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Cuthbert Tunstall

(1475 - 1559) [ODNB]

DCnL, DCL from Padua by 1505; diplomat; keeper of the privy seal (1523 - 30)

Bishop of London (1522 - 30); bishop of Durham (1530 - 52, 1553 - 59)

William Carder, Agnes Grebill and Robert Harrison were tried for heresy in 1511 before William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, Gabriel Sylvester, Thomas Wells and Clement Browne. All three were condemned to burn. 1570, pp. 1454-55; 1576, p. 1240; 1583, pp. 1276-77.

After William Tyndale went to London, he tried to enter the service of Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of London, but was unsuccessful. 1570, pp. 1225-26; 1576, p. 1049; 1583, pp. 1075-76.

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. Wolsey committed the hearing to Tunstall. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

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Thomas Bilney wrote five letters to Tunstall. 1563, pp. 465-73; 1570, pp. 1140-47; 1576, pp. 977-81; 1583, pp. 1003-08.

Bilney initially refused to recant and asked to introduce witnesses; this request was refused by the bishop of London because it was too late in the proceedings. Bilney was given two nights to consult with his friends. 1563, p. 479; 1570, p. 1140; 1576, p. 977; 1583, p. 1003.

In 1526 Tunstall issued prohibitions to his archdeacons, calling in New Testaments translated into English and other English books. 1563, pp. 449-50; 1570, pp. 1157-58; 1576, pp. 990-91; 1583, pp. 1017-18.

Augustine Packington favoured William Tyndale, but pretended otherwise to Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of London, then in Antwerp. He offered to procure all the unsold copies of Tyndale's New Testament held by the merchants in the city if Tunstall would provide the money to buy them. Packington then paid Tyndale for the books, and Tyndale immediately had them reprinted. 1563, p. 443; 1570, pp. 1158-59; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1019.

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Thomas Wolsey, having obtained large sums from the king's treasury, went to the French court to contribute to the ransom of Clement VII, hiring soldiers and furnishing the French army. He took with him Cuthbert Tunstall, William Sandys, the earl of Derby, Sir Henry Guildford and Sir Thomas More. 1563, p. 439; 1570, p. 1123; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 988.

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John Tewkesbury was examined before Cuthbert Tunstall, Henry Standish and John Islip. 1563, p. 490; 1570, p. 1165; 1576, p. 996; 1583, p. 1024.

After Richard Bayfield returned to England, he was arrested, tried by Cuthbert Tunstall and abjured. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

Tunstall was translated to the see of Durham after Thomas Wolsey was deprived of office. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 994.

Tunstall swore an oath of allegiance to Henry VIII as head of the church. 1570, p. 1203; 1576, p. 1030; 1583, p. 1057.

Tunstall preached a sermon on Palm Sunday in front of King Henry in which he attacked the pope's claimed authority. 1570, pp. 1206-10; 1576, pp. 1033-36; 1583, pp. 1060-63.

Tunstall was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Bishops Stokesley and Tunstall wrote a letter to Cardinal Pole in Rome, urging him to give up his support of the supremacy of the pope. 1563, pp. 613-20; 1570, pp. 1212-16; 1576, pp. 1037-42; 1583, pp. 1065-68.

Tunstall disputed with John Lambert at his trial before the king. 1563, p. 536; 1570, p. 1283; 1576, p. 1097; 1583, pp. 1123.

Tunstall was imprisoned in the Tower with Stephen Gardiner under Edward VI and Edward Seymour. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1296.

Tunstall was a deponent in the case of Gardiner. 1563, pp. 828-29, 855.

 
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Edward Frensham

In Zurich by 20 August, 1558 [Fines]

Edward Frensham was ridiculed by John Hewes for kneeling before a cross being carried in the street. 1570, p. 1188; 1576, p. 1017; 1583, p. 1044.

 
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George Bull

Draper of Much Hadham, Hertfordshire [Fines]

George Bull was charged in London in 1531 for speaking against confession to a priest except for counsel in how to confess to God and one's neighbour, for saying that Luther was a good man and for saying that a well sprang up where Wyclif's bones were burned. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1187; 1576, p. 1016; 1583, p. 1044.

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Joan Bennore

Maid of Thomas Patmore; married his curate, Simon Smith [Fines]

Simon Smith was charged in London in 1531 with marrying while a priest. He and his pregnant wife were subjected to a lengthy examination, made to abjure and given penance to perform. 1570, p. 1188; 1576, p. 1017; 1583, p. 1044.

 
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John Fairstead (alias Henry Fersted)

of Colchester [Fines]

John Fairstead was charged in London in 1531 for speaking against images. 1570, p. 1187; 1576, p. 1016; 1583, p. 1044.

 
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John Haymond

Millwright

John Haymond was charged in London in 1531 for speaking against images, fast days and pilgrimages. He also held books by Luther and Tyndale. 1570, p. 1187; 1576, p. 1016; 1583, p. 1044.

 
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John Hewes

Draper of London; joined the older generation of Scripture men in the 1520s [Brigden, London, pp. 121-2, 292]

John Hewes was charged in London in 1531 with speaking against pilgrimages and the veneration of saints and with impugning Becket's sanctity. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1188; 1576, p. 1016; 1583, p. 1044.

 
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Philip Brasier

of Boxtead, Essex [Fines]

Philip Brasier was charged in London in 1531 for speaking against transubstantiation, images and pilgrimages. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1187; 1576, p. 1016; 1583, p. 1044.

 
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Richard Foxford

(d. by 20/8/1533) [Fasti]

DCnCL; prebendary of Wenlocksbarn in the diocese of London (1530-33)

The trial of Richard Bayfield began before Richard Foxford, the bishop of London's official. 1563, p. 486; 1570, p. 1162; 1576, p. 994; 1583, p. 1022.

Foxford read out the articles and answers at James Bainham's abjuration. He presided over Bainham's examination as a relapse and his condemnation. 1563, pp. 498-500; 1570, pp. 1169-71; 1576, pp. 1000-02; 1583, pp. 1028-29.

Foxford interrogated Thomas Patmore. 1570, p. 1188; 1576, p. 1017; 1583, p. 1044.

Patmore's release from prison was ordered by the king. The king gave him a commission to the lord chancellor, the archbishop of Canterbury and Secretary Cromwell to investigate the dealings of Stokesley and Foxford towards Patmore. 1583, p. 1045.

Foxford died, suddenly and unpleasantly, while sitting in his chair. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

 
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Robert Lamb

Harpist [Fines]

Robert Lamb was charged in London in 1531 for singing a song commending Luther. 1570, p. 1187; 1576, p. 1016; 1583, p. 1044.

 
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Simon Smith

MA, Gonville Hall, Cambridge; curate of Thomas Patmore at Much Hadham [Fines]

Simon Smith was charged in London in 1531 with marrying while a priest. He and his pregnant wife were subjected to a lengthy examination, made to abjure and given penance to perform. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1188; 1576, p. 1017; 1583, p. 1044.

 
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Thomas Patmore

Rector of Much Hadham, Hertfordshire [Fines]

Member of the Drapers' Company; one of the early apprentice 'Scripture Men'; in the 1520s one of the Christian Brethren; performed public penance 1530, 1531; condemned to perpetual imprisonment; released through Anne Boleyn's intervention

[Probably the same as Thomas Patmore, priest of Much Hadham, Hertfordshire, who lived incognito for a while as a layman in his father's Company; [Brigden, London, pp. 121, 125, 197, 205-7, 222]]

Thomas Patmore had been preferred to the living of Much Hadham by Bishop Fitzjames and continued there peacably for sixteen years until John Stokesley became bishop of London. Stokesley was suspected of wanting the benefice for someone else. He imprisoned Patmore in his own palace and then had him sent to Lollards' Tower, where he was kept in harsh conditions. He was interrogated by Richard Foxford, who asked if he had been at Wittenberg, whether he had met Luther, and what books he had read. 1583, p. 1044.

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Patmore was charged with marrying his curate, Simon Smith, to his maid. 1570, p. 1188; 1576, p. 1016; 1583, pp. 1044-45.

Thomas Patmore was charged in London in 1531 with speaking against saints and saying that priests might marry. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1188; 1576, p. 1016; 1583, p. 1044.

Patmore appealed to the king, but was made to abjure and condemned to perpetual prison. 1570, p. 1188; 1576, p. 1016; 1583, p. 1045.

Patmore was imprisoned in Lollards' Tower. Richard Bayfield was originally imprisoned with him, but was moved to the Coalhouse to keep the two suspects apart. Patmore eventually abjured and was condemned to perpetual imprisonment, but was granted a pardon by the king. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

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Patmore's release from prison was obtained through means of Queen Anne Boleyn. The king gave him a commission to the lord chancellor, the archbishop of Canterbury and Secretary Cromwell to investigate the dealings of the bishop of London and his chancellor towards Patmore. 1583, p. 1045.

George Bull said in 1531 that Patmore had reported that a well had sprung up where Wyclif's bones had been burned. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1187; 1576, p. 1016; 1583, p. 1044.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Boxted

[Bocksted; Boxsted]

Essex

OS grid ref: TM 005 315

 
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Bury St Edmunds

[St Edmundsbury; Berry; Bery]

West Suffolk

OS grid ref: TL 855 645

Contains a ruined abbey, the shrine of St Edmund

 
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Cambridge (Grantbridge)

[Cambrige; Grantbrige; Grantebryge]

OS grid ref: TL 465 585

County town of Cambridgeshire and university town

 
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Colchester
Colchester, Colchestre
NGR: TM 000 250

A borough, having separate jurisdiction, locally in the Colchester division of the hundred of Lexden, county of Essex. 22 miles north-east by east from Chelmsford. The town comprises the parishes of All Saints, St. James, St. Martin, St. Mary at the Walls, St. Nicholas, St. Peter, St. Rumwald and Holy Trinity within the walls; and St. Botolph, St. Giles, St. Leonard and St. Mary Magdalene without the walls; all in the archdeaconry of Colchester and Diocese of London

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Croydon
Croydon
NGR: TQ 335 645

A market town and parish in the first division of the hundred of Wallington, county of Surrey. 9.5 miles south from London. The living is a discharged vicarage in the peculiar jurisdiction and patronage of the Archbishop of Canterbury

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Farnham [Farnsham]

Essex

OS grid ref: TL 475 245

 
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Much Hadham

[Haddam]

Hertfordshire

OS grid ref: TL 425 195

Site of a palace of the bishops of London

 
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Muswell (Hill) [Mousswell]

north London

OS grid ref: TQ 287 897

 
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Willesden

[Wilsdone; Wilsedon]

Middlesex, London

OS grid ref: TQ 225 845

 
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Wittenberg

[Wittenberge; Wyttenberge]

Saxony, Germany

Coordinates: 51° 52' 0" N, 12° 39' 0" E

Capital of the duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg; university town

1068 [1044]

K. Henry 8. A table of certaine persons abiured with their articles.
Persons abiured,with their Articles.
is not the body of Christ, but bread, and
Philip Bra-is done for a signification. That confes-
sier ofsion to a Priest needeth not. That ima-
Bockstedges be but stockes and stones. That
1531.pilgrimage is vayne. Also for sayeng
that when there is any miracle done,
the Priests do noint the images, and
make men beleeue that the Images do
sweate in labouring for them, and with
the offerings the priests find their har-
lots.
Hys Articles: For words spoken a-
Ioh. Fayre-gainst pilgrimage and images. Also for
stede ofsayeng these words: MarginaliaA prophesie.that the day should
Colchestercome, that men should say: cursed bee
1531. 
Commentary  *  Close

This is very probably the Henry Fasted who, in 1534, tried to disseminate evangelical books in Colchester and who reported his efforts, as well those who resisted them, to Thomas Cromwell (L&P VII, p. 170).

they that make these false gods, mea-
ning images.
Hys Articles: MarginaliaThree cōfessiōs.That there be three
confessions: One principall to God, a-
nother to his neighbour, whom he had
offended: and the third to a Priest: and
that without the two first confessions
to God and to his neighbour, a man
could not be saued. The third confession
Georgeto a Priest, is necessary for counsaile to
Bull ofsuch as be ignorant and vnlearned, to
Much had-learne howe to make their confession
ham, Dra-with a contrite hart vnto God, and
per.how to hope for forgeuensse: and also in
1531.what maner they should aske forgeue-
nes of their neighbor, whom they haue
offended, &c. Item, for sayeng that Lu-
ther was a good man. MarginaliaA welspring where Wickliffs bones wre burned.Item, that he re-
ported, through the credence and report
of M. Patmore, Parson of Hadham,
þt where Wickliffes bones were brent,
sprang vp a well or welspring.
His Articles: For speaking and hol-
ding against pilgrimage and images,
Ioh. Hay-and against prescribed fasting dayes.
mond Mil-That Priests and religious men not-
wright. 
Commentary  *  Close

This may be the John Hammon of Enfield, Middlesex, who in 1538 wrote to Thomas Cromwell, complaining that his parish priest was persecuting him for reading the Bible aloud to others (L&P XIV, 2, pp. 349-50).

withstanding their vowes made, may
1531.lawfully forsake their vowes and ma-
ry. Item, for hauing bookes of Luther,
and Tyndall.
Rob. LambHys Article: for that he standing ac-
a Harper.cursed two yeares together, and not
1531.fearing þe censures of the Popes church,
went about with a song in the cōmen-
dation of Martine Luther.
Hys Articles: For speaking against
Purgatory, and Thomas Becket.
MarginaliaAgainst kneling to the crosse.Item, at the towne of Farnsham, he
seeing Edward Frensham kneeling in
the street to a crosse caried before a corse,
asked, to whome he kneeled? He sayd,
to his maker. Thou art a foole (said he)
it is not thy maker, it is but a peece of
copper or wood, &c.
Ioh. HewesItem, for these words: Maisters, ye
Draper.vse to go on pilgrimage: it were better
1531.first that yee looke vpon youre poore
neighbours which lacke succour, &c.
MarginaliaMuch Baudery in Pilgrymage.Also, for sayeng that he heard the Vi-
car of Croidon thus preache openly:
That there is as much bawdry kept by
going in Pilgrimage to Wilsedone or
Mousswell, as in the stewes side, &c.
This Patmore was brother to may-
ster Patmore Parson of Hadham 
Commentary  *  Close

Susan Brigden has persuasively argued that the twoThomasPatmores were, in fact, the same person and that Patmore while still vicar ofMuch Hadham, became free of the Drapers's Company (Susan Brigden, Londonand the Reformation [Oxford, 1989], p. 206). She suggests that the purpose ofthis was to remain incognito and that the Drapers were chosen because of a significant evangelical presence in their membership. But Patmore's purpose may simply have been to acquire London citizenship. And the Drapers's Company may have been chosen beecause his father had been a member of the company.

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, who
was prisoned in Lollards tower for
marying a Priest, and in the same pri-
son continued three yeare.
This Patmore was accused by di-
uers witnesses, vpon these Articles:
That he had as leue pray to yonder
hunter pointing to a mā painted there
in a stayned cloth, for a peece of flesh, as
Tho. Pat-to pray to stockes that stand in walles
more Dra-meaning Images.
per.Item, that men should not praye to
1531.Saints, but to God only: for why shuld
we pray to Saints (said he) they are but
blockes and stockes? MarginaliaThe truth of Scripture a long time kepte from vs.Item, that the
truth of the Scripture hath bene kept from
vs a long time, and hath not appeared
till nowe. Item, comming by a tree
Persons abiured,with their Articles.
wherein stoode an image, he tooke away
the waxe 
Commentary  *  Close

I.e., the candles.

which hanged there offered.
Item, that he regarded not the place
whether it was halowed or no, where
he should be buryed after he was dead.
Also, in talke with the Curate of S.
Peters, he defended that Priests might
mary.
This Patmore had long hold wyth
the Byshop of London. First he would
not sweare infamia nō præcedente 
Commentary  *  Close

I.e., he would not stipulate to the charges against him nor answer them unless his accusers were produced.

.
Then
he would appeale to the King, but all
would not serue. He was so wrapt in
the Byshops nets, that he could not get
out, but at last he was forced to abiure,
and fined to the King an C. pound.
MarginaliaA note.* Note in the communication betwene this Pat-
more, and the priest of S. Peters, that where as the
priest obiected against him (as is in þe register) that
priests haue liued vnmaried, & without wiues these
1500. yeres in the Church: MarginaliaThe Papists say falsely that priestes haue bene vnmaried these 1500. yeares. he & all other such priestes
therin say falsly and deceiue the people, as by story is
proued in this volume, that priests here in England
had wiues by the law within these 500. yeres & lesse.
This Simon Smith, and Benore
his wife, were the parties, whome M.
Patmore Parson of Hadham aboue
mentioned did mary, & was condem-
ned for the same to perpetuall prison.
For the which mariage, both the sayde
Simon and Benore his wife were cal-
Simonled to examination before the Byshop,
Smith mai-and hee caused to make the whole dis-
ster of Artecourse of all his doings, how, & where
of Gun-he maried. Then, after his mariage,
well hall inhow long he taried, whether he wente
Cābridge 
Commentary  *  Close

Foxe only mentions a crucial fact later in his narrative: Smith was Patmore's curate and Benmore his maidservant. Patmore's activesupport, if not outright instigation, of this marriage was necessary.

,
beyond Sea, where he was, and wyth
and Beno-whome. After his returne, whether he
re his wife.resorted, how he liued, what mercery
1531.ware he occupied, what fayres he fre-
quented, where he left his wyfe, how he
caried her ouer, and brought her home
agayne, and how she was founde, &c.
All this they made him confesse, & put
it in their register. And though they
coulde fasten no other crime of heresie
vpon him, but onely his mariage: MarginaliaPriestes mariage. yet
calling both him and her being greate
with child to examination, they caused
them both to abiure & suffer penaunce.
This Thomas Patmore, being lear-
ned and godly, was preferred 
Commentary  *  Close

Although he does not say so, it is fairly clear that Foxe took thisinformation, added in 1583, from a petition sent to Anne Boleyn (Anne Boleyn was marchioness of Pembroke from 1 September 1532 until her recognition as queen in March 1533. This coincides with a petition sent to Thomas Cromwell before Michaelmas 1532 (L&P VII, p. 348). The accurate citation of Anne's title of marchioness helps to confirm that Foxe was drawing his information from a petition).The summary of Patmore's career, thedetailed recitation of specific grievancesas well as the defense of his conduct and character would be the appropriate components of such a document. Moreover, a petition was sent at about thesame time to Thomas Cromwell on Patmore's behalf (L&P VII, p. 348).

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to the
Parsonage of Hadham in Hertford-
Tho. Pat-shire, by Richard Fitz Iames, Byshop
more Pat-of London, and there continued instru-
son ofcting and teaching his flocke during
Hadham.the time of the sayde Fitz Iames, and
1531.also of Tunstall his successor, by the
space of sixteene yeares or more, beha-
uing himselfe in life and conuersation
without any publike blame or reproch 
Commentary  *  Close

Well hardly. Accepting that there was only one Thomas Patmore - and not two brothers with the same first name (Susan Bridgen suggests there was only one Patmore: see Susan Brigden, London and the Reformation [Oxford, 1989], p. 206), then Patmore had already done public penance in the autumn of 1530 for distributing copies of Tyndale's New Testament (in November 1530, John Tyndale, along with Thomas Somers and Thomas Patmore, was publically shamed and placed in the pillory in London for smuggling William Tyndale's translation of theBible and other heretical works into the capital (Cal. S. P. Ven III, p. 271; Cal. S. P. Spanish IV,1, pp. 820-1). And even if there were two Thomas Patmores, the vicar of Much Hadham had still married his curate and had been outspokenly critical of many aspects of traditional Catholicism.

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,
vntil that Iohn Stokesley was prefer-
red vnto the sayd Byshopricke. Who, not very long
after his enstalling 
Commentary  *  Close

John Stokesley was installed bishop of London in the summer of 1530. He probably was determined to drive Patmore from his benefice, notfrom greed or malice, as Foxe suggests, but from a desire to rid his diocese of anincumbant with decidely evangelical sympathies.

, either for malice, not greatly ly-
king of the said Patmore, or else desirous to preferre
some other vnto the benefice (as it is supposed and
alleaged by his brethren in sundry supplications ex-
hibited vnto the King, as also vnto Queene Anne,
then Marchionesse of Pembroke) 
Commentary  *  Close

Foxe was probably basing this account on a petition sent to Anne Boleyn. Anne Boleyn was marchioness of Pembroke from 1September 1532 until her recognition as queen in March 1533. This coincides witha petition sent to Thomas Cromwell before Michaelmas 1532 (L&P VII, p. 348).The accurate citation of Anne's title of marchioness helps to confirm that Foxe wasdrawing his information from a petition.

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caused him to be
attached and brought before him, and then keepyng
him prisoner in his owne Pallace a certayne tyme,
afterwardes committed hym to Lollards tower,
where hee kepte him most extreamely aboue two
yeares, without fire or candle, or any other reliefe,
but such as his frends sent him, not suffering any of
them notwithstanding, to come vnto him, no not in
his sicknes. Howbeit, sundry times in the meane
while he called him iudicially, eyther before himselfe,
or else his vicare generall Foxford, that great perse-
cutor, charging him with these sundry Articles, viz.
as first, whether he had bene at Wittenberge, 2. and
had seene or talked with Luther, 3. or with any eng-
lish man abiding there, 4. who went with hym, or
attended vpon him thether, 5. also what bookes he
bought there either Lattin or English, 6. and whe-
ther he had read or studied any workes of Luther,
Oecolampadius, Pomeran, or Melancton. Besides
these,
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