summary of Cranmer's objections to the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1355; 1576, p. 1157; 1583, p. 1185.

Philip Melancthon wrote a letter to Henry VIII against the Six Articles. 1570, pp. 1340-44; 1576, pp. 1144-47; 1583, pp. 1172-76.

Thomas Cromwell arranged the marriage between the king and Anne of Cleeves. 1570, p. 1295; 1576, p. 1109; 1583, p. 1134.

Henry had Thomas Cromwell arrested on charges of heresy and treason. Shortly after Cromwell's execution, the king lamented his death. 1563, p. 598; 1570, p. 1360; 1576, p. 1157; 1583, p. 1185.

Henry VIII repudiated Anne of Cleves, divorced her and married Katherine Howard at the time of the execution of Cromwell. 1570, pp. 1361, 1385; 1576, pp. 1161, 1181; 1583, pp. 1190, 1210.

After Cromwell's death, the king was persuaded against the Great Bible and had sales stopped. 1570, p. 1363; 1576, p. 1163; 1583, p. 1191.

King Henry commanded that Robert Barnes, Thomas Garrard and William Jerome recant the doctrine they had been preaching. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, p. 1170; 1583, p. 1198.

King Henry wrote to Archbishop Cranmer, ordering that idolatrous images be removed from churches. 1563, p. 625; 1570, p. 1385; 1576, p. 1181; 1583, p. 1210.

For a long period, Henry VIII denied his daughter Mary the title of princess. Thomas Cranmer urged a reconciliation. 1570, p. 1565; 1576, p. 1335; 1583, p. 1396.

Katherine Parr read and studied the scriptures and discussed them with her chaplains. The king was aware of this and approved, so she began to debate matters of religion with him. When the king became more ill-tempered because of his sore leg, her enemies, especially Stephen Gardiner and Thomas Wriothesley, took the opportunity to turn the king against her. 1570, pp. 1422-23; 1576, pp. 1212-13; 1583, pp. 1242-43.

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Henry gave a warrant for the gathering of articles against Katherine. 1570, pp. 1422-23; 1576, pp. 1212-13; 1583, pp. 1242-43.

Henry told one of his physicians of the charges against Katherine; the physician was then sent to treat her when she fell ill, and he divulged the charges to her. 1570, p. 1423; 1576, p. 1213; 1583, p. 1243.

The king then visited Katherine, who explained that she was ill because she feared she had displeased him. She submitted humbly to him and was forgiven. 1570, p. 1423; 1576, p. 1213; 1583, p. 1243.

When Thomas Wriothesley with 40 of the king's guard came to arrest the queen and her ladies-in-waiting, he found them walking happily in the garden with the king. The king sent him away. 1570, p. 1425; 1576, p. 1214; 1583, p. 1244.

Henry gave an oration to parliament in 1545. 1570, pp. 1412-13; 1576, pp. 1203-04; 1583, pp. 1233-34.

When Claude d'Annebault, the French ambassador, went to see Henry VIII at Hampton Court, lavish entertainment was laid on for him, but he was recalled before he had received half of it. During the course of the banquet, he had private conversation with the king and Archbishop Cranmer about the reform of religion in the two countries. 1570, p. 1426; 1576, p. 1215; 1583, p. 1245.

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As long as Henry had good advisers, like Anne Boleyn, Thomas Cromwell, Thomas Cranmer, Anthony Denny and William Buttes around him, he did much to foster religious reform. 1563, p. 682; 1570, p. 1441; 1576, p. 1229; 1583, p. 1259.

During Henry VIII's final illness, Sir Anthony Browne tried unsuccessfully to get Stephen Gardiner reinstated in the king's will. 1570, p. 1478; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1291.

When Henry was on his deathbed, Anthony Denny asked him if he wished a spiritual adviser, and he asked for Thomas Cranmer. Before Cranmer could arrive, however, the king had lost the power of speech. He clasped Cranmer's hand, and shortly after died. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1290.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Matthew Parker

Chancellor of the diocese of Worcester

By order of the archbishop of Canterbury and convocation, Dr Parker exhumed the body of William Tracy and burned it. 1570, p. 1186; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1042.

Parker examined William Tyndale on charges of heresy. 1563, p. 518; 1570, p. 1225; 1576, p. 1049; 1583, pp. 1075-76.

 
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Richard Fitzjames

(d. 1522) [ODNB]

BA, MA Oxford; DTh by 1481; treasurer of St Paul's (1483 - 97); chaplain to Henry VII 1489; bishop of Rochester (1497 - 1503); bishop of Chichester (1503 - 06); bishop of London (1506 - 22)

Richard Fitzjames sentenced Thomas Austy, alias Cornwell, to wear a faggot embroidered on his sleeve. 1570, p. 1185; 1576, p. 1014; 1583, p. 1042.

Thomas Patmore had been preferred to the living of Much Hadham by Bishop Fitzjames and continued there peacably for sixteen years until John Stokesley became bishop of London. 1583, p. 1044.

 
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Sir Thomas More

(1478 - 1535) [ODNB]

Humanist, author. Studied at Oxford (1492 - 94); Lincoln Inn (1496 - 1501/2); joined king's council 1518; royal secretary (1521 - 26); lord chancellor (1529 - 32); strong opponent of heresy; martyr

Both Sir Thomas More and William Tyndale related the story of how Humphrey of Lancaster proved the miracle of the blind man regaining his sight at St Albans to be fraudulant. 1563, p. 883.

Thomas Cromwell, Thomas More and Stephen Gardiner served together in Thomas Wolsey's household. 1563, p. 592; 1570, p. 1347; 1576, p. 1150; 1583, p. 1178.

Thomas Wolsey, having obtained large sums from the king's treasury, went to the French court to contribute to the ransom of Clement VII, hiring soldiers and furnishing the French army. He took with him Cuthbert Tunstall, William Sandys, the earl of Derby, Sir Henry Guildford and Sir Thomas More. 1563, p. 439; 1570, p. 1123; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 988.

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More became chancellor after Thomas Wolsey was deprived of office. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 994.

Thomas Phillips was handed over by Sir Thomas More to Bishop Stokesley in 1530. As well as holding heretical opinions, Phillips was charged with having a copy of William Tracy's will and butter and cheese during Lent. He was examined by More and Stokesley. 1570, p. 1185; 1576, p. 1014; 1583, p. 1042.

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More was prevented from persecuting Simon Fish because the king had given him his signet, but he sent for Fish's wife to appear before him. She was saved from molestation because her daughter was ill with plague. 1570, p. 448; 1570, p. 1153; 1576, p. 987; 1583, p. 1014.

More wrote The Supplication of Purgatory in opposition to Simon Fish's Supplication for the Beggars. 1570, p. 1156; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

More intercepted and confiscated a consignment of protestant books sent to England by Richard Bayfield. 1563, p. 486; 1570, p. 1162; 1576, p. 994; 1583, p. 1022.

About four days before Bayfield was arrested, a boy of Colchester was charged in London with bringing books to him. The boy was imprisoned by Sir Thomas More and died there. 1570, p. 1189; 1576, p. 1017; 1583, p. 1046.

More examined John Tewkesbury, and sentence was pronounced in More's house. 1563, p. 493; 1570, p. 1167; 1576, p. 998; 1583, p. 1026.

More pursued John Frith in England and abroad and promised large rewards for news of him. 1563, p. 498; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

John Fisher and More had Frith burnt. 1570, p. 1216; 1576, p. 1042; 1583, p. 1068.

When the king heard of the exhumation and burning of William Tracy's corpse, he angrily sent for Sir Thomas More. More blamed the now deceased archbishop of Canterbury, but was fined three hundred pounds to have his pardon. 1570, p. 1186; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1042.

Bishop Stokesley complained to More of the behaviour of his clergy in objecting to contributing large sums to the lifting of the praemunire on the higher clergy. More had the mayor of London arrest and imprison a number of clergy and laymen. 1570, p. 1196; 1576, p. 1024; 1583, p. 1052.

The king sent More to speak to parliament, giving the opinion of the universities on the validity of the king's marriage to Catherine. 1563, p. 459.

Because More opposed the king's separation from the pope, he was deprived of the chancellorship. 1570, p. 1198; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1054.

William Tyndale mentioned the martyr Thomas Hitten in his Apology against Sir Thomas More and in The Practice of Prelates. 1570, p. 1134; 1576, p. 971; 1583, pp. 997-98.

In the preface to his book against Tyndale, More gave evidence that Thomas Bilney had recanted before his burning. 1570, p. 1146; 1576, p. 981; 1583, p. 1008.

John Fisher, Sir Thomas More and Nicholas Wilson refused to swear an oath on the king's supremacy and were imprisoned in the Tower. Fisher and More were executed. 1570, pp. 1200, 1216; 1576, pp. 1028, 1042; 1583, pp. 1056, 1068.

 
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Thomas Austy (Cornwell)

of St Mary Matfelon, London; Lollard, one of the 'known men'. One of those meeting at William Mason's house; owned a notable Lollard library; married Thomas Vincent's daughter; abjured in 1511; refused to wear a faggot in 1527 and condemned to perpetual custody; escaped [Brigden, London, pp. 89-91, 104]

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Thomas Austy was charged in London in 1530 with having escaped from perpetual custody. 1570, p. 1185; 1576, p. 1014; 1583, p. 1042.

 
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Thomas Phillips

Pointmaker (laces to fasten clothing) of London; accused at Amersham in 1521; read from the New Testament to a Lollard conventicle in London led by John Hacker in the 1520s [L & P VII, p. 155]; imprisoned at Stokesley's pleasure, in prison in 1532 [Narratives of the Days of the Reformation, ed. Nichols, pp. 25-28]

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Thomas Phillips was handed over by Sir Thomas More to Bishop Stokesley in 1530. As well as holding heretical opinions, he was charged with having a copy of William Tracy's will and butter and cheese during Lent. He was examined by More and Stokesley and agreed to abjure, but not to openly read the abjuration in the form presented. He appealed to the king and was excommunicated by the bishop. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1185; 1576, p. 1014; 1583, p. 1042.

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His congregation sent him a letter of comfort and encouragement on his way to the Tower. 1570, p. 1186; 1576, pp. 1014-15; 1583, p. 1042.

 
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William Tracy

Gentleman of Toddington, Gloucestershire; JP, sheriff 1513; left a will dated October 1530 indicating justification by faith alone; his body was exhumed and burnt with the will in 1531; Tyndale printed the will [Fines]

William Tracy's will displayed reformed sentiments. When it was sent to Canterbury to be proved, the archbishop brought it to convocation. An order was given to exhume Tracy's body and burn it. 1570, p. 1186; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, pp. 1042-43.

One of the offences with which Thomas Phillips was charged was possession of a copy of Tracy's testament. 1570, p. 1185; 1576, p. 1014; 1583, p. 1042.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Warham

(c. 1450 - 1532) [ODNB]

Studied at Oxford; lawyer in Oxford and London; diplomat

Bishop of London (1502 - 04); keeper of the great seal (1502 - 04); archbishop of Canterbury (1504 - 32); lord chancellor (1504 - 15); chancellor of the University of Oxford (1506 - 32)

William Carder, Agnes Grebill and Robert Harrison were tried for heresy in 1511 before William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, Gabriel Sylvester, Thomas Wells and Clement Browne. All three were condemned to burn. Warham had brought in witnesses who had already abjured and would therefore tell everything they knew lest they be found guilty of relapse. 1570, pp. 1454-55; 1576, p. 1240; 1583, pp. 1276-77.

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Thomas Wolsey caused his cardinal's hat, when it arrived, to be taken back to Dover so that the archbishop of Canterbury could greet it. 1570, p. 1124; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 989.

Warham was one of the supporters of Queen Catherine before the papal legates considering the matter of the divorce. 1563, p. 458; 1570, p. 1193; 1576, p. 1022; 1583, p. 1050.

In a letter to Juan de Vergara, Erasmus of Rotterdam described how, after the downfall of Thomas Wolsey, Warham was offered the chancellorship but declined due to his advanced years. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 994.

Thomas Hitten was imprisoned by Archbishop Warham and Bishop Fisher, tortured and then burnt at Maidstone. 1570, p. 1134; 1576, p. 971; 1583, pp. 997-98.

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

William Tracy's will was sent to the Archbishop Warham to be proved. It contained reformed sentiments, and Warham brought it to the convocation. Tracy's body was exhumed and burnt. 1570, p. 1185; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1042.

John Lambert was brought from Antwerp to London, where he was examined before Archbishop Warham and others. Forty-five articles were put to him which he answered. Warham then died and Lambert was unbothered for a time. 1563, pp. 528, 533-69; 1570, pp. 1255-80; 1576, pp. 1075-1095; 1583, pp. 1101-21.

 
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Toddington

Gloucestershire

OS grid ref: SP 035 325

1066 [1042]

K. Hen. 8. A table of certen persons abiured. A letter to Tho. Philipp. Tracies Testament.
Persons abiured.with their Articles.
Tho. Corn.Hys Articles: It was obiected,
well, orthat hee beyng enioyned aforetyme by
Austy. 
Commentary  *  Close

Thomas Austy was the son-in-law of Thomas Vincent (BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 12r). In 1527, Austy would would be condemned to perpetual imprisonment as an obdurate heretic, but he escaped.

Richard Fitziames B. of London, for
1530.hys penaunce to weare a fagot borde-
red vppon his sleeue vnder payne of
relapse, hee kept not the same, & there-
fore hee was condemned to perpetual
custody in the house of S. Bartlemew,
from whence afterward he escaped and
fled away.
Thomas Philip was deliuered by
syr Thomas More, to bishop Stoke-
sley by indenture. Besides other Arti-
cles of Purgatorie, Images, the Sa-
crament of the altare, Holydaies, kee-
ping of bookes, and suche like, it was
obiected to him, that he being searched
in the Tower, had founde aboute hym
Tracies Testament 
Commentary  *  Close

Thomas Philip was a pointmaker of the parish of Micheal le Querne, London. John Hacker informed on him in 1528. He was imprisoned and later held in the house of Thomas More (then Lord Chancellor), who turned him back over to Bishop Stokesley (BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 13r; More, Apology, CWTM 9, p. 126). He abjured, but abjured his abjuration and was imprisoned in the Tower (1570, pp. 1185-6, 1576, p. 1014; 1583, p. 1042). He remained imprisoned in the Tower, but working as a gaoler. In this capacity he aided evangelical prisoners (BL, Harley MS 425, fo. 138v).

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, and in his cham-
ber in the Tower was founde Cheese
and Butter in Lent time. Also that hee
had a letter deliuered vnto him goyng
to the Tower. Which letter, wyth the
Testament also of Tracie, because they
are both worthy to be seene, we mynde
(GOD willing) to annexe also to the
storie of thys Thomas Phillip. As hee
was oftentimes examined before mai-
ster More and the Bishop, he alwaies
stoode to his denial, neither could there
any thing be prooued clearely agaynste
him, but onely Tracies Testamente 
Commentary  *  Close

This is the tract, edited by William Tyndale and John Frith, onWilliam Tracy and his will (In 1535, a copy of the will, with commentaries by William Tyndale and John Frith, was printed in Antwerp: the testament of master William Tracie esquier (Antwerp, 1535), STC 24167.

and hys butter in Lente. One Stacie
first bare witnesse againste him, but af-
ter in the Courte openly hee protested
that he did it for feare. The Byshoppe
thē willing him to submit him self, & to
sweare neuer to holde any opinion cō-
trarye to the determination of holye
Church, he sayde he would. And when
the forme of hys abiuration was ge-
uen him to read, he read it, but the By-
Thomasshop not content with that, wold haue
Phillip.hym to reade it openly. But that hee
1530.woulde not, and sayde hee woulde ap-
peale to the king supreame heade of the
Churche, and so did. Stil the Byshop,
called vpon him to abiure. Hee aun-
sweared, that he would be obedient, as
a Christen man shoulde, and that hee
woulde sweare neuer to holde any he-
resie during his life, nor fauoure anye
heretickes.
But the Bishop not yet contente,
would haue him to reade the abiuratio-
on after the forme of the Churche con-
ceaued, as it was geuen him. Hee aun-
sweared again that he would forswear
all heresies, and that he woulde main-
taine no heresies, ne fauour any here-
tickes. The Byshop with this woulde
not be aunsweared, but needes would
driue him to the abiuration formed af-
ter the Popes Church. To whome hee
said, if it were the same abiuration, that
he read, he would not read it, but stand
to his appeale made to the kinge, the
supreame heade of the Churche vnder
God. Againe, the Bishop asked hym,
if he would abiure or not. Except (sayd
he) you will shewe me the cause, whye
I should abiure, I will not say yea nor
nay to it, but will stand to my appeale,
and required the Bishop to obey the
same. Then the Bishop reading open-
ly the Bil of excommunication against
him, denounced him for contumax, and
an excōmunicate person, chargyng all
men to haue no company or any thyng
to doe with him.
After this excommunication, what
became of him, whether he was holpen
by his appeale, or whether he was bur
ned, or whether he died in the Tower,
or whether he abiured, I find no men-
tion made in the registers. 
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Thomas Philip was a pointmaker of the parish of Micheal le Querne, London. John Hacker informed on him in 1528. He was imprisoned and later held in the house of Thomas More (then Lord Chancellor), who turned him back over to Bishop Stokesley (BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 13r; More, Apology, CWTM 9, p. 126). He abjured, but abjured his abjuration and was imprisoned in the Tower (1570, pp. 1185-6, 1576, p. 1014; 1583, p. 1042). He remained imprisoned in the Tower, but working as a gaoler. In this capacity he aided evangelical prisoners (BL, Harley MS 425, fo. 138v).

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A letter directed to Thomas Phillip in the name of the brethren, and geuen him by the way going to the Tower.

MarginaliaA letter sent by the congregation to Tho. Philippe.THe fauour of him that is able to keepe you that you fall not, and to confesse your name in the kingdome of glorye, and to geue you strength by his spirite to confesse him before all hys aduersaries, be with you euer, Amen.

Syr, the brethren thincke that there bee diuers false brethren craftily crept in among them, to seeke out their freedome in the Lord, that they may accuse them to the Lords aduersaries, as they suppose they haue done you. Wherfore if so be it, that the spirit of God mooue you thereunto, they as counsailors desire you aboue all things to be stedfast in the Lordes veritie without feare, for hee shall and will be your helpe according to his promise, so that they shall not minish the least heire of your head without his will: vnto the which will, submitte your selfe, and reioyce: Marginalia2. Pet. 2.for the Lorde knoweth how to deliuer the godly out of temptation, and howe to reserue the vniust vnto the daye of iudgement to be punished 

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2 Peter 2: 9.

: and therfore, cast all your care on him, for he careth for you 
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1 Peter 5: 7.

. Marginalia1. Pet. 4.And in that you suffer as a Christen man, bee not ashamed, Marginalia1. Pet. 4.but rather glorify God on that behalfe: MarginaliaHeb. 12.looking vpon Christ the authour and finisher of our faith: which for the ioy that was set before hym, abode the Crosse & despised the shame 
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Hebrews 12: 2.

. Notwithstanding, thoughe we suffer the wrong, after the example of our maister Christe, yet we be not bounde to suffer the wrong cause, for Christe hymselfe suffred it not, but reproued him that smit him wrongfully. And so likewise sayth S. Paule also 
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See Acts 23: 3.

: So that we must not suffer the wrōg, but boldly reproue them that sit as righteous iudges, and do contrary to righteousnes. Therfore according both to Gods law and mans, ye be not bounde to make no aunswer in no cause, till your accusers come before you. MarginaliaAct. 23. Which if you require, and thereon doe sticke, the false brethren shall be knowne to the great comforte of those that nowe stand in doubt whome they may trust: and also it shall be a meane that they shall not craftily by questions take you in snares. And that you may this do lawfully, MarginaliaAct. 20.in the 20. chapter of the Acts it is wrytten. It is not the maner of the Romanes to deliuer any man that he shuld perish before that he which is accused, haue his accusers before hym, and haue licence to aunswere for himselfe, as pertaining to the crime whereof he is accused 
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Actually this is a reference to Acts 23: 27-8.

. And also Christe will, MarginaliaMath. 18.that in the mouth of two or three witnesses all things shall stande 
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This is a somewhat unusual interpretation of Matthew 18: 20.

. And in the 5. chap. to Timoth, the first epistle it is written: Marginalia1. Tim. 5. Against a Seniour receiue none accusation but vnder two or three witnesses 
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I Timothy 5: 19.

. MarginaliaWhat is a Seniour by S. Paule.A Seniour in this place is any man that hath an house to gouerne. And also their owne lawe is agreeable to this Wherefore seeing it is agreeable to the word of God, that in accusations such witnesses shuld be, you may with a good cōscience require it. And this the God of grace which hathe called you vnto his eternal glory by Christ Iesu, shal his owne selfe after a little affliction, make you perfect, shal settle, strengthen, and stablish you, that to him may be glory and praise for euer. Amen.

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Thus ye haue heard the letter deliuered to Tho. Philip. Now followeth theTestament of William Tracie.

Tracie his Testament.

A Little before 

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The account which follows is word-for-word from Edward Hall'schronicle. (See Edward Hall, The union of the two noble and illustre famelies ofLancastre and York [London, 1548], STC 12721, fo. 211r-v).

this time, William Tracie a worshypfull Esquire in Glocestershire, and then dwelling at Todington, made in his wil, that he woulde haue no funerall pompe at his burying, neither passed he vpon Masse, and farther sayd that he trusted in God only, and hoped by him to be saued, and not by any Saint. 
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William Tracy was a prominent member of a leading Gloucestershire family and he was a former sheriff of the county. His will aroused considerablecontroversy because of its outspoken declaration of justification nby faith without theassistance of works. Manuscript copies of the will circulated extensively. (See John Craig and Caroline Litzenberger, 'Wills as Religious Propaganda: The Testament of William Tracy', Journal of Ecclesiastical History 44 [1993], pp. 415-31). In 1535, a copy of the will, with commentaries by William Tyndale and John Frith, was printedin Antwerp: the testament of master William Tracie esquier (Antwerp, 1535), STC 24167.

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Thys Gentlemā dyed, and his sonne as executor, brought the will to the Bysh. of Canterbury to proue, which he shewed to the cōuocation, and there most cruelly they iudged that he should be taken out of the ground and be brent as an hereticke, anno. 1532. 
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Foxe (following Hall's chronicle) is condensing extemely complex and protracted proceedings. Convocation debated Tracy's will in different sessions for fifteen months before Tracy was finally condemned (posthumously) as a heretic and the exhumation of his body ordered. (See John T. Day, 'William Tracy's Posthumous Legal Problems' in William Tyndale and the Law, ed. John A. R. Dick and Anne Richardson [Kirksville, MO, 1994], pp. 108-10).

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This commission was sent to Doc. Parker Chauncellour of the Diocesse of Worcester, to execute theyr wicked sentence, whiche accomplished the same. MarginaliaM. Tracie takē vp being dead and burnt. The kynge hearynge his subiect to be taken out of the grounde and brent wythout his knowledge or order of his law, sent for the Chancellour, and layde high offence to his charge: who excused him selfe by the Archbishop of Caunterburye whyche was late dead 
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I.e., Parker, the chancellor of the diocese, claimed that he was acting on the orders of the archbishop of Canterbury.

, but in conclusion it cost hym CCC. pounde to haue hys pardon 
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Matthew Parker, the chancellor of the diocese of Worcester (not to be confused with the Elizabethan archbishop of Canterbury of the same name) burned Tracy's body in addition to exhuming it. This burning - but not the exhumation - was a violation of the statute De heretico comburendo, which mandated the punishments for heresy. Under this statute, it was illegal to burn a heretic, livingor dead, without receipt of a writ from Chancery and, in any case, the burning wasto be managed by secular officials. Whether Tracy's body was burned on the orders of the Archbishop Warham or not (Parker, the chancellor of the diocese, claimed that he was acting on the orders of the archbishop of Canterbury), Parker did not have a writ and he conducted the burning himself. Richard Tracy, William's son, petitioned the king, asking that Parker be punished for this violation of the law. Ultimately Parker was fined £100. (See John T. Day, 'William Tracy's Posthumous Legal Problems' in William Tyndale and the Law, ed. John A. R. Dick and Anne Richardson [Kirksville, MO, 1994], pp. 110-11).

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. The will and Testament of thys Gentleman thus condemned by the Clergie, was as here vnder foloweth.

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MarginaliaThe testament of William Tracie.IN the name of God, Amen. I William Tracie of Todington in the Countie of Glocester Esquire, make my Testament & last wil, as hereafter foloweth. First and before all other things, I commit my selfe vnto God & to his mercy, beleuing without any doubt or mistrust that by hys grace and the merits of Iesus Christ, and by the vertue of his passion and of his resurrection, I haue and shall haue remission of all my sinnes and resurrection of body & soul, according as it is written: Marginaliaiob. 9.I beleue that my redemer liueth, & that in the last day I shall rise out of the earth, and in my flesh shall see my Sauiour: this my hope is laid vp in my bosome. 

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Job 19: 25.

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