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Agnes Rouse

of St Osyth; neighbour of Grace Palmer and witness against her

John Rouse, his wife Agnes and John Pole testified that Grace Palmer had spoken heresy. 1570, p. 1187; 1576, p. 1016; 1583, p. 1043.

 
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Edward Crome

(d. 1562) [ODNB]

Clergyman and religious controversialist

In his examination, James Bainham said that only Edward Crome and Hugh Latimer had preached the word of God sincerely and purely. 1570, p. 1169; 1576, p. 1000; 1583, p. 1027.

John Periman was charged in London in 1531 with holding heretical opinions. He said the only true preacher was Edward Crome. 1570, p. 1186; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1043.

Melancthon wrote a letter to Henry VIII against the Six Articles. In it he complained of the imprisonment of Hugh Latimer, Edward Crome and Nicholas Shaxton. 1570, p. 1341; 1576, p. 1144; 1583, p. 1173.

In prison after her first examination, Anne Askew asked to be confessed to Edward Crome, Gillam or John Huntingdon because she knew them to be wise men. 1563, p. 670; 1570, p. 1414; 1576, p. 1205; 1583, p. 1235.

In the Mercers' chapel during Lent in 1546, Crome preached a sermon designed to dissuade people from a belief in purgatory. He was arrested on Easter day and made to recant. 1570, p. 1413; 1576, p. 1205; 1583, p. 1234.

 
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Grace Palmer

of St Osyth [Fines]

Grace Palmer was charged in London in 1531 for speaking against pilgrimages, bearing palms on Palm Sunday and transubstantiation. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1187; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1043.

 
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Henry Feldon

of London [Fines]

Henry Feldon was charged in London in 1531 for possessing heretical literature. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1187; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1043.

 
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Henry Tomson

Tailor of London [Fines]

Henry Tomson was charged in London in 1531 for denying transubstantiation. Although he submitted, he was condemned to perpetual imprisonment. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1187; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1043.

Lawrence Staple was charged in London in 1531 for, among other things, encouraging Henry Tomson to read the New Testament. 1570, p. 1187; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1043.

 
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James Bainham

(d. 1532) [ODNB]

Lawyer; married to Simon Fish's widow; brought before Sir Thomas More, accused of heresy; imprisoned, tortured, abjured; arrested after relapse, burnt at Smithfield

Simon Fish died of plague; his widow later married James Bainham. 1570, p. 1153; 1576, p. 987; 1583, p. 1014.

James Bainham was arrested and imprisoned in Sir Thomas More's house in Chelsea and whipped, then racked in the Tower. He was examined before John Stokesley. 1563, pp. 496-98; 1570, pp. 1168-70; 1576, pp. 999-1001; 1583, pp. 1027-29.

Bainham held to his beliefs, but after several examinations he abjured and was given a penance to carry a faggot and stand before the preacher at Paul's Cross. He soon publicly repented his abjuration and was sent to the Tower again. 1570, p. 1170; 1576, p. 1001; 1583, p. 1029.

Lawrence Staple was charged for, among other things, saying that he wanted to drink and pray with Bainham at his burning. 1570, p. 1187; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1043.

Bainham was condemned, delivered to the sheriff and burnt at Smithfield. 1570, p. 1171; 1576, p. 1002; 1583, p. 1030.

 
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Jaspar Wetzel

of Cologne [Fines]

Jaspar Wetzel was charged in London in 1531 with refusing to attend mass or pray to the Virgin and for mocking the rood at St Margaret Pattens. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1187; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1043.

 
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John Periman

Skinner of London [Fines]

John Periman was charged in London in 1531 with holding heretical opinions. He said the only true preacher was Edward Crome. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1186; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1043.

William Nelson was charged in London in 1531 with buying books of Luther, Tyndale and Thorpe from John Periman and abjured. 1570, p. 1188; 1576, p. 1017; 1583, p. 1046.

 
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John Pole

of St Osyth; neighbour of Grace Palmer and witness against her

John Rouse, his wife Agnes and John Pole testified that Grace Palmer had spoken heresy. 1570, p. 1187; 1576, p. 1016; 1583, p. 1043.

 
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John Rouse

of St Osyth; neighbour of Grace Palmer and witness against her

John Rouse, his wife Agnes and John Pole testified that Grace Palmer had spoken heresy. 1570, p. 1187; 1576, p. 1016; 1583, p. 1043.

 
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Lawrence Staple

Servant [Fines]

Lawrence Staple was charged in London in 1531 for saying that he wanted to drink and pray with Bainham at his burning; for receiving four copies of Tyndale's New Testament from Bilney; for encouraging Henry Tomson to read the New Testament; for eating eggs, butter and cheese during Lent. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1187; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1043.

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Margaret Tracy

Wife of William Tracy

In his will, William Tracy named his wife Margaret and his son Richard as executors and left them the residue of his goods. 1570, p. 1186; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1043.

 
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Richard Tracy

Son of William; gentleman of Toddington, Gloucestershire; BA Oxford 1515; MP 1529; his books were ordered to be burnt in 1546; wrote to Crome in 1546 urging him not to recant; imprisoned in the Tower 1551-52 [Fines]

In his will, William Tracy named his wife Margaret and his son Richard as executors and left them the residue of his goods. 1570, p. 1186; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1043.

Richard Tracy was one of the authors whose books were banned by the proclamation of 1546. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

 
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Robert Cooper

(d. 1558) [Fines]

Priest; tutor of Matthew Parker; chaplain to Edward VI

Robert Cooper was charged in London in 1531 for saying that blessing with a shoe sole was as good as a bishop's blessing. 1570, p. 1187; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1043.

 
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Robert Goldstone

Glazier of London [Fines]

Robert Goldstone was charged in London in 1531 with speaking against images. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1186; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1043.

 
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Robert Man

Serving man of Great Cornard, Suffolk [Fines]

Robert Man was charged in London in 1531 for speaking against the pope. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1187; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1043.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Bilney

(c. 1495 - 1531) [Fines; ODNB]

Proctor of Cambridge; evangelical reformer; martyr burnt at Norwich

While at Cambridge, Bilney converted to a reformed religion and convinced others there, including Thomas Arthur and Hugh Latimer. Bilney and Arthur left the university, going about teaching and preaching. Cardinal Wolsey had them imprisoned in 1527. 1563, pp. 461, 481; 1570, pp. 1134-35; 1576, p. 972; 1583, p. 998.

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John Lambert was converted at Cambridge by Thomas Bilney. 1563, pp. 482, 527; 1570, p. 1255; 1576, p. 1075; 1583, p. 1101.

Bilney was well acquainted with Thomas Benet. 1570, p. 1180; 1576, p. 1009; 1583, p. 1037.

Bilney preached repentance and had his books burned. 1570, p. 39; 1576, p. 32; 1583, p. 32.

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

Thomas Bilney wrote five letters to Tunstall. 1563, pp. 465-73; 1570, pp. 1140-47; 1576, pp. 977-81; 1583, pp. 1003-08.

Thomas Bilney and John Brusyerd entered into a dialogue on images in Ipswich around the time of Bilney's examination. 1563, pp. 474-79; 1570, pp. 1138-40; 1576, pp. 975-76; 1583, pp. 1001-03.

Bilney initially refused to recant and asked to introduce witnesses; this request was refused by the bishop of London because it was too late in the proceedings. Bilney was given two nights to consult with his friends, and they persuaded him to abjure. 1563, p. 479; 1570, p. 1140; 1576, p. 977; 1583, p. 1003.

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Thomas Wolsey forced Thomas Arthur, Thomas Bilney, Geoffrey Lome and Thomas Garrard to abjure for speaking against the authority of the pope. 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 994.

Bilney was sentenced to bear a faggot at Paul's Cross and to imprisonment at the pleasure of Cardinal Wolsey. 1563, p. 479; 1570, p. 1140; 1576, p. 977; 1583, p. 1003.

For two years Bilney repented of his abjuration. He moved to Norfolk and preached openly. He was arrested when he gave books to an anchoress he had converted in Norwich. Richard Nix obtained a writ for his burning. 1570, p. 1146; 1576, p. 981; 1583, p. 1008.

Lawrence Staple was charged in London in 1531 for, among other things, receiving four copies of Tyndale's New Testament from Bilney. 1570, p. 1187; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1043.

Edmund Peerson presented a list of charges against Richard Bayfield in 1531, especially concerning Bayfield's praise for Thomas Arthur and Thomas Bilney. 1570, p. 1191; 1576, p. 1020; 1583, p. 1048.

Bilney was arrested by the sheriff, Thomas Necton, his good friend. He was examined and condemned by Thomas Pelles. The night before his burning, his friends found him cheerful and enjoying his dinner. He put his finger into the candle flame several times to test the heat. He was burnt the next day at Lollards' Pit in Norwich. 1563, pp. 482-83; 1570, pp. 1150-51; 1576, pp. 984-85; 1583, p. 1012.

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Michael Lobley was charged in London in 1531 for, among other things, saying that Bilney was a good man. 1570, p. 1189; 1576, p. 1017; 1583, p. 1046.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Row

Charged in London in 1531

Thomas Row was charged for speaking against auricular confession, penance given by priests and the preaching of church doctors. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1187; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1043.

 
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William Waltham

Charged in London in 1531

William Waltham was charged for speaking against transubstantiation. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1187; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1043.

 
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Cologne (Köln; Colonia Agrippina)

[Colen; Colleyn; Collen; Colon]

North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Coordinates: 50° 57' 0" N, 6° 58' 0" E

Cathedral city

 
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Greenwich [Grenwich]
NGR: TQ 388 775

Market Town and parish in the hundred of Blackheath, Lathe of Sutton-at-Hone, County of Kent. 6 miles east-south-east of London. The living is a vicarage in the Archdeaconry and diocese of Rochester. A royal residence was established here by Edward I, and was in use throughout the Tudor period. The palace having become decayed was demolished by Charles II, who intended to replace it.

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Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

The reason for the use of this work of reference is that it presents the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take this reference as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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1067 [1043]

K. Hen. 8. A table of certayne persons abiured with theyr Articles.

And touching the wealth 

Commentary  *  Close

I.e., the health.

of my soule, the faith that I haue taken and rehearsed is sufficient (as I suppose) without any other mans workes or merites 
Commentary  *  Close

It is this statement, declaring that faith, without works, was allthat was necessary salvation, which made this will hertetical.

. My ground and beliefe is, that there is but one God and one Mediatour betweene God and man, which is Iesus Christ: so that I accept none in heauen nor in earth to be Mediatour betwene me and God, but only Iesus Christ: all other to be but as peticioners in receiuing of grace, but none able to geue influence of grace: And therefore will I bestowe no part of my goodes for that entent that any man should say or do, to helpe my soule, for therin I trust onely to the promises of Christ: MarginaliaMarke. 16.He that beleeueth and is baptised, shall be saued, and he that beleeueth not, shall be damned 
Commentary  *  Close

Mark 16: 16.

.

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As touching the burying of my body it auayleth me not whatsoeuer be done thereto, for S. Austen sayth De cura agenda pro mortuis, MarginaliaFunerall pompes serue onely for the liuing, and geue no helpe for the dead.that the funerall pompes are rather the solace of them that liue, then the wealth and comfort of them that are dead, and therefore I remitte it onely to the discretion of mine executors. 

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Tracy's lack of concern over his burial arrangements was not heretical, but it was very unconventional.

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And touching the distribution of my temporall goodes, my purpose is, by the grace of God, to bestowe them to be accepted as the fruites of faith, so that I do not suppose þt my merite shall be by the good bestowing of them, MarginaliaOur merites be onely our fayth in Christ.but my merite is the faith of Iesus Christ onely, by whome suche workes are good according to the wordes of our Lorde: I was hungry and thou gauest me to eate, &c. 

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Matthew 25: 35.

And it foloweth: that ye haue done to the least of my brethren, ye haue done it to me, &c. 
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Matthew 25: 45.

And euer we should consider that true saying: that a good worke maketh not a good man, but a good man maketh a good worke: for faith maketh the man both good and righteous: for a righteous man liueth by faith: MarginaliaRom. 14.and whatsoeuer springeth not of fayth is sinne, &c. 
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This is a rather free reading of Romans 14: 17-23.

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And all my temporall goodes that I haue not geuen or deliuered, or not geuen by writing of mine owne hande, bearing the date of this present writing, I doe leaue and geue to Margaret my wife, and to Richard my son, whom I make mine Executors. Witnes hereof mine own hand, the tenth of October, in the xxij. yeare of the reigne of King Henry the eyght.

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This is the true copie of his will, for the whiche, as you heard before, after he was almost two yeares dead, they tooke him vp and burned him.

Persons abiured,with their Articles.
MarginaliaEx Regist. Lond.Hys Articles were much lyke vnto
Iohn Peri-the others before: Addyng moreouer,
man Skin-that all the Preachers then at Paules
ner. 
Commentary  *  Close

Apparently Periman was also selling heretical books.

Crosse, preached nothyng but lyes and
flatterings, and that there was neuer a
1531.true Preacher but one: namyng Ed-
ward Crome 
Commentary  *  Close

Although none of his sermons survive, Edward Crome was one of the most outspoken and popular evangelical preachers in London. Crome himself was charged with heresy in 1531 and escaped by recanting. He subsequently retracted his recantation.

.

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His Articles: That men should pray
to God onely, and to no Saints. That
Rob. Gold-Pilgrimage is not profitable. That
ston Gla-men should giue no worship to Ima-
sier. 
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An unnnamed glazier did pennace at Paul's Cross on 22 October 1531('Two London Chronicles', ed. C. L.. Kingsford in Camden Society Miscellany XII, third series 18 [London, 1910}, p. 5). This was probably Goldstone.

ges. Item, for sayeng, that if he had as
1531.much power as any Cardinall had, he
woulde destroye all the Images that
were in all the Churches in England.
Hys Articles: For hauing the Te-
stament in English, the fiue bookes of
Moses, the practise of Prelates, the
summe of Scripture, the A B C.
Item, about the burning of Baine-
ham 
Commentary  *  Close

James Bainham was the youngest son of Sir Alexander Bainham, who was the head of the most prominent family in the Forest of Dean and who had been sheriff of Gloucestershire five times. James Bainham's mother was the sister of William Tracy. On the Bainham family, see Caroline Litzenberger, The English Reformation and the Laity: Gloucestershire, 1540-1580 (Cambridge, 1997), pp. 30-31.

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, for sayeng: I would I were with
Baynham, seeing that euery man hath
forsaken him, that I might drinke with
him, and he might pray for me.
Item, that he moued Henry Tom-
Laurenceson to learne to reade the new Testa-
Staple Ser-ment, calling it the bloud of Christ.
uing man.Item, in Lent past, when he had no
fish, MarginaliaEating of egges made heresie.he did eate egges, butter, and chese.
Also about sixe weekes before M. Bil-
ney was attached, the sayd Bilney deli-
uered to him at Greenewich foure new
Testamentes of Tindals translation,
which he had in his sleeue, and a budget
besides of bookes, whiche budget hee
shortly after riding to Cambridge, de-
liuered vnto Bilney, &c. Item, on Fri-
dayes he vsed to eate egges 
Commentary  *  Close

The eating of eggs, like the eating of meat, was traditionally forbidden on Fridays.

, & thought
þt it was no great offēce before God, &c.
HenryHys Articles: That which the priest
Tomsonlifteth ouer his head at the sacring time,
Taylor. 
Commentary  *  Close

The sentence of life imprisonment against Tomson was severe, but it is confirmed by a contemporary chronicler ('Two London Chronicles', ed. C. L. Kingsford in Camden Society Miscellany XII, third series, 18 [London, 1910], p. 5).

is not the very body of Christ, nor it is
1531.not God, but a thing that God hath or-
deyned to be done.
Persons abiured.with their Articles.
This poore Tomson although at the
first hee submitted himselfe to the By-
shop: yet they with sentence cōdemned
him to perpetuall prison.
His Articles: that he cared not for
goyng to the Churche to heare Masse,
for hee could say Masse as well as the
Iasper WetPriest. That he would not pray to our
zell of Co-Lady, for she could do vs no good.
len.Item, beyng asked if he would goe
1531.heare Masse, he sayd he had as lieue go
to þe gallowes, where the theeues were
hanged.
Item, beyng at S. Margaret Pa-
tens 
Commentary  *  Close

In the following incident, Wetzell was mocking the large rood at St Margaret Pattens, a popular image, particularly venerated by London sailors.

, and there holdyng his armes a
crosse, he sayd to þe people, that he could
make as good a knaue as he is, for he is
made but of wood. &c.
His Articles: There is no Purga-
tory. The Pope hath no more power
to graunt pardon then an other simple
Priest. That God gaue no more autho-
ritie to S. Peter, thē to an other Priest.
That the Pope was a knaue and his
Priestes knaues all, for sufferyng his
Pardons to goe abroad to deceiue the
Rob Man,people. That S. Thomas of Canter-
Seruyng-bury, is no Saint. That S. Peter was
man.neuer Pope of Rome.
1531. MarginaliaPriestes set more store by a payre of gloues then they do by a lay mans hand.Item, he vsed commonly to aske of
Priestes where he came, whether a mā
were accursed if he handled a chalice or
no? If the Priest would say yea, then
would he reply agayne this: If a man
haue a sheepes skinne on his handes,
meanyng a payre of gloues, hee may
handle it. The Priestes saying yea: wel
then (quoth he) ye wil make me beleue,
that God put more vertue in a sheepes
skinne, then he did in a Christian mans
hand, for whom he dyed.
His trouble was, for hauyng these
bookes in English: a proper Dialogue
betwene a Gentleman, and a husband-
Henry Fel-man. The summe of Scripture. The
don.Prologue of Marke. A written booke
1531.conteinyng the Pater noster, Aue Maria,
and Credo in English. The ten Com-
maundementes, and the 16. conditions
of Charitie.
Rob. Coo-His Article onely was this: for say-
per, Priest 
Commentary  *  Close

Robert Cooper (or Cowper) was rhe rector of Hanwell, Middlesex. He later became chaplain to Edward VI, and, while a fellow at Corpus Christi, he had been tutor to Matthew Parker, the future archbishop of Canterbury (Venn, sub Cowper, Robert).

ing that the blessyng with a shoe sole 
Commentary  *  Close

Cooper was charged with saying that a blessing from a person waving a shoe in the was of equal benefit as a blessing from a bishop.

is
1531.as good as the Byshops blessing. &c.
His Articles were, for speakyng a-
Thomasgaynst auricular Cōfession, and Priest-
Row.ly penaunce, and agaynst the preaching
1531.of the Doctours.
His opinion: That the Sacrament
Wil. Wal-of the aulter is not the body of Christ in
am.flesh & bloud, and that there is a God,
1531.but not that God in flesh and bloud in
the forme of bread.
MarginaliaAgaynst bearing of Palmes.Witnesse was brought agaynst her
by her neighbours Ioh. Rouse, Agnes
his wife, Iohn Pole of S. Osithes, for
saying: Ye vse to beare Palmes on
Palme Sonday: it skilleth not whe-
ther ye beare any or not, it is but a
thyng vsed and neede not.
Also ye vse to go on Pilgrimage to
our Lady of Grace, of Walsingham, &
other places: ye were better tarye at
Grace Pal-home, and geue money to succour me
mer.and my children and other of my poore
1531.neighbours, then to goe thether: for
there ye shall finde but a peece of tym-
ber painted, there is neither God nor
our Lady.
Item, for repentyng that she did e-
uer light candles before Images.
Item, that the Sacrament of the
aulter is not the body of Christ: it is
but bread which the Priest there shew-
eth for a token or remembraunce of
Christes body.
His Articles: That the Sacrament
holden vp betwene the Priests hādes,
is
XXx.iiij.
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