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Anne Boleyn

(c. 1500 - 1536) [ODNB]

Queen of England (1533 - 36); 2nd wife of Henry VIII; beheaded

While considering the question of the king's divorce, Cardinal Wolsey became aware that King Henry favoured Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1195; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1051.

Anne Boleyn was sent a copy of Simon Fish's Supplication for the Beggars. At the urging of her brother, she showed the book to the king. 1570, p. 448; 1570, p. 1153; 1576, p. 956; 1583, p. 1014.

Parliament approved Thomas Cranmer's separation of Henry and Catherine and his marriage to Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1197; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1053.

Henry married Anne Boleyn. She, her father and her brother maintained many learned men at Cambridge. 1570, p. 1198; 1576, pp. 1025-26; 1583, p. 1054.

Anne was crowned and soon after gave birth to a daughter. 1570, p. 1198; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1054.

Anne had Hugh Latimer placed in the bishopric of Worcester and Nicholas Shaxton in the bishopric of Salisbury. 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1055; 1583, p. 1082.

In 1536 parliament declared the marriage of the king and Queen Anne illegitimate and accused the queen of carnal relations with her brother and other men. 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1055; 1583, p. 1082.

Anne was imprisoned in the Tower with her brother and others. She was beheaded, delivering a short address before. 1563, p. 526; 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1055; 1583, p. 1082.

Catherine of Aragon died in the same year in which Anne Boleyn and William Tyndale were executed. 1570, p. 1232; 1576, p. 1055; 1583, p. 1082.

Anne Boleyn is given as an example of one wrongly accused and judged. 1570, p. 1360; 1576, p. 1161; 1583, p. 1189.

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Edward Lee

(1481/2 - 1544) [ODNB]

BA Oxford 1501; MA Cambridge 1502/3; BTh Cambridge 1515; studied at Louvain and Bologna; DTh; entered into a vendetta with Erasmus; royal chaplain 1520; king's almoner 1523; archdeacon of Colchester (1523 - 31); ambassador to the imperial court (1525 - 29)

Archbishop of York (1531 - 44)

Edward Lee, along with other archdeacons in the London diocese, was sent a commission to seek out and deliver any copies of the New Testament in English and anything from a list of proscribed books in 1526. 1563, p. 450; 1570, p. 1157; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1018.

Thomas Boleyn, John Stokesley and Edward Lee were sent as delegates to the pope to present the king's case for a divorce from Queen Catherine. 1570, p. 1195; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1051.

Lee swore an oath of allegiance to Henry VIII as head of the church. 1570, p. 1203; 1576, p. 1030; 1583, p. 1057.

Edward Lee summoned Queen Catherine to appear before the archbishop of Canterbury and other bishops, but she refused to attend. The archbishop pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

Lee was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Lee attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Lee favoured retaining the seven sacraments. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

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John Fisher

(c. 1469 - 1535) [ODNB]

Vice-chancellor of Cambridge University (1501 - 1504); chancellor of Cambridge University (1504); bishop of Rochester (1504 - 34); cardinal; martyr

John Fisher preached a sermon at the penance of Robert Barnes. 1563, p. 602; 1570, p. 1365; 1576, p. 1165; 1583, p. 1193.

Fisher preached a sermon against Luther in 1526. 1563, p. 436; 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, pp. 993-94.

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

John Fisher was one of the chief advocates for Queen Catherine before the papal legates considering the matter of the divorce. 1563, p. 458; 1570, p. 1194; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1051.

Fisher protested in parliament in 1530 about the proposed bill relating to the probate of testaments, saying it would mean the ruin of the church. 1570, p. 1131; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 995.

Thomas Hitten was imprisoned by Archbishop Warham and Bishop Fisher, tortured and then burnt at Maidstone. 1570, p. 1134; 1576, p. 971; 1583, pp. 997-98.

The bishop of Rochester said that angels were ministers to the souls in purgatory. 1570, p. 1156; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

Fisher wrote against Johann Oecolampadius and Luther. He was a persecutor of John Frith. He and Sir Thomas More had Frith burnt. 1570, p. 1216; 1576, p. 1042; 1583, p. 1068.

Fisher was associated with Elizabeth Barton (Joan of Kent). He was convicted of misprision of treason, had his goods confiscated and was imprisoned. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1055.

John Fisher, Sir Thomas More and Nicholas Wilson refused to swear an oath on the king's supremacy and were imprisoned in the Tower. Fisher and More were executed. 1570, pp. 1200, 1216; 1576, pp. 1028, 1042; 1583, pp. 1056, 1068.

The pope promoted John Fisher to cardinal, but Fisher was executed before he could be elevated. 1570, p. 1216; 1576, p. 1042; 1583, p. 1069.

Fisher is one of the Catholic martyrs written of by Nicholas Harpsfield. 1570, p. 1375; 1576, p. 1173; 1583, p. 1201.

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John Stokesley

(1475 - 1539) [ODNB]

MA Oxford 1500; DTh 1516; archdeacon of Surrey 1522; archdeacon of Dorset 1523; dean of St George's, Windsor 1524; royal confessor 1517; royal chaplain 1519; almoner 1520; bishop of London (1530 - 39)

Thomas Boleyn, John Stokesley and Edward Lee were sent as delegates to the pope to present the king's case for a divorce from Queen Catherine. 1570, p. 1195; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1051.

Thomas Cranmer, John Stokesley, Edward Carne, William Benet and the earl of Wiltshire were sent as ambassadors to the pope to dispute the matter of the king's marriage. 1570, p. 1280; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, p. 1121.

John Stokesley became bishop of London after Thomas Wolsey was deprived. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 994.

After King Henry had extended Wolsey's praemunire to the whole clergy, the bishops agreed to call all the priests in their dioceses to contribute. Stokesley called his clergy together, but there was such protest and disorder that he sent them away with his pardon. He then complained of his clergy to Sir Thomas More. 1570, p. 1195; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1051.

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Simon Fish was wary of returning home because he was afraid of Sir Thomas More and John Stokesley. 1570, p. 448; 1570, p. 1153; 1576, p. 987; 1583, p. 1014.

Articles were put by Stokesley, bishop of London, to Humphrey Monmouth, accusing him of helping William Tyndale and of advancing the opinions of Martin Luther. He was examined and sent to the Tower. According to Monmouth, Tyndale had wished to become chaplain to the bishop of London, but was turned down. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

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Thomas Phillips was handed over by Sir Thomas More to Bishop Stokesley in 1530. As well as holding heretical opinions, he was charged with having a copy of William Tracy's will and butter and cheese during Lent. He was examined by More and Stokesley and agreed to abjure, but not to read openly the abjuration in the form presented. He appealed to the king and was excommunicated by the bishop. 1570, p. 1185; 1576, p. 1014; 1583, p. 1042.

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Richard Bayfield was tried before John Stokesley, assisted by Stephen Gardiner and others. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

Stokesley sent a letter to the mayor and sheriffs of London, directing them to be present at the sentencing of Richard Bayfield. 1563, pp. 488-89; 1570, p. 1164; 1576, p. 996; 1583, p. 1024.

Mr Selyard, writing to John Stokesley, asked him to send word by his friend William Saxey of anything that could be discovered against Robert Bate. 1563, p. 495; 1570, p. 1168; 1576, p. 999; 1583, p. 1127.

Stokesley had all of Tyndale's New Testaments and other books brought into St Paul's churchyard and burnt. 1563, p. 495; 1570, p. 1168; 1576, p. 999; 1583, p. 1127.

Stokesley pronounced sentence on John Tewkesbury as a relapsed heretic and turned him over to the sheriffs. 1563, p. 493; 1570, p. 1167; 1576, p. 998; 1583, p. 1026.

James Bainham was examined before John Stokesley in the house of Sir Thomas More. 1563, p. 496; 1570, p. 1168; 1576, p. 999; 1583, p. 1027.

Andrew Hewett was examined by Stokesley, Gardiner and Longland. 1563, p. 506; 1570, p. 1180; 1576, p. 1009; 1583, p. 1036.

Many people in the London diocese were made to abjure under Bishop Stokesley. 1570, p. 1184; 1576, p. 1013; 1583, p. 1040.

Thomas Patmore had been preferred to the living of Much Hadham by Bishop Fitzjames and continued there peacably for sixteen years until John Stokesley became bishop of London. Stokesley was suspected of wanting the benefice for someone else. He imprisoned Patmore in his own palace and then had him sent to Lollards' Tower, where he was kept in harsh conditions. 1583, p. 1044.

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Patmore's release from prison was ordered by the king. The king gave him a commission to the lord chancellor, the archbishop of Canterbury and Secretary Cromwell to investigate the dealings of Stokesley and Foxford towards Patmore. 1583, p. 1045.

John Frith was examined in London by the bishops of London, Winchester and Lincoln. Stokesley pronounced sentence upon him and turned him over to the mayor and sheriffs of London to be burnt. 1563, pp. 501-04; 1570, pp. 1176-78; 1576, pp. 1006-08; 1583, pp. 1034-35.

The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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Stokesley swore an oath of allegiance to Henry VIII as head of the church. 1570, p. 1203; 1576, p. 1030; 1583, p. 1057.

Stokesley met Princess Elizabeth's christening procession at the church door. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1054.

Stokesley preached a sermon in 1534 commending the efficacy of masses. This was attended by Thomas Merial, who was accused of heretical opinions and brought before Stokesley. 1570, pp. 1439-40; 1576, p. 1228; 1583, p. 1257.

Stokesley was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Bishops Stokesley and Tunstall wrote a letter to Cardinal Pole in Rome, urging him to give up his support of the supremacy of the pope. 1563, pp. 613-20; 1570, pp. 1212-16; 1576, pp. 1037-42; 1583, pp. 1065-68.

Stokesley attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Stokesley favoured retaining the seven sacraments. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

Holland, Stokesley's summoner, was sent for by Sir Christopher Barker to take Thomas Frebarne to the bishop. Frebarne had obtained pork in Lent for his pregnant wife. The bishop had Holland take him and the pig to the civil authorities. 1570, p. 1354; 1576, p. 1156; 1583, p. 1184.

Edmund Bonner, when nominated to the bishopric of London, told Richard Grafton that John Stokesley had been wrong to persecute those like Lobley for having bibles in English. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1191.

Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Boleyn

(1476/7 - 1539) [ODNB]

Earl of Wiltshire and earl of Ormond (1529 - 39); father of Anne

Thomas Boleyn, John Stokesley and Edward Lee were sent as delegates to the pope to present the king's case for a divorce from Queen Catherine. 1570, p. 1195; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1051.

Thomas Cranmer, John Stokesley, Edward Carne, William Benet and the earl of Wiltshire were sent as ambassadors to the pope to dispute the matter of the king's marriage. 1570, p. 1280; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, p. 1121.

Anne Boleyn, her father and her brother maintained many learned men at Cambridge. 1563, p. 509; 1570, p. 1198; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1054.

The earl of Wiltshire helped to support Princess Elizabeth's train at her christening. 1563, p. 510; 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1054.

Thomas Boleyn is mentioned in a letter by Stephen Gardiner. 1563, p. 736; 1583, p. 1345.

Gardiner recalled Thomas Boleyn being called in as a witness by the Lord Protector when delivering articles against Stephen Gardiner. 1563, p. 757; 1570, p. 1527; 1576, p. 1302; 1583, p. 1352.

Person and Place Index  *  Close
Bologna (Bononium)

[Bononie; Bonomie; Bonony; Bononia]

Emilia-Romagna, Italy

Coordinates: 44° 30' 27" N, 11° 21' 5" E

Cathedral city

1075 [1051]

K. Henry 8. Matter of the kinges mariage. The Kinges Amhassadours to the Pope.

When the king had said, the Queene departed without any thing, saying. Then she was called, to know whether she would abide by her appeale, or answer there before the Legates. MarginaliaThe Quene abideth by her appeale.Her Proctor aunswered that she would abide by her appeale. That notwythstanding, the Counsaillers on both sides euery day almost, met and debated this matter substātially, so þt at the last the diuines were all of opinion, that the mariage was against the lawe of God, if she were carnally known by the first brother, which thing she clearly denied. But to that was answeared, that prince Arthur her husband confessed the act done, by certaine words spoken, which beinge recorded in other Chronicles, I had rather should there be red, then by me here vttered. Furthermore, at the time of the death of prince Arthur, she thought and iudged that she was with childe, and for that cause, the king was deferred from the title & creation of the Prince of Wales, almoste halfe a yeare, whych thing coulde not haue bene iudged, if she had not bene carnally knowen.

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Also she her self caused a bul to be purchased, in þe which were these words, Vel forsan cognitam, which is as much to say, as peraduenture carnally known, which words were not in the first Bull graunted by Iuly at her second mariage, to the kinge, which seconde Bull with that clause was onely purchased, to dispence wyth the second matrimonie, although there were carnal copulation before, which Bul needed not to haue bene purchased, if there had ben no carnall copulation, for then the first Bull had bene sufficient.

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MarginaliaQuene Katherine carnally knowē by the kings brother.Moreouer, for the more cleare euidence of thys matter 

Commentary  *  Close

A number of depositions were taken from 'witnesses', reporting on the marriage of Arthur and Catherine [for which, see L&P, iv/iii, pp.2578-82].

that Prince Arthur had carnal knowledge of the sayd Lady Katherine his wife, it appeareth in a certaine booke of Recordes which we haue to shew touching this mariage, that the same time when Prince Arthur was firste maryed with this Ladye Katherine daughter to Ferdinando, certaine Ambassadours of Ferdinando his Counsaile were then sent hether into England for the sayde purpose to see and to testifie, concerning the ful consummation of the said matrimoniall coniunction. Which Counsaillers here resident, being solemnely sworne, not onely did affirm to both their parentes, that the Matrimonie was consummate by that acte: but also did send ouer into Spaine to her father, such demonstrations of their mutuall coniunction, as here I will not name, sparing the reuerēce of chast eares: which demonstrations otherwise in those Records being named and testified, do sufficiently put the matter out of all doute and question.

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Besides that, in the same recordes appeareth that both he and she not onely were of such yeares as were mete and able to explete the cōsummation hereof, but also they were and did lie together both here and in Wales by the space of 3. quarters of a yeare.

Out of a written booke of Recordes, containing certaine conferences betwixte the Cardinall and Queenes Katherines Amner about this matter, remaining in our custodie to be seene.

Thus when the Diuines on her side, were beaten from that ground, then they fell to perswasions of Natural reasons, how this should not be vndone for three causes. MarginaliaThree reasons for Queene Katherine.One was because, if it shoulde be broken, the onely childe of the king should be a Bastard, which were a great mischiefe to the realme. Secōdly, the separation shuld be cause of great vnkindnes betwene her kindred and this Realme. And the third cause was, that the continuance of so long space, had made the Mariage honest. These perswasions with many other, were set forth by the Queenes Counsaile, and in especial by the Bishop of Rochester, MarginaliaFisher Bish. of Rochester a great doer for Queene Catherine. which stoode stiffe in her cause. But yet Gods precept was not aunswered, wherefore they left that ground and fel to pleading that the court of Rome had dispenced with that Mariage. To this some Lawyers sayde, that no earthly person is able to dispence with the positiue law of God.

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MarginaliaThe searching of the kinges mariage, brought moe thinges to lighte.When the Legates hard the opinions of the Diuines, and saw wherunto the end of this question would tend, for asmuch as men began so to dispute of the authoritie of the Court of Rome, & especially because the Cardinal of York perceiued the king to cast fauour to the Lady Anne, whom he knew to be a Lutheran, they thought best to wind them selues out of that brake by time, MarginaliaCardinall Campeius slippeth frō the king.& so Cardinall Campeius dissembling the matter conueyed himselfe home to Rome againe, as is partly aboue touched, pag. 187. The Kinge seeing himself thus to be differred and deluded by the Cardinals, tooke it to no litle griefe: whereupon, the fall of the Cardinall of Yorke folowed not long after.

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This was in the yeare of our Lord 1530. Shortly after it happened the same yeare, that the king by hys Ambassadours was aduertised that the Emperoure and the Pope were both together at Bononie: Wherfore he directed Sir Tho. Bullein late created Earle of Wiltshire, and Doctor Stokesley (afterward Bishop of London) and Doctor Lee (afterward bishop of York) with his message to the popesCourt, where also the Emperor was. MarginaliaThe king sendeth to the Emperour and the Pope. Pope Clement vnderstanding the kinges case and request, and fearing what might follow after, if learning and Scripture here should take place against the authority of their dispensations, and moreouer doubting the Emperours displeasure, bare him selfe strange of from the matter, answearing the Ambassadors with this delay: MarginaliaThe Popes aunswere to the king.that he presently would not define in the case, but would heare the full matter disputed when he came to Rome, and according to right he would do iustice.

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MarginaliaThe king gaue more to the Pope then he needed.Although the king ought no suche seruice to the Pope, to stād to his arbitremēt either in this case, or in any other hauing both the Scripture to lead him, and his law in his owne hands to warrant him: yet for quietnes sake: and for that he wold not rashly breake order (which rather was a disorder in deede) he bare so long as conueniētly he might. At length, after long delaies and much dissembling, when he saw no hope of redresse, he began somwhat to quicken & to looke about him, what was best both for his owne conscience, and the stablishment of his realme, to do.

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MarginaliaGods prouidēce, working meruelously in this matter.No man here doubteth, but that al this was wrought not by mans deuise, but by the secrete purpose of the Lord himselfe, to bryng to passe further thinges (as afterwarde followed) whiche his diuine prouidence was disposed to work. For els as touching the þe kings intent & purpose, he neuer meant nor mynded any such thing as to seek the ruine of the pope, but rather sought all meanes cōtrary, how both to stablish the Sea of Rome, & also to obteyne þe good will of the same Sea and Court of Rome, if it might haue bene gotten. And therefore intending to sue his diuorse frō Rome, at the first beginning: his deuise was by Stephen Gardiner his Ambassadour at Rome, to exalt the Cardinall of York, as is before shewed pag. 990. MarginaliaVid. supr. pag. 990. to be made pope and vniuersall Bishop, to the end that he ruling that Apostolicke sea, the matter of his vnlawfull maryage, whiche so troubled his conscience, might come to a quiet conclusion, without anye further rumor of the world. Which purpose of his if it had taken effect as he had deuised it, and the englsh Cardinall had once bene made Pope, no doubt, but the authoritie of that sea had neuer bene exterminate out of England. But God being more mercifull vnto vs, tooke a better way then so. MarginaliaMan purposeth, but God disposeth.For both without and contrarye to the kinges expectation, he so brought to passe, that neyther the Cardinall of Yorke was Pope (which shuld haue bene an infinite cost to the king) and yet neuertheles the king sped of his purpose too, and that much better then he looked for: For he was ridde, by lawfull diuorcement 

Commentary  *  Close

The final decision in England was made by Archbishop Cranmer at his tribunal at The Priory of St Peter at Dunstable on 23 May 1533 (for which, see Andrew A Chibi, Henry VIII's Conservative Scholar [Bern, 1997], pp.82-4).

, not onely from that vnlawfull mariage which clogged his consciēce but also from the miserable yoke of the popes vsurped dominion, whiche clogged the whole realme, and all at one time.

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Thus Gods holy prouidence ruling the matter (as I sayd) when the king could get no faourable graunt of the Pope touching his cause being so good and honest, he was enforced to take the redresse of his right into his own handes, and seeing this * Marginalia* Gordium was a Citty in Asia, where there was a knotte so fast tyed, and folded so many wayes, that (as the saying was) whosoeuer could loose it, should haue all Asia. So Alexander coming to it when he could not loose it with his hāds, he cutte it a sūder with his sworde. Gordian knotte would not be loosed at rome, he was driuē against his wil (as God would) to play the noble Alexander himselfe, and with the sword of his princely authority knapt the knot at one stroke clean a sunder, loosing as it were with one solutiō, infinite questions. For where the Doctours and Canonistes had lōg disputed, and yet could neuer throughly discusse the largenes and fulnes of the popes two swordes both temporall and spirituall: the king with one sword did so cut of bothe cleane out of England, as ye shall see more anone. But first, the king like a prudent prince, before he would come to the head of the sore, thought best to pare away such rank fleshe and putrified places as were about it, and therefore following his owne prouerbe, MarginaliaThe kinges prouerbe. Looke as one goyng about to cast downe an olde rotten wall, will not beginne with the foundation first, but with the stones that lye in the toppe: so he to prepare his way better vnto the Pope, first beganne 

Commentary  *  Close

Wolsey died at Leicester Abbey on 28/9 November 1530. Cavendish kept a record of the cardinal's last days and this is generally accepted as accurate (for which, see Two Early Tudor Lives, ed. by Richard S Sylvester and Davis P Harding [Yale, 1962], pp.178-86; Peter Gwyn, The King's Cardinal [London, 1990], pp.638-9). The question of possible suicide was raised vaguely by Edward Hall (one of the reasons for Cavendish's extensive treatment) and this has been generally dismissed as exaggeration. Sybil M Jack makes no mention of the idea in her ODNB biography of the cardinal. For further details, see L R Gardiner, 'Further news of Cardinal Wolsey's end, November-December 1530', in Historical Research 57 (May 1984), pp.99-107; Edward Hall, The Union of the Two Noble and Illustre Families of Lancastre & York, 2 vols., ed. by H Ellis (London, 1809), 2, p.774.

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with the Cardinall, castinge him by the lawe of Premunire, out of his goods & possessions, and so at lēgth by poysoning himselfe, he procured his owne death: which was in the yeare 1530. Thys done, shortly after about the the yeare 1532. the King to prouide by time agaynste mischiefes that might come from Rome, gaue foorth eftsoones this proclamation as followeth.

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MarginaliaA restraynte of the king that nothing should be purchased from Rome.THe kings highnes straightly chargeth and commandeth, that no maner of person, what estate, degree, or condition so euer hee or they be of, doe purchase or attempt to purchase from the Court of Rome or els where, nor vse and put in executiō, diuulge or publish any thing heretofore within this yeare passed, purchased, or to be purchased heereafter containing matter preiudiciall to the highe authoritie, iurisdiction and prerogatiue Royall of thys hys sayde realme, or to the lette, hinderaunce or impeache,ment of his graces noble and vertuous intended purposes in the

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