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Cuthbert Marshall

(d. before 31/1/1550 [Fasti]

DTh; prebendary of Husthwaite (1526 - 50); archdeacon of Nottingham (1528 - 1550)

Cuthbert Marshall was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

 
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Cuthbert Tunstall

(1475 - 1559) [ODNB]

DCnL, DCL from Padua by 1505; diplomat; keeper of the privy seal (1523 - 30)

Bishop of London (1522 - 30); bishop of Durham (1530 - 52, 1553 - 59)

William Carder, Agnes Grebill and Robert Harrison were tried for heresy in 1511 before William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, Gabriel Sylvester, Thomas Wells and Clement Browne. All three were condemned to burn. 1570, pp. 1454-55; 1576, p. 1240; 1583, pp. 1276-77.

After William Tyndale went to London, he tried to enter the service of Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of London, but was unsuccessful. 1570, pp. 1225-26; 1576, p. 1049; 1583, pp. 1075-76.

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. Wolsey committed the hearing to Tunstall. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

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Thomas Bilney wrote five letters to Tunstall. 1563, pp. 465-73; 1570, pp. 1140-47; 1576, pp. 977-81; 1583, pp. 1003-08.

Bilney initially refused to recant and asked to introduce witnesses; this request was refused by the bishop of London because it was too late in the proceedings. Bilney was given two nights to consult with his friends. 1563, p. 479; 1570, p. 1140; 1576, p. 977; 1583, p. 1003.

In 1526 Tunstall issued prohibitions to his archdeacons, calling in New Testaments translated into English and other English books. 1563, pp. 449-50; 1570, pp. 1157-58; 1576, pp. 990-91; 1583, pp. 1017-18.

Augustine Packington favoured William Tyndale, but pretended otherwise to Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of London, then in Antwerp. He offered to procure all the unsold copies of Tyndale's New Testament held by the merchants in the city if Tunstall would provide the money to buy them. Packington then paid Tyndale for the books, and Tyndale immediately had them reprinted. 1563, p. 443; 1570, pp. 1158-59; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1019.

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Thomas Wolsey, having obtained large sums from the king's treasury, went to the French court to contribute to the ransom of Clement VII, hiring soldiers and furnishing the French army. He took with him Cuthbert Tunstall, William Sandys, the earl of Derby, Sir Henry Guildford and Sir Thomas More. 1563, p. 439; 1570, p. 1123; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 988.

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John Tewkesbury was examined before Cuthbert Tunstall, Henry Standish and John Islip. 1563, p. 490; 1570, p. 1165; 1576, p. 996; 1583, p. 1024.

After Richard Bayfield returned to England, he was arrested, tried by Cuthbert Tunstall and abjured. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

Tunstall was translated to the see of Durham after Thomas Wolsey was deprived of office. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 994.

Tunstall swore an oath of allegiance to Henry VIII as head of the church. 1570, p. 1203; 1576, p. 1030; 1583, p. 1057.

Tunstall preached a sermon on Palm Sunday in front of King Henry in which he attacked the pope's claimed authority. 1570, pp. 1206-10; 1576, pp. 1033-36; 1583, pp. 1060-63.

Tunstall was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Bishops Stokesley and Tunstall wrote a letter to Cardinal Pole in Rome, urging him to give up his support of the supremacy of the pope. 1563, pp. 613-20; 1570, pp. 1212-16; 1576, pp. 1037-42; 1583, pp. 1065-68.

Tunstall disputed with John Lambert at his trial before the king. 1563, p. 536; 1570, p. 1283; 1576, p. 1097; 1583, pp. 1123.

Tunstall was imprisoned in the Tower with Stephen Gardiner under Edward VI and Edward Seymour. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1296.

Tunstall was a deponent in the case of Gardiner. 1563, pp. 828-29, 855.

 
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Edmund Bonner

(d. 1569) [ODNB]

Archdeacon of Leicester 1535; bishop of Hereford 1538; bishop of London (1540 - 49, 1553 - 59)

Henry VIII sent injunctions to Bonner regarding the abolishing of images in churches. 1563, pp. 685-86.

Edmund Bonner wrote a preface to Stephen Gardiner's De vera obedientia, in which he expressed agreement with Gardiner's favouring of King Henry's marriage to Anne Boleyn and his position as head of the church. 1570, p. 1206; 1576, p. 1032; 1583, pp. 1059-60.

Stephen Gardiner was a resident ambassador to France in 1538, when Edmund Bonner, through the efforts of Thomas Cromwell, was brought in to replace him. There were great disagreements between the two, since Bonner at the time was in favour of reform. Bonner owed his main preferments to Cromwell. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1088.

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Bonner, when archdeacon of Leicester and ambassador in France, accused Gardiner of papistry. 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, p. 1082.

Bonner sent a declaration to Thomas Cromwell of Stephen Gardiner's evil behaviour. 1570, pp. 1241-44; 1576, pp. 1063-66; 1583, pp. 1090-92.

King Henry wrote to Bonner in France, asking him to assist those printing English bibles in Paris. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1191.

Cromwell was instrumental in getting Edmund Bonner's nomination to the bishopric of London. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1191.

Although Bonner performed his duties well as far as Henry VIII was concerned, he displeased the king of France, who asked for him to be recalled. Henry recalled him, giving him the bishopric of London, and sent Sir John Wallop to replace him. 1570, p. 1245; 1576, p. 1066; 1583, p. 1093.

Henry VIII wrote to Bonner commanding that excess holy days be abolished. 1563, p. 682; 1570, p. 1441; 1576, p. 1229; 1583, p. 1259.

After Anne Askew had been examined by the quest and the mayor of London, she was imprisoned in the Counter and then examined by Bonner. 1563, p. 670; 1570, p. 1414; 1576, p. 1205; 1583, p. 1235.

Bonner witnessed Anne Askew's confession. 1563, p. 673; 1570, p. 1416; 1576, p. 1207; 1583, p. 1237.

Richard Rich and Edmund Bonner attempted to persuade Anne Askew to change her views after her condemnation. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1418; 1576, p. 1209; 1583, p. 1238.

Edward Seymour stood against the bishops of Chichester, Norwich, Lincoln, London and others at the consultation at Windsor in the first year of Edward VI's reign. 1570, p. 1551; 1576, p. 1322; 1583, p. 1372.

Bonner was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Bonner brought Richard Mekins to court, charged with heresy. Although the witnesses against him gave contradictory evidence, the jury were told to allow them. The jury brought an indictment and Mekins was executed. 1563, p. 613; 1570, p. 1376; 1576, p. 1174; 1583, p. 1202.

Edward VI's commissioners attempted to administer an oath to Bishop Bonner and the clergy of St Paul's and gave Bonner a list of injunctions. He made a protestation, which he subsequently repented and recanted. He was pardoned, but committed to the Fleet for a short period. 1570, pp. 1501-02; 1576, pp. 1272-73; 1583, pp. 1309-10.

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Edward VI's councillors and Edward Seymour wrote to Thomas Cranmer, directing that candles no longer be carried on Candlemas, nor palms on Palm Sunday, nor should ashes be used on Ash Wednesday. Cranmer immediately wrote to the other bishops, including Bonner, to inform them of the new directive. Bonner consented to the changes and wrote to Thomas Thirlby to inform him of them. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1297.

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The council wrote further to Cranmer ordering the abolishing of images in all churches in the archdiocese. He wrote to Edmund Bonner, directing him to carry out the order in London, and Bonner in turn wrote to Thomas Thirlby. 1570, p. 1490; 1576, p. 1263; 1583, p. 1300.

Bonner continued to hold private masses in St Paul's, and the king's council ordered these to be stopped. Bonner then wrote to the dean and chapter to that effect. 1563, pp. 692-93; 1570, p. 1492; 1576, p. 1265; 1583, p. 1302.

Another letter was sent by the king and council to Bonner, rebuking him and urging him to use the Book of Common Prayer. Bonner again wrote to the dean and chapter. 1563, pp. 693-94; 1570, p. 1494; 1576, p. 1266; 1583, p. 1303.

Hearing of the death of Thomas Seymour and of the rebellions in the kingdom, Bonner began to slacken his pastoral diligence. 1570, p. 1502; 1576, p. 1273; 1583, p. 13103.

Having knowledge of rebellions stirring in the realm and of slackness in religious reform in the city of London, Edward VI called Edmund Bonner to come before his council. The council ordered him to preach a sermon at Paul's Cross in three weeks' time and provided him with the articles upon which he was to preach. 1563, p. 695; 1570, p. 1495; 1576, p. 1267; 1583, p. 1304.

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John Hooper and William Latymer, in a letter to the king, denounced Bonner for his sermon at St Paul's, which went contrary to the instructions given by the king's commissioners. 1563, pp. 696-97; 1570, p. 1503; 1576, p. 1274; 1583, p. 1311.

Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, Nicholas Ridley, bishop of Rochester, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May, dean of St Paul's, were commissioned to examine Edmund Bonner. 1563, p. 697; 1570, p. 1504; 1576, p. 1275; 1583, p. 1312.

Bonner was summoned to appear before the commissioners. He behaved haughtily, ridiculing his accusers and the commissioners, and spoke in favour of the mass. He appeared first on 10 September 1549 before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre and William May. Sir Thomas Smith was absent. 1563, pp. 698-99; 1570, pp. 1504-06; 1576, pp. 1275-77; 1583, pp. 1312-14.

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Bonner appeared for the second time on 13 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May and was further examined. 1563, pp. 699-704; 1570, pp. 1506-08; 1576, pp. 1277-79; 1583, pp. 1314-17.

Bonner appeared for the third time on 16 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir Thomas Smith and William May to answer the articles put to him at the previous session. John Hooper and William Latymer also appeared in order to purge themselves against the slanders of Bonner. 1563, pp. 704-709; 1570, pp. 1508-11; 1576, pp. 1279-80; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

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The commissioners, finding Bonner's answers to the articles put to him to be unsatisfactory, received witnesses against him: John Cheke, Henry Markham, John Joseph, John Douglas and Richard Chambers. Bonner submitted a set of questions the witnesses were to answer. 1563, p. 707; 1570, p. 1510; 1576, p. 1280; 1583, p. 1320.

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Bonner appeared before the commissioners for the fourth time on 18 September, at which session new articles were drawn up and new witnesses received: Sir John Mason, Sir Thomas Chaloner, William Cecil, Armygell Wade and William Hunnings. 1563, pp. 704-713; 1570, pp. 1508-13; 1576, pp. 1279-82; 1583, pp. 1317-23.

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On the following day, 19 September, Bonner's registrar appeared to report that Bonner was too ill to attend the session. 1563, p. 713; 1570, p. 1513; 1576, p. 1282; 1583, p. 1323.

Bonner appeared for the fifth time before the commissioners on 20 September. During an interval, he instructed Gilbert Bourne, his chaplain, Robert Warnington, his commissary, and Robert Johnson, his registrar, to tell the mayor and aldermen of London to avoid reformed preachers. Bonner made his first appellation to the king. As a result of his behaviour during the proceedings, he was committed to the Marshalsea. 1563, pp. 713-717; 1570, pp. 1513-16; 1576, pp. 1282-85; 1583, pp. 1324-26.

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Bonner appeared for the sixth time before the commissioners on 23 September, when he presented a general recusation against all the commissioners and a second appellation to the king. A letter was read from Bonner to the mayor of London, Henry Amcottes, and aldermen. 1563, pp. 717-18; 1570, p. 1516; 1576, p. 1285; 1583, pp. 1326-27.

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Bonner' seventh appearance before the commissioners took place on 1 October. He presented a declaration, an appellation and a supplication to the king. The commissioners pronounced their sentence definitive. 1563, pp. 718-26; 1570, pp. 1516-19; 1576, pp. 1285-88; 1583, pp. 1327-30.

Bonner was imprisoned in the Marshalsea and deprived of his bishopric under Edward VI and Edward Seymour. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1296.

Bonner remained in prison until the death of Edward VI. 1563, pp. 717-18; 1570, p. 1518; 1576, p. 1287; 1583, p. 1329.

 
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Edward Fox

(1496 - 1538) [ODNB]

Diplomat; BA Cambridge 1517; MA 1520; doctor 1532; provost of King's College (1528 - 38); secretary to Wolsey 1526

Archdeacon of Leicester (1531 - 35); dean of Salisbury (1533 - 38); archdeacon of Dorset (1533 - 38); royal almoner (c. 1532 - 36); bishop of Hereford (1536 - 38)

Stephen Gardiner and Edward Fox urged leniency on Cardinal Wolsey when dealing with Robert Barnes. They stood surety for him and convinced him to abjure. 1563, pp. 601-02; 1570, pp. 1364-65; 1576, pp. 1164-65; 1583, pp. 1192-93.

Edward Fox accopmanied Stephen Gardiner to Rome to put the case for the king's divorce to Clement VII. 1570, p. 1457; 1576, p. 1242; 1583, p. 1279.

Edward Fox was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

After the Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII attempted to improve relations with other monarchs by sending ambassadors. Edward Fox was sent to the German princes. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

Fox attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Fox opposed retaining the seven sacraments. He gave an oration to the bishops. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

In a letter to Thomas Cromwell, Edmund Bonner, Fox's successor to the see of Hereford, asked for help in meeting any financial obligations left by Fox. 1570, p. 1240; 1576, p. 1062; 1583, p. 1088.

 
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Edward Lee

(1481/2 - 1544) [ODNB]

BA Oxford 1501; MA Cambridge 1502/3; BTh Cambridge 1515; studied at Louvain and Bologna; DTh; entered into a vendetta with Erasmus; royal chaplain 1520; king's almoner 1523; archdeacon of Colchester (1523 - 31); ambassador to the imperial court (1525 - 29)

Archbishop of York (1531 - 44)

Edward Lee, along with other archdeacons in the London diocese, was sent a commission to seek out and deliver any copies of the New Testament in English and anything from a list of proscribed books in 1526. 1563, p. 450; 1570, p. 1157; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1018.

Thomas Boleyn, John Stokesley and Edward Lee were sent as delegates to the pope to present the king's case for a divorce from Queen Catherine. 1570, p. 1195; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1051.

Lee swore an oath of allegiance to Henry VIII as head of the church. 1570, p. 1203; 1576, p. 1030; 1583, p. 1057.

Edward Lee summoned Queen Catherine to appear before the archbishop of Canterbury and other bishops, but she refused to attend. The archbishop pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

Lee was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Lee attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Lee favoured retaining the seven sacraments. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

 
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Geoffrey Downes

(d. before 20/7/1562) [Fasti;; Richard Rex, 'John Bale, Geoffrey Downes and Jesus College', Journal of Ecclesiastical History, vol. 49, no. 3 (July 1998), pp. 486-93]

Fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge; DTh 1529; chaplain to archbishop of York (Wolsey and Lee); chancellor of York (1537 - 62)

Geoffrey Downes was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

 
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Hugh Latimer

(c. 1485 - 1555) [ODNB]

of Thirkeson, Leicestershire; BA Cambridge 1511; MA 1514; BTh 1524

Bishop of Worcester (1535 - 39); preacher; martyr

While at Cambridge, Thomas Bilney converted to a reformed religion and convinced others there, including Thomas Arthur and Hugh Latimer, who was crosskeeper at the time. 1563, p. 461; 1570, pp. 1134-35; 1576, p. 972; 1583, p. 998.

Elizabeth Barton prophesied that if the king divorced Queen Catherine and married Anne Boleyn, he would not reign more than a month thereafter. Through the efforts of Cranmer, Cromwell and Latimer, she was condemned and executed with some of her supporters. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, pp. 1054-55.

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George Stafford visited a priest with plague, Henry Conjurer, to convert him. He succeeded, but himself contracted plague and died. Latimer had formerly preached against Stafford and barred his students from hearing him, but was grateful that he was able to ask Stafford's forgiveness before he died. 1570, p. 1152; 1576, p. 986; 1583, p. 1013.

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Queen Anne had Hugh Latimer placed in the bishopric of Worcester and Nicholas Shaxton in the bishopric of Salisbury. 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1055; 1583, p. 1082.

Latimer preached about Bilney's remorse over his abjuration in sermons before King Edward and the duchess of Suffolk. He credited Bilney with his own conversion. 1570, p. 1146; 1576, p. 981; 1583, p. 1008.

Latimer used Humphrey Monmouth in his sermons as an example of a godly rich man showing Christian patience. 1570, p. 1134; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

In his examination, James Bainham said that only Edward Crome and Hugh Latimer had preached the word of God sincerely and purely. 1570, p. 1169; 1576, p. 1000; 1583, p. 1027.

John Tyrel was charged in London in 1532 with holding heretical opinions. When asked how he came to hold these opinions, he said he had heard Hugh Latimer preach the same. 1570, p. 1189; 1576, p. 1018; 1583, p. 1046.

Latimer was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

At the burning of John Forest, Hugh Latimer read out the charges and urged him to repent. 1563, p. 571; 1570, p. 1254; 1576, p. 1074; 1583, p. 1100.

Melancthon wrote a letter to Henry VIII against the Six Articles. In it he complained of the imprisonment of Hugh Latimer, Edward Crome and Nicholas Shaxton. 1570, p. 1341; 1576, p. 1144; 1583, p. 1173.

Latimer attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Latimer opposed retaining the seven sacraments. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

Anne Askew became very ill and was in great pain during her second examination. She asked to see Hugh Latimer, but was refused. 1563, p. 683; 1570, p. 1417; 1576, p. 1208; 1583, p. 1238.

 
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John Bell

(d. 1556) [ODNB]

Dean of the court of arches c. 1517; archdeacon of Gloucester (1518 - 39); vicar-general and chancellor of Worcester (1518 - 39); bishop of Worcester (1539 - 43)

John Bell was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

 
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John Capon (Salcot)

(d. 1557) [ODNB]

Benedictine monk; BTh Cambridge 1512; DTh 1515; prior of St John's by 1517; abbot of St Benet of Hulme, Norfolk (1517 - 30); abbot of Hyde Abbey, Winchester (1530 - 39); bishop of Bangor (1534 - 39); bishop of Salisbury (1539 - 57)

John Capon was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Capon was one of the persecutors of Robert Testwood, Henry Filmer and Anthony Pearson. 1570, p. 1386; 1576, p. 1182; 1583, p. 1211.

William Symonds complained of Henry Filmer to the mayor and then to the bishop, John Capon. Filmer had got to the bishop first, showing him a bill with notes of the vicar's sermons. The bishop declared that the vicar had preached heresy. He reprimanded Symonds and told him that the vicar would be made publicly to recant his heresy. 1570, pp. 1388-89; 1576, pp. 1184-85; 1583, p. 1213.

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John Marbeck's fourth examination was conducted by John Capon, John Skip, Thomas Goodrich, Robert Oking and William May. 1570, pp. 1393-94; 1576, pp. 1188-89; 1583, pp. 1216-17.

The judges of John Marbeck, Henry Filmer, Anthony Pearson and Robert Testwood at Windsor were John Capon, Sir William Essex, Thomas Brydges, Sir Humphrey Foster, William Franklyn and Thomas Vachell. 1570, p. 1396; 1576, p. 1191; 1583, p. 1219.

Capon, along with the other judges aside from Vachell, were reluctant to give judgement. Capon and others sent a message to Stephen Gardiner in favour of John Marbeck, who was then pardoned by the king. 1570, p. 1397; 1576, p. 1191; 1583, p. 1220.

After the burning of Filmer, Pearsons and Testwood, Capon sent Robert Ockham with a report to Stephen Gardiner. William Symonds, at the request of Robert Bennett's wife, got from Capon a letter to Gardiner for the deliverance of Robert Bennett. 1570, p. 1398; 1576, p. 1191; 1583, p. 1221.

 
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John Clerk

(1481/2? - 1541) [ODNB]

Diplomat; bishop of Bath and Wells (1523 - 41)

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

John Clerke took part in the examination of John Tewkesbury. 1563, p. 491; 1570, pp. 1165-66; 1576, p. 997; 1583, p. 1025.

The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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Clerk was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Clerk attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Clerk favoured retaining the seven sacraments. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

John Butler and William Smith were brought for examination before John Clerk, Richard Sampson and William Rugg. 1570, p. 1403; 1576, p. 1196; 1583, p. 1226.

 
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John Edmunds

(d. in or before 1544) [ODNB]

College head. DTh Cambridge 1519/20

John Edmunds was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

 
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John Hase

John Hase was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book in 1537. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

 
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John Hilsey

(d. 1539) [ODNB]

Dominican friar at Oxford convent; BTh 1527; DTh 1532; prior of the Bristol Dominicans; provincial of the English Dominicans 1534; bishop of Rochester (1535 - 39)

John Hilsey was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Hilsey attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

 
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John Longland

(1473 - 1547) [ODNB]

Scholar, preacher; BTh Oxford by 1509; DTh by 1511; dean of Salisbury 1514

Bishop of Lincoln (1521 - 1547); royal confessor 1524

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

Thomas Harding was brought before Bishop Longland to be examined. Longland condemned him as a relapse, and he was sentenced to be burnt. 1570, p. 1117; 1576, p. 956; 1583, p. 983.

John Longland took part in the examination of John Tewkesbury. 1563, p. 491; 1570, pp. 1165-66; 1576, p. 997; 1583, p. 1025.

John Frith was examined in London by the bishops of London, Winchester and Lincoln. Stokesley pronounced the sentence of condemnation. 1563, pp. 501-04; 1570, pp. 1176-78; 1576, pp. 1006-08; 1583, pp. 1034-35.

Andrew Hewett was examined by Stokesley, Gardiner and Longland. 1563, p. 506; 1570, p. 1180; 1576, p. 1009; 1583, p. 1036.

Other Lollards were brought before Longland to be examined, confess and abjure. 1570, pp. 1118-20; 1576, pp. 957-59; 1583, pp. 984-86.

The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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Longland was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Longland attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Longland favoured retaining the seven sacraments. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

Longland preached a sermon against the pope's supremacy in front of the king at Greenwich on Good Friday in 1538. 1570, pp. 1250-54; 1576, pp. 1071-74; 1583, pp. 1097-1100.

Mark Cowbridge went mad, was condemned by John Longland and burnt in Oxford. 1563, p. 574; 1570, p. 1292; 1576, p. 1105; 1583, p. 1131.

Longland and Anthony Draycot were active in enforcing the Six Articles within the diocese of Lincoln. 1570, p. 1382; 1576, p. 1179; 1583, p. 1207.

 
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John Prynne

(d. 1558) [Emden; Fasti]

BCL Oxford 1506; BCnL 1510; DCnL 1522; prebendary of Ketton (1528 - 58); treasurer of Lincoln (1532 - 35); subdean of Lincoln (1535 - 58)

James Algar was brought before John Prynne in 1530, charged with arguing with Dr Aglonby, and abjured. 1570, p. 1120; 1576, p. 959; 1583, pp. 985-86.

Prynne was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

 
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John Skip

(d. 1552) [ODNB]

Archdeacon of Suffolk (1536 - 39); archdeacon of Dorset (1538 - 39); bishop of Hereford (1539 - 52)

[Foxe names him as William Skip.]

John Skip was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

John Marbeck's fourth examination was conducted by John Capon, John Skip, Thomas Goodrich, Robert Oking and William May. 1570, pp. 1393-94; 1576, pp. 1188-89; 1583, pp. 1216-17.

 
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John Stokesley

(1475 - 1539) [ODNB]

MA Oxford 1500; DTh 1516; archdeacon of Surrey 1522; archdeacon of Dorset 1523; dean of St George's, Windsor 1524; royal confessor 1517; royal chaplain 1519; almoner 1520; bishop of London (1530 - 39)

Thomas Boleyn, John Stokesley and Edward Lee were sent as delegates to the pope to present the king's case for a divorce from Queen Catherine. 1570, p. 1195; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1051.

Thomas Cranmer, John Stokesley, Edward Carne, William Benet and the earl of Wiltshire were sent as ambassadors to the pope to dispute the matter of the king's marriage. 1570, p. 1280; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, p. 1121.

John Stokesley became bishop of London after Thomas Wolsey was deprived. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 994.

After King Henry had extended Wolsey's praemunire to the whole clergy, the bishops agreed to call all the priests in their dioceses to contribute. Stokesley called his clergy together, but there was such protest and disorder that he sent them away with his pardon. He then complained of his clergy to Sir Thomas More. 1570, p. 1195; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1051.

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Simon Fish was wary of returning home because he was afraid of Sir Thomas More and John Stokesley. 1570, p. 448; 1570, p. 1153; 1576, p. 987; 1583, p. 1014.

Articles were put by Stokesley, bishop of London, to Humphrey Monmouth, accusing him of helping William Tyndale and of advancing the opinions of Martin Luther. He was examined and sent to the Tower. According to Monmouth, Tyndale had wished to become chaplain to the bishop of London, but was turned down. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

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Thomas Phillips was handed over by Sir Thomas More to Bishop Stokesley in 1530. As well as holding heretical opinions, he was charged with having a copy of William Tracy's will and butter and cheese during Lent. He was examined by More and Stokesley and agreed to abjure, but not to read openly the abjuration in the form presented. He appealed to the king and was excommunicated by the bishop. 1570, p. 1185; 1576, p. 1014; 1583, p. 1042.

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Richard Bayfield was tried before John Stokesley, assisted by Stephen Gardiner and others. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

Stokesley sent a letter to the mayor and sheriffs of London, directing them to be present at the sentencing of Richard Bayfield. 1563, pp. 488-89; 1570, p. 1164; 1576, p. 996; 1583, p. 1024.

Mr Selyard, writing to John Stokesley, asked him to send word by his friend William Saxey of anything that could be discovered against Robert Bate. 1563, p. 495; 1570, p. 1168; 1576, p. 999; 1583, p. 1127.

Stokesley had all of Tyndale's New Testaments and other books brought into St Paul's churchyard and burnt. 1563, p. 495; 1570, p. 1168; 1576, p. 999; 1583, p. 1127.

Stokesley pronounced sentence on John Tewkesbury as a relapsed heretic and turned him over to the sheriffs. 1563, p. 493; 1570, p. 1167; 1576, p. 998; 1583, p. 1026.

James Bainham was examined before John Stokesley in the house of Sir Thomas More. 1563, p. 496; 1570, p. 1168; 1576, p. 999; 1583, p. 1027.

Andrew Hewett was examined by Stokesley, Gardiner and Longland. 1563, p. 506; 1570, p. 1180; 1576, p. 1009; 1583, p. 1036.

Many people in the London diocese were made to abjure under Bishop Stokesley. 1570, p. 1184; 1576, p. 1013; 1583, p. 1040.

Thomas Patmore had been preferred to the living of Much Hadham by Bishop Fitzjames and continued there peacably for sixteen years until John Stokesley became bishop of London. Stokesley was suspected of wanting the benefice for someone else. He imprisoned Patmore in his own palace and then had him sent to Lollards' Tower, where he was kept in harsh conditions. 1583, p. 1044.

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Patmore's release from prison was ordered by the king. The king gave him a commission to the lord chancellor, the archbishop of Canterbury and Secretary Cromwell to investigate the dealings of Stokesley and Foxford towards Patmore. 1583, p. 1045.

John Frith was examined in London by the bishops of London, Winchester and Lincoln. Stokesley pronounced sentence upon him and turned him over to the mayor and sheriffs of London to be burnt. 1563, pp. 501-04; 1570, pp. 1176-78; 1576, pp. 1006-08; 1583, pp. 1034-35.

The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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Stokesley swore an oath of allegiance to Henry VIII as head of the church. 1570, p. 1203; 1576, p. 1030; 1583, p. 1057.

Stokesley met Princess Elizabeth's christening procession at the church door. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1054.

Stokesley preached a sermon in 1534 commending the efficacy of masses. This was attended by Thomas Merial, who was accused of heretical opinions and brought before Stokesley. 1570, pp. 1439-40; 1576, p. 1228; 1583, p. 1257.

Stokesley was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Bishops Stokesley and Tunstall wrote a letter to Cardinal Pole in Rome, urging him to give up his support of the supremacy of the pope. 1563, pp. 613-20; 1570, pp. 1212-16; 1576, pp. 1037-42; 1583, pp. 1065-68.

Stokesley attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Stokesley favoured retaining the seven sacraments. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

Holland, Stokesley's summoner, was sent for by Sir Christopher Barker to take Thomas Frebarne to the bishop. Frebarne had obtained pork in Lent for his pregnant wife. The bishop had Holland take him and the pig to the civil authorities. 1570, p. 1354; 1576, p. 1156; 1583, p. 1184.

Edmund Bonner, when nominated to the bishopric of London, told Richard Grafton that John Stokesley had been wrong to persecute those like Lobley for having bibles in English. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1191.

 
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John Tyson

John Tyson was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book in 1537. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

 
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John Veysey (formerly Harman)

(c. 1464 - 1554) [ODNB]

BA Oxford; BCL by 1489; DCL by 1495; archdeacon of Chester 1499; chancellor of Exeter 1502; president of Magdalen College 1507, resigned the same year; dean of Exeter 1509; dean of the Chapel Royal 1514; dean of St George's chapel, Windsor 1515

Bishop of Exeter (1519 - 51), resigned

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

After antipapal papers had been posted on the cathedral doors in Exeter, the mayor and his officers were not especially active in attempting to find the person responsible, but the bishop, John Veysey, and higher clergy were determined to do so. Veysey gave orders that the clergy were to preach daily against the heresy. 1570, p. 1180; 1576, p. 1010; 1583, p. 1037.

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Thomas Benet was arrested and was imprisoned in the bishop's prison, placed in the stocks and in irons. He was examined by John Veysey. 1570, p. 1182; 1576, p. 1011; 1583, p. 1038.

Veysey was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

 
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Nicholas Heath

(1501? - 1578) [ODNB]

Archdeacon of Stafford 1534; bishop of Worcester (1543 - 51, 1553 - 55); archbishop of York (1555 - 60); lord chancellor (1556 - 59)

Nicholas Heath was one of the learned men at Cambridge supported by the Boleyns. 1563, p. 509; 1570, p. 1198; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1054.

Heath was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Heath was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, p. 854.

 
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Nicholas Shaxton

(c. 1485 - 1556) [ODNB]

BA Cambridge 1506 or 1507; MA 1510; BTh 1521; DTh 1531; university preacher; Queen Anne's almoner 1534;

Bishop of Salisbury (1535 - 39); resigned; arrested and condemned to be burnt in 1546; recanted, put away wife; pardoned 1555

The priors of Pentney Priory and Westacre Priory assured Richard Nix, bishop of Norwich, that Nicholas Shaxton had not preached heresy at Westacre. 1563 p. 483.

After Bilney's burning, and the decision not to prosecute Nicholas Shaxton, Nix was afraid that he had burnt the wrong man. 1563, p. 484; 1570, pp. 1149-50; 1576, p. 984; 1583, p. 1011.

Queen Anne had Hugh Latimer placed in the bishopric of Worcester and Nicholas Shaxton in the bishopric of Salisbury. 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1055; 1583, p. 1082.

Shaxton was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Melancthon wrote a letter to Henry VIII against the Six Articles. In it he complained of the imprisonment of Hugh Latimer, Edward Crome and Nicholas Shaxton. 1570, p. 1341; 1576, p. 1144; 1583, p. 1173.

Shaxton attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Shaxton opposed retaining the seven sacraments. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

Nicholas Shaxton urged Anne Askew to recant after her condemnation. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1418; 1576, p. 1209; 1583, p. 1238.

Shaxton was appointed to preach a sermon at the burning of Anne Askew. 1563, p. 677; 1570, p. 1419; 1576, p. 1211; 1583, p. 1240.

 
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Nicholas Wotton

(c. 1497 - 1567) [ODNB; Fasti]

Ecclesiastical lawyer, diplomat; DCnCL; DD

Archdeacon of Gloucester (1540 - ?); secretary of state 1549; dean of Canterbury (1541 - 67) and of York (1544 - 67); ambassador to France (1553 - 57)

Nicholas Wotton was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Wotton was one of the signatories to the proclamation against Edward Seymour calling for his removal. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1318; 1583, p. 1368.

After Edmund Bonner was sentenced to prison and deprived of his bishopric, the king appointed Lord Rich, Henry marquess of Dorset, Thomas Goodrich, Lord Wentworth, Sir Anthony Wingfield, Sir William Herbert, Nicholas Wotton, Edward Montague, Sir John Baker, Judge Hales, John Gosnold, John Oliver and Griffith Leyson to examine his documents. They confirmed the sentence against him. 1563, p. 725; 1570, p. 1519; 1576, pp. 1287-88; 1583, p. 1330.

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Ralph Bradford

(d. c. 1537) [Fines]

Scholar and fellow of King's College, Cambridge; detected for transporting New Testaments to London; fled to Ireland, where he was imprisoned for 2 years; DTh Cambridge 1534; chaplain to Bishop Latimer

Ralph Bradford was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

 
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Richard Coren (Curwen)

(d. by 16/3/1543) [Fasti; Lisle Letters]

DTh; archdeacon of Oxford (1535 - 1543); archdeacon of Colchester (1537 - 1543); commissioner for Calais 1540

Richard Coren was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Coren was one of those appointed commissioner for Calais in 1540. Coren preached a sermon there. 1563, p. 664; 1570, p. 1404; 1576, p. 1197; 1583, p. 1226.

 
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Richard Coxe

(1500 - 1581) [ODNB]

BA Cambridge 1524; MA 1526; headmaster at Eton 1529; BTh 1535, DTh 1537

Chaplain to Henry VIII and to Archbishop Cranmer by 1540; archdeacon of Ely 1540; first dean of Osney Cathedral, Oxford 1544

Tutor and almoner to Prince Edward; chancellor of Oxford (1547 - 52)

Bishop of Ely (1559 - 1581). Marian exile

Richard Coxe was one of the scholars Wolsey gathered for Cardinal College. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

Coxe was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Stephen Gardiner complained to the king about the sermon of Robert Barnes preached during Lent at Paul's Cross. He disputed with Barnes, and Richard Coxe and Thomas Robinson acted as arbiters. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, p. 1169; 1583, p. 1198.

Richard Coxe and Thomas Robinson came in to see Anne Askew after a session of questioning at her second examination. 1563, p. 683; 1570, p. 1417; 1576, p. 1208; 1583, p. 1238.

Thomas Cranmer praised the learning and wisdom of Prince Edward to his tutor, Richard Coxe. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Richard Coxe wrote to Thomas Cranmer, praising the young Prince Edward. 1570, p. 1564; 1576, p. 1334; 1583, p. 1395.

Henry Holbeach, Richard Coxe, Simon Haynes, Richard Morison and Christopher Nevinson, king's visitors, were present at the disputations at Oxford in 1549 with Peter Martyr. 1570, pp. 1552; 1576, p. 1323; 1583, p. 1373.

Richard Coxe was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, pp. 808-9

Richard Coxe was present at the scaffold in January 1552 as counsellor and spiritual advisor to Edward Seymour at his execution. 1563, p. 882; 1570, p. 1551; 1576, p. 1322; 1583, p. 1372.

 
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Richard Sampson

(d. 1554) [ODNB]

Chancellor and vicar-general to Wolsey in Tournai (1513 - 17); ambassador at the imperial court (1522 - 25); dean of Windsor 1523; supported the king's divorce; dean of Lichfield 1533; bishop of Chichester 1536; bishop of Coventry and Lichfield 1543

Henry VIII and Queen Catherine were summoned to appear before the papal legates by Richard Sampson. 1570, p. 1194; 1576, p. 1022; 1583, p. 1050.

Sampson was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Sampson attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Sampson favoured retaining the seven sacraments. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

The musicians at Windsor College petitioned Sampson to have Robert Testwood join them, but Testwood's religious views were deemed too radical. 1570, p. 1386; 1576, p. 1182; 1583, p. 1211.

Damplip was brought before Thomas Cranmer, Stephen Gardiner, Richard Sampson and others and examined. 1563, p. 657; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1194; 1583, p. 1224.

Thomas Broke, Ralph Hare, James Cocke and James Barber were sent from Calais with their accusers to England to be examined by Cranmer, Gardiner, Sampson and other bishops. 1563, p. 661; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1195; 1583, p. 1224.

Letters were sent to Sampson, among others, accusing Thomas Broke, Ralph Hare, James Cocke and James Barber of Calais of heresy. 1563, p. 661; 1570, p. 1402; 1576, p. 1195; 1583, p. 1224.

John Butler and William Smith were brought for examination before John Clerk, Richard Sampson and William Rugg. 1570, p. 1403; 1576, p. 1196; 1583, p. 1226.

 
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Richard Smyth (Smith)

(1499/1500 - 1563) [ODNB; Foster]

Theologian; BA Oxford 1527; MA 1530; BTh 1533; DTh 1536; regius professor of divinity (1535 - 48, 1554 - 56, 1559 - 60); in exile under Edward VI and under Elizabeth; vice-chancellor of the university of Douai in Brabant; died there

Richard Smyth was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Richard Smyth preached a sermon when John Mallory came into St Mary's church in Oxford to do his penance. During the sermon, cries of 'fire' produced panic in the congregation. 1563, p. 621; 1570, p. 1382; 1576, p. 1179; 1583, p. 1208.

In 1539 Richard Smyth and George Cotes ran the divinity schools at Oxford. 1563, p. 574.

Smyth witnessed Anne Askew's confession in 1545. 1563, p. 673; 1570, p. 1416; 1576, p. 1207; 1583, p. 1237.

The Lord Protector noted that Stephen Gardiner had not criticised Smyth's book. 1563, p. 735; 1583, p. 1344.

Doctors Smyth, Chedsey, Standish, Young and Oglethorpe recanted their earlier conservative positions in the last year of the reign of King Edward VI. 1570, p. 1522; 1576, p. 1323; 1583, p. 1373.

In a later letter to the Lord Protector, Gardiner criticised Smyth's recantation. 1563, p. 739; 1583, p. 1347.

 
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Richard Wolman

(d. 1537) [ODNB]

BCL Cambridge 1503; DCL abroad; DCnL 1512; admitted College of Advocates 1514; vicar-general of Bath and Wells 1518; archdeacon of Sudbury (1522 - 37); king's chaplain 1526; dean of Wells (1529 - 37)

Richard Wolman was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

 
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Robert Aldrich

(1488/9 - 1556) [ODNB]

Bishop of Carlisle (1537 - 56)

Robert Aldrich was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

 
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Robert Holgate

(1481/2 - 1555) [ODNB]

BTh Cambridge 1524; DTh 1537; prior of St Catherine's-without-Lincoln 1529; master of the Gilbertines (1534 - 39); bishop of Llandaff (1537 - 45); archbishop of York (1545 - 1554); deprived for marriage

Robert Holgate was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

 
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Robert Oking

(d. in or before 1559) [ODNB]

Clergyman; DCL 1534; commissary to John Capon, bishop of Bangor, in 1534; archdeacon of Salisbury (1546 - 54)

Robert Oking was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Oking was one of the persecutors of Robert Testwood, Henry Filmer and Anthony Pearson. 1570, p. 1386; 1576, p. 1182; 1583, p. 1211.

John Marbeck's fourth examination was conducted by John Capon, John Skip, Thomas Goodrich, Robert Oking and William May. 1570, pp. 1393-94; 1576, pp. 1188-89; 1583, pp. 1216-17.

John Marbeck's fifth examination was before Robert Oking and Knight. 1570, p. 1394; 1576, p. 1189; 1583, p. 1217.

 
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Robert Warton (Perfey)

(d. 1557) [ODNB]

Cluniac monk, prior of Bermondsey 1525; BTh Cambridge 1525; bishop of St Asaph (1536 - 54); bishop of Hereford (1554 - 57)

Robert Warton was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

 
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Rowland Lee

(c. 1487 - 1543) [ODNB]

Administrator; BCL Cambridge 1510; DCnL 1520; chancellor to Geoffrey Blythe (1526 - 28); active in the king's divorce; bishop of Coventry and Lichfield (1534 - 43)

Lee was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

 
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Simon Matthew

Preached at St Paul's July 1535 [Fines]

Simon Matthew was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

 
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Sir John Baker

(c. 1489 - 1558) [ODNB; Bindoff]

Judge, administrator; MP London 1529, 1536; MP Guildford, 1542; MP Lancaster 1545; MP Huntingdonshire 1547; MP Bramber 1553; MP Kent 1554

Attorney-general (1536 - 40); chancellor of the exchequer (1540 - 58); speaker of the House (1545, 1547)

Sir John Baker was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Baker was one of those appointed commissioner for Calais in 1540. 1563, p. 664; 1570, p. 1404; 1576, p. 1197; 1583, p. 1226.

After the execution of Adam Damplip in Calais, John Butler and Daniel the curate were taken to England and imprisoned in the Marshalsea. They stayed there nine months and were accused of having retained Damplip by Sir John Gage, Sir John Baker and Sir Thomas Arundel. [NB: Sir John Gage is named as Sir George Gage in the 1576 and 1583 editions.] 1570, p. 1407; 1576, p. 1200; 1583, p. 1229.

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Before Henry VIII gave his oration to parliament in 1545, the speaker of the House of Commons, Sir John Baker, gave an eloquent oration to the king. 1570, p. 1412; 1576, p. 1203; 1583, p. 1233.

Richard Rich and Sir John Baker went to Anne Askew in the Tower and tried to get her to incriminate others. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1418; 1576, p. 1209; 1583, p. 1238.

Sir John Baker was one of the signatories to the proclamation against Edward Seymour calling for his removal. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1318; 1583, p. 1368.

After Edmund Bonner was sentenced to prison and deprived of his bishopric, the king appointed Lord Rich, Henry marquess of Dorset, Thomas Goodrich, Lord Wentworth, Sir Anthony Wingfield, Sir William Herbert, Nicholas Wotton, Edward Montague, Sir John Baker, Judge Hales, John Gosnold, John Oliver and Griffith Leyson to examine his documents. They confirmed the sentence against him. 1563, p. 725; 1570, p. 1519; 1576, pp. 1287-88; 1583, p. 1330.

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Sir John Baker was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, p. 826.

 
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Stephen Gardiner

(c. 1495x8 - 1555) [ODNB]

Theologian, administrator; BCnL Cambridge 1518; DCL 1521; DCnL 1522; chancellor of Cambridge

Principal secretary to the king 1529; ambassador to France

Bishop of Winchester (1531 - 51, 1553 - 55)

Thomas Cromwell, Thomas More and Stephen Gardiner served together in Thomas Wolsey's household. 1563, p. 592; 1570, p. 1347; 1576, p. 1150; 1583, p. 1178.

Gardiner and Edward Fox urged leniency on Cardinal Wolsey when dealing with Robert Barnes. They stood surety for him and convinced him to abjure. 1563, pp. 601-02; 1570, pp. 1364-65; 1576, pp. 1164-65; 1583, pp. 1192-93.

Stephen Gardiner was sent as ambassador to Rome by Henry VIII during the time of Clement VII to deal with the matter of the king's divorce and to promote Thomas Wolsey as pope. Both the king and Wolsey wrote letters to him. 1570, pp. 1125-28, 1193; 1576, pp. 963-66, 1021; 1583, pp. 990-92, 1049.

Shortly after Gardiner became secretary to King Henry, he and William Fitzwilliam were assigned by the king to ensure that Thomas Wolsey's goods were not stolen after his deprivation of his offices, but returned to the king. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 994.

Richard Bayfield was tried before John Stokesley, assisted by Stephen Gardiner and others. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

John Frith was taken first to the archbishop of Canterbury at Lambeth, then to the bishop of Winchester at Croydon, and then to London to plead his case before the assembled bishops. He was examined there by the bishops of London, Winchester and Lincoln. 1563, pp. 501-03; 1570, pp. 1176-78; 1576, pp. 1006-08; 1583, pp. 1034-35.

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Andrew Hewett was examined by Stokesley, Gardiner and Longland. 1563, p. 506; 1570, p. 1180; 1576, p. 1009; 1583, p. 1036.

The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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Gardiner swore an oath of allegiance to Henry VIII as head of the church. 1570, p. 1203; 1576, p. 1030; 1583, p. 1057.

In his De vera obedientia, Gardiner challenged the authority of the pope and argued against the validity of the king's marriage to Catherine of Aragon. 1570, pp. 1204-06; 1576, pp. 1031-32; 1583, pp. 1058-59.

Gardiner was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Gardiner was sent with a Henry VIII's answer to Francis I, king of France, regarding Henry's supremacy over the English church. 1570, p. 1221; 1576, p. 1045; 1583, p. 1072.

Gardiner was suspected of involvement in the downfall of Anne Boleyn, and urged the king to disinherit Elizabeth. 1570, pp. 1233, 1243; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, pp. 1082, 1083.

Gardiner was a resident ambassador to France in 1538, when Edmund Bonner, through the efforts of Thomas Cromwell, was brought in to replace him. There were great disagreements between the two, since Bonner at the time was in favour of reform. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1088.

The bearward who had a book belonging to Archbishop Cranmer's secretary intended giving it to Sir Anthony Browne or Stephen Gardiner. 1570, p. 1356; 1576, p. 1157; 1583, p. 1186.

In a letter to Henry VIII, Philip Melancthon called Gardiner wicked and impudent. 1570, p. 1341; 1576, p. 1145; 1583, p. 1173.

Bonner sent a declaration to Cromwell of Stephen Gardiner's evil behaviour. 1570, pp. 1241-44; 1576, pp. 1063-66; 1583, pp. 1090-92.

Gardiner urged Henry VIII to withdraw his defence of religious reform in order to ensure peace within the realm and to restore good relations with foreign rulers. 1570, pp. 1296; 1576, p. 1109; 1583, p. 1135.

Stephen Gardiner urged Henry VIII to use the case against John Lambert as a means of displaying the king's willingness to deal harshly with heresy. 1563, pp. 533-34; 1570, p. 1281; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, pp. 1121-22.

Cranmer had sent letters for Henry VIII to sign relating to reform in the church. Gardiner convinced the king that these reforms would jeopardise a league with the king of France and the emperor, so the letters were never signed. 1570, p. 1426; 1576, p. 1215; 1583, p. 1245.

Gardiner disputed with Lambert during his trial. 1563, pp. 535-36; 1570, pp. 1282-83; 1576, p. 1097; 1583, p. 1123.

Stephen Gardiner was Thomas Cromwell's chief opponent. 1563, p. 598; 1570, p. 1359; 1576, p. 1160; 1583, p. 1189.

Stephen Gardiner complained to the king about the sermon of Robert Barnes preached during Lent at Paul's Cross. He disputed with Barnes, and Richard Coxe and Thomas Robinson acted as arbiters. Gardiner then submitted articles against Barnes. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, pp. 1169-70; 1583, p. 1198.

Adam Damplip was brought before Thomas Cranmer, Stephen Gardiner, Richard Sampson and others and examined. 1563, p. 657; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1194; 1583, p. 1224.

Thomas Broke, Ralph Hare, James Cocke and James Barber were sent from Calais with their accusers to England to be examined by Cranmer, Gardiner, Sampson and other bishops. 1563, p. 661; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1195; 1583, p. 1224.

William Symonds and John London kept notes of Anthony Pearson's sermons at Windsor. They included the names of all those who frequented the sermons and reported all of these to Stephen Gardiner, who in turn reported to the king and received a commission for a search at Windsor. 1570, pp. 1389-90; 1576, p. 1185; 1583, pp. 1213-14.

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Gardiner had Simon Haynes and Philip Hoby committed to the Fleet, but their friends secured their release. 1570, p. 1390; 1576, p. 1186; 1583, p. 1214.

Gardiner conducted the third examination of John Marbeck himself. He ordered Marbeck to be placed in irons and kept in isolation. 1570, pp. 1391-92; 1576, pp. 1186-88; 1583, pp. 1215-16.

On the orders of Stephen Gardiner, John Massie took Adam Damplip to Calais. 1570, p. 1400; 1576, p. 1193; 1583, p. 1223.

John Capon and others of the judges in the trial of Marbeck, Testwood, Pearson and Filmer at Windsor sent a message to Stephen Gardiner in favour of John Marbeck. Gardiner went straight to the king and obtained a pardon. 1570, p. 1397; 1576, p. 1191; 1583, p. 1220.

After the burning of Filmer, Pearsons and Testwood, Capon sent Robert Ockham with a report to Stephen Gardiner. 1570, p. 1398; 1576, p. 1191; 1583, p. 1221.

Gardiner was one of the questioners at the second examination of Anne Askew in 1546. 1563, p. 683; 1570, p. 1417; 1576, p. 1208; 1583, p. 1237.

Katherine Parr read and studied the scriptures and discussed them with her chaplains. The king was aware of this and approved, so she began to debate matters of religion with him. When the king became more ill-tempered because of his sore leg, her enemies, especially Stephen Gardiner and Thomas Wriothesley, took the opportunity to turn the king against her. 1570, pp. 1422-23; 1576, pp. 1212-13; 1583, pp. 1242-43.

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Gardiner and other enemies of Katherine Parr planned to accuse and arrest Lady Herbert, Lady Lane and Lady Tyrwhit and search their quarters for books and other evidence to use against the queen. 1570, p. 1423; 1576, p. 1213; 1583, p. 1243.

During Henry VIII's final illness, Sir Anthony Browne tried unsuccessfully to get Stephen Gardiner reinstated in the king's will. 1570, p. 1478; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1291.

After the death of Henry VIII, the duke of Suffolk related to Thomas Cranmer how Stephen Gardiner had nearly been arrested at the time of the execution of Germaine Gardiner. He confessed his fault to the king and was pardoned. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1290.

Stephen Gardiner preached a sermon contrary to King Edward's injunctions. He was arrested and taken to the Tower by Sir Anthony Wingfield and Sir Ralph Sadler; Sadler and William Hunnings were instructed to seal off doors to his house. He was transferred to the Fleet. 1563, pp. 728, 760; 1570, pp. 1521, 1529; 1576, pp. 1297, 1304; 1583, pp. 1340, 1353-54.

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Gardiner wrote to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, the Lord Protector and others while imprisoned in the Fleet. 1563, pp. 728-54; 1570, pp. 1522-25; 1576, pp. 1297-1300; 1583, pp. 1340-50.

Gardiner was released out of the Fleet by a general pardon, but was placed under house arrest for failure to conform. Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Smith and William Cecil were sent to him. He was called before the council. 1563, p. 755; 1570, pp. 1525-26; 1576, p. 1301; 1583, p. 1351.

Gardiner was imprisoned in the Tower with Cuthbert Tunstall under Edward VI and Edward Seymour. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1296.

After Gardiner had been in the Tower for nearly a year, Sir William Paulet and Sir William Petre visited and urged him to admit his fault. Paulet, Petre, the earl of Warwick and Sir William Herbert delivered the king's letters to him. 1563, pp. 761-62; 1570, pp. 1529-30; 1576, p. 1304; 1583, p. 1354.

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Edward Seymour, John Russell, John Dudley and Sir William Petre visited Stephen Gardiner in the Tower at various times to attempt to get him to accept the king's reforms. 1563, pp. 766; 1570, p. 1532; 1576, p. 1306; 1583, p. 1356.

Articles were put to him to answer. 1563, pp. 754-68; 1570, pp. 1525-34; 1576, pp. 1300-07; 1583, pp. 1350-57.

When Sir William Herbert and Sir William Petre went to Stephen Gardiner in the Tower with new articles, they took with them a canon and a civil lawyer: Nicholas Ridley and Richard Goodrich. 1563, p. 768; 1570, p. 1534; 1576, p. 1307; 1583, p. 1357.

After Gardiner's sequestration, Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Henry Holbeach, Sir William Petre, Sir James Hales, Griffith Leyson, John Oliver and John Gosnold were commissioned to examine him. 1563, p. 776; 1570, p. 1535; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1358.

William Paget, Andrew Baynton and Thomas Chaloner were deponents in the case of Gardiner. 1563, pp. 814-18; 1570, p. 1536; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1359.

Gardiner was examined and deprived of his bishopric. 1563, pp. 814-67; 1570, pp. 1536-37; 1576, pp. 1309-10; 1583, pp. 1359-60.

 
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Thomas Barett (Baret, Barrett)

(d. by April 1544) [Emden]

BCL Oxford; DCL 1529; canon of St Paul's (1534 - d.); canon of Lincoln (1539 - d.); college of advocates 1530; chaplain to the king by 1543

Thomas Merial was brought before Bishop Stokesley accused of heresy. He would have been condemned to be burnt but for the intervention of Thomas Barett. 1570, p. 1440; 1576, p. 1228; 1583, p. 1257.

Thomas Barett was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

 
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Thomas Cranmer

(1489 - 1556) [ODNB]

BA Cambridge 1511; MA 1515; archbishop of Canterbury (1533 - 56); burnt in 1556

Cranmer acknowledged the help he received from John Frith's book attacking the doctrine of Sir Thomas More. 1563, p. 500; 1570, p. 1176; 1576, p. 1006; 1583, p. 1033.

Thomas Cranmer, John Stokesley, Edward Carne, William Benet and the earl of Wiltshire were sent as ambassadors to the pope to dispute the matter of the king's marriage. 1570, p. 1280; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, p. 1121.

Cranmer's separation of the king and Queen Catherine was authorised by parliament. 1570, p. 1197; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1053.

Elizabeth Barton prophesied that if the king divorced Queen Catherine and married Anne Boleyn, he would not reign more than a month thereafter. Through the efforts of Cranmer, Cromwell and Latimer, she was condemned and executed with some of her supporters. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, pp. 1054-55.

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The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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Cranmer was godfather to Princess Elizabeth. 1563, p. 510; 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1054.

Cranmer was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Cranmer attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Cranmer opposed retaining the seven sacraments. He gave an oration to the bishops. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

On the second day of the synod, Thomas Cranmer sent his archdeacon to command Alexander Alesius to cease from disputation. 1570, p. 1353; 1576, p. 1155; 1583, p. 1184.

John Lambert attended a sermon preached by John Taylor at St Peter's in London in 1538. Lambert put ten articles to him questioning transubstantiation. Taylor conferred with Robert Barnes, who persuaded Taylor to put the matter to Archbishop Cranmer. Cranmer called Lambert into open court, where he was made to defend his cause. 1563, pp. 532-33; 1570, pp. 1280-81; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, p. 1121.

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Cranmer disputed with Lambert at his trial before the king. 1563, pp. 534-35; 1570, p. 1282; 1576, pp. 1096-97; 1583, p. 1122.

Thomas Cranmer alone disputed the Six Articles in parliament. 1570, p. 1298; 1576, p. 1110; 1583, p. 1136.

The king sent Thomas Cromwell and the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk to dine with Cranmer to reassure him after his opposition to the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1298; 1576, p. 1111; 1583, p. 1136.

Henry asked for a summary of Cranmer's objections to the Six Articles. Cranmer asked his secretary to write up a copy of his arguments against the Six Articles to give to the king.1570, p. 1355; 1576, p. 1157; 1583, p. 1185.

Adam Damplip was brought before Thomas Cranmer, Stephen Gardiner, Richard Sampson and others and examined. The next day, warned by Cranmer that he was likely to be imprisoned and burnt, he fled to the West Country. 1563, p. 657; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1194; 1583, p. 1224.

Thomas Broke, Ralph Hare, James Cocke and James Barber were sent from Calais with their accusers to England to be examined by Cranmer, Gardiner, Sampson and other bishops. 1563, p. 661; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1195; 1583, p. 1224.

King Henry wrote to Archbishop Cranmer, ordering that idolatrous images be removed from churches. 1563, p. 625; 1570, p. 1385; 1576, p. 1181; 1583, p. 1210.

For a long period, Henry VIII denied his daughter Mary the title of princess. Thomas Cranmer urged a reconciliation. 1570, p. 1565; 1576, p. 1335; 1583, p. 1396.

When Claude d'Annebault, the French ambassador, went to see Henry VIII at Hampton Court, lavish entertainment was laid on for him, but he was recalled before he had received half of it. During the course of the banquet, he had private conversation with the king and Archbishop Cranmer about the reform of religion in the two countries. 1570, p. 1426; 1576, p. 1215; 1583, p. 1245.

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Cranmer had sent letters for Henry VIII to sign relating to reform in the church. Gardiner convinced the king that these reforms would jeopardise a league with the king of France and the emperor, so the letters were never signed. 1570, p. 1426; 1576, p. 1215; 1583, p. 1245.

The young Prince Edward wrote letters in Latin to Thomas Cranmer, his godfather. 1570, p. 1564; 1576, p. 1334; 1583, p. 1395.

Cranmer praised the learning and wisdom of Prince Edward to his tutor, Richard Coxe. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Richard Coxe wrote to Thomas Cranmer, praising the young Prince Edward. 1570, p. 1564; 1576, p. 1334; 1583, p. 1395.

When King Henry was on his deathbed, Anthony Denny asked him if he wished a spiritual adviser, and he asked for Thomas Cranmer. Before Cranmer could arrive, however, the king had lost the power of speech. He clasped Cranmer's hand, and shortly after died. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1290.

After the death of Henry VIII, the duke of Suffolk related to Thomas Cranmer how Stephen Gardiner had nearly been arrested at the time of the execution of Germaine Gardiner. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1290.

Cranmer had great difficulty in getting King Edward to sign Joan Bocher's death warrant. 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Charles V requested of Edward VI that his cousin Mary Tudor be allowed to have the mass said in her house. The request was denied, in spite of the strong urgings of Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Thomas Dobbe was brought before Cranmer, who committed him to the Counter, where he died. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1297.

Edward VI's councillors and Edward Seymour wrote to Thomas Cranmer, directing that candles no longer be carried on Candlemas, nor palms on Palm Sunday, nor should ashes be used on Ash Wednesday. Cranmer immediately wrote to all the other bishops to inform them of the new directive. 1563, pp. 685, 691; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1297.

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The council wrote further to Cranmer ordering the abolishing of images in all churches in the archdiocese. He wrote to Edmund Bonner, directing him to carry out the order in London. 1563, p. 692; 1570, p. 1490; 1576, p. 1263; 1583, p. 1300.

Cranmer, with other learned bishops and learned men, was appointed to draw up a uniform order of common prayer. 1570, p. 1491; 1576, p. 1264; 1583, p. 1301.

Stephen Gardiner wrote to Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley while imprisoned in the Fleet. 1563, pp. 732-54; 1570, p. 1522; 1576, p. 1297; 1583, p. 1340.

Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, Nicholas Ridley, bishop of Rochester, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May, dean of St Paul's, were commissioned to examine Edmund Bonner. 1563, p. 697; 1570, p. 1504; 1576, p. 1275; 1583, p. 1312.

Bonner was summoned to appear before the commissioners. He behaved haughtily, ridiculing his accusers and the commissioners, and spoke in favour of the mass. He appeared first on 10 September 1549 before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre and William May. Sir Thomas Smith was absent. 1563, pp. 698-99; 1570, pp. 1504-06; 1576, pp. 1275-77; 1583, pp. 1312-14.

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Bonner appeared for the second time on 13 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May and was further examined. 1563, pp. 699-704; 1570, pp. 1506-08; 1576, pp. 1277-79; 1583, pp. 1314-17.

Bonner appeared for the third time on 16 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir Thomas Smith and William May to answer the articles put to him at the previous session. John Hooper and William Latymer also appeared in order to purge themselves against the slanders of Bonner. 1563, pp. 704-709; 1570, pp. 1508-11; 1576, pp. 1279-80; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

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Bonner appeared before the commissioners for the fourth time on 18 September, at which session new articles were drawn up and new witnesses received. 1563, pp. 704-710; 1570, pp. 1508-12; 1576, pp. 1279-81; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

Bonner appeared for the fifth time before the commissioners on 20 September. During an interval, he instructed Gilbert Bourne, his chaplain, Robert Warnington, his commissary, and Robert Johnson, his registrar, to tell the mayor and aldermen of London to avoid reformed preachers. Bonner made his first appellation to the king. As a result of his behaviour during the proceedings, he was committed to the Marshalsea. 1563, pp. 713-717; 1570, pp. 1513-16; 1576, pp. 1282-85; 1583, pp. 1324-26.

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Bonner appeared for the sixth time before the commissioners on 23 September, when he presented a general recusation against all the commissioners and a second appellation to the king. A letter was read from Bonner to the mayor of London, Henry Amcottes, and aldermen. 1563, pp. 717-18; 1570, p. 1516; 1576, p. 1285; 1583, pp. 1326-27.

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Bonner' seventh appearance before the commissioners took place on 1 October. He presented a declaration, an appellation and a supplication to the king. The commissioners pronounced their sentence definitive. Bonner was imprisoned and deprived of his office. 1563, pp. 718-26; 1570, pp. 1516-19; 1576, pp. 1285-88; 1583, pp. 1327-30.

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Cranmer was a signatory to a letter from the king and privy council to Nicholas Ridley, directing him to remove and destroy all altars within the churches of his diocese and install communion tables. 1563, p. 727; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1288; 1583, p. 1331.

After Stephen Gardiner's sequestration, Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Henry Holbeach, Sir William Petre, Sir James Hales, Griffith Leyson, John Oliver and John Gosnold were commissioned to examine him. 1563, p. 776; 1570, p. 1535; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1358.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Goodrich

(1494 - 1554) [ODNB]

BA Cambridge 1510; MA 1514; DCL 1520s

Bishop of Ely (1534 - 54); lord chancellor (1552 - 53)

Goodrich was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Goodrich attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Goodrich opposed retaining the seven sacraments. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

John Marbeck's fourth examination was conducted by John Capon, John Skip, Thomas Goodrich, Robert Oking and William May. 1570, pp. 1393-94; 1576, pp. 1188-89; 1583, pp. 1216-17.

Goodrich recommended Richard Coxe to Henry VIII. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

Goodrich was a signatory to a letter from the king and privy council to Nicholas Ridley, directing him to remove and destroy all altars within the churches of his diocese and install communion tables. 1563, p. 727; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1288; 1583, p. 1331.

Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Sir John Cheke, William May and Thomas Wendy, king's visitors, attended the disputation at Cambridge in 1549. 1570, p. 1555; 1576, p. 1326; 1583, p. 1376.

After Edmund Bonner was sentenced to prison and deprived of his bishopric, the king appointed Richard Rich, Henry marquess of Dorset, Thomas Goodrich, Lord Wentworth, Sir Anthony Wingfield, Sir William Herbert, Nicholas Wotton, Edward Montague, Sir John Baker, Judge Hales, John Gosnold, John Oliver and Griffith Leyson to examine his documents. They confirmed the sentence against him. 1563, p. 725; 1570, p. 1519; 1576, pp. 1287-88; 1583, p. 1330.

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After Stephen Gardiner's sequestration, Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Henry Holbeach, Sir William Petre, Sir James Hales, Griffith Leyson, John Oliver and John Gosnold were commissioned to examine him. 1563, p. 776; 1570, p. 1535; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1358.

 
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Thomas Robertson (Robinson)

(fl. c. 1520 - 1561) [ODNB]

Theologian; BA Oxford 1521; MA 1525; BTh 1539; treasurer of Salisury Cathedral (1540 - 48); chaplain to John Longland, bishop of Lincoln; archdeacon of Leicester 1541; royal chaplain; dean of Durham (1558 - 60); deprived under Elizabeth

Thomas Robertson was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Stephen Gardiner complained to the king about the sermon of Robert Barnes preached during Lent at Paul's Cross. He disputed with Barnes, and Richard Coxe and Thomas Robinson acted as arbiters. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, p. 1169; 1583, p. 1198.

Richard Coxe and Thomas Robinson came in to see Anne Askew after a session of questioning at her second examination. 1563, p. 683; 1570, p. 1417; 1576, p. 1208; 1583, p. 1238.

 
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William Barlow

(d. 1568 [ODNB]

Augustinian canon; bishop of St Asaph 1536; bishop of St Davids (1536 - 48); bishop of Bath and Wells (1548 - 53); bishop of Chichester (1559 - 68)

William Barlow was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Barlow and Robert Barnes informed Thomas Cromwell of the arrest of Thomas Frebarne for obtaining pork in Lent for his pregnant wife and asked him to send for the mayor. 1570, p. 1354; 1576, p. 1156; 1583, p. 1185.

In a letter to the Edward Seymour, the Lord Protector, Stephen Gardiner complained of a sermon preached by William Barlow. 1563, p. 732; 1583, p. 1342.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Buckmaster

(d. 1546) [ODNB]

Scholar. DTh Cambridge 1528; vice-chancellor of Cambridge 1529, 1538, 1539

William Buckmaster was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

 
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William Clyffe

(d. 1558) [ODNB]

Civil lawyer; LLB 1514, LLD 1523 (Cambridge); archdeacon of London (1529 - 33)

William Clyffe attended the condemnation of Richard Bayfield in 1531. 1563, p. 488; 1570, p. 1164; 1576, p. 995; 1583, p. 1023.

Clyffe was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

 
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William Knight

(1475/6 - 1547) [ODNB]

Diplomat; archdeacon of Chester (1522 - 41); archdeacon of Huntingdon (1523 - 41); archdeacon of Richmond (1529 - 41); bishop of Bath and Wells (1541 - 47)

William Knight was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

 
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William May

(c. 1505 - 1560) [ODNB]

BCL 1526 Cambridge; DCL 1531; president of Queens' College (c. 1540 - 1554, 1559 - death)

Dean of St Paul's (1546 - 54, 1559 - 60); archbishop-elect of York 1560

William May was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

John Marbeck's fourth examination was conducted by John Capon, John Skip, Thomas Goodrich, Robert Oking and William May. 1570, pp. 1393-94; 1576, pp. 1188-89; 1583, pp. 1216-17.

Bonner continued to hold private masses in St Paul's, and the king's council ordered these to be stopped. Bonner then wrote to the dean and chapter to that effect. 1563, p. 693; 1570, pp. 1492-93; 1576, p. 1265; 1583, p. 1302.

Another letter was sent by the king and council to Bonner, rebuking him and urging him to use the Book of Common Prayer. Bonner again wrote to the dean and chapter. 1563, pp. 693-94; 1570, p. 1494; 1576, p. 1266; 1583, p. 1303.

Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Sir John Cheke, William May and Thomas Wendy, king's visitors, attended the disputation at Cambridge in 1549. 1570, p. 1555; 1576, p. 1326; 1583, p. 1376.

Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, Nicholas Ridley, bishop of Rochester, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May, dean of St Paul's, were commissioned to examine Edmund Bonner. 1563, p. 697; 1570, p. 1504; 1576, p. 1275; 1583, p. 1312.

Bonner was summoned to appear before the commissioners. He behaved haughtily, ridiculing his accusers and the commissioners, and spoke in favour of the mass. He appeared first on 10 September 1549 before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre and William May. Sir Thomas Smith was absent. 1563, pp. 698-99; 1570, pp. 1504-06; 1576, pp. 1275-77; 1583, pp. 1312-14.

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Bonner appeared for the second time on 13 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May and was further examined. 1563, pp. 699-704; 1570, pp. 1506-08; 1576, pp. 1277-79; 1583, pp. 1314-17.

Bonner appeared for the third time on 16 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir Thomas Smith and William May to answer the articles put to him at the previous session. John Hooper and William Latymer also appeared in order to purge themselves against the slanders of Bonner. 1563, pp. 704-709; 1570, pp. 1508-11; 1576, pp. 1279-80; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

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Bonner appeared before the commissioners for the fourth time on 18 September, at which session new articles were drawn up and new witnesses received. 1563, pp. 704-710; 1570, pp. 1508-12; 1576, pp. 1279-81; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

Bonner appeared for the fifth time before the commissioners on 20 September. During an interval, he instructed Gilbert Bourne, his chaplain, Robert Warnington, his commissary, and Robert Johnson, his registrar, to tell the mayor and aldermen of London to avoid reformed preachers. Bonner made his first appellation to the king. As a result of his behaviour during the proceedings, he was committed to the Marshalsea. 1563, pp. 713-717; 1570, pp. 1513-16; 1576, pp. 1282-85; 1583, pp. 1324-26.

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Bonner appeared for the sixth time before the commissioners on 23 September, when he presented a general recusation against all the commissioners and a second appellation to the king. A letter was read from Bonner to the mayor of London, Henry Amcottes, and aldermen. 1563, pp. 717-18; 1570, p. 1516; 1576, p. 1285; 1583, pp. 1326-27.

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Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Rugg (name in religion William Repps)

(d. 1550) [ODNB]

BTh Cambridge 1509; DTh 1513; abbot of St Benet of Hulme, Norfolk 1530

Bishop of Norwich (1536 - 50); resigned

William Rugg was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Rugg attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Rugg favoured retaining the seven sacraments. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

John Butler and William Smith were brought for examination before John Clerk, Richard Sampson and William Rugg. 1570, p. 1403; 1576, p. 1196; 1583, p. 1226.

William Rugg incited the duke of Norfolk against Rogers. Rogers was burnt, and within half a year the duke's position deteriorated, although it later recovered. 1563, p. 627; 1570, p. 1422; 1576, p. 1212; 1583, p. 1241.

Edward Seymour stood against the bishops of Chichester, Norwich, Lincoln, London and others at the consultation at Windsor in the first year of Edward VI's reign. 1570, p. 1551; 1576, p. 1322; 1583, p. 1372.

1088 [1064]

K. Henr. 8. The vprising of the Bishop of Rome. Bishops agaynst the Pope.

and seignories, and so transferre and geue the same to such persons as him liketh that is vtterly false and vntrue: For Christ neuer gaue vnto S. Peter, or vnto any of the Apostles, or their successors, any such authoritie. And the Apostles, S. Peter and S. Paule do teach and commaūd, that all Christen people, as well Priestes and Bishops as others, should be obediēt and subiec vtnto the Princes and Potentates of the world, although they were infidels.

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And as for the Bishop of Rome, it was many hūdreth yeares after Christ, before he could acquire or get any primacy or gouernance aboue any other Bishops, out of hys prouince in Italy: sith the which time he hath euer vsurped more and more. And though some part of his power was geuen vnto him by the consent of the Emperours, Kinges and Princes, and by the consent also of the Clergy in generall Counsels assembled: yet surely he atteyned the most part therof by maruellous subtlety and craft, and specially by colluding with great kings and princes, sometime trayning them into his deuotion by pretence and colour of holynesse and sanctimony, and sometime constraining them by force and tyranny. MarginaliaHow the Bishop of Rome rose by AmbitionWhereby the sayde Byshops of Rome aspired and rose at length vnto such greatnes in strength and authority, that they presumed and took vpon thē to be heads & to put lawes by thyr own authority, not onely vnto al other Bishops within Christēdome, but also vnto the Emperours, Kings, & other the Princes and Lordes of the worlde, and that vnder the pretence of the authority committed vnto them by the Gospell. Wherin the sayd Bishops of Rome do not onely abuse and peruert the true sense and meaning of Christes word: but they do also cleane contrarye to the vse and custome of the pri-primitiue Church: and so do manifestly violate, as wel the holy Canons made in the Churche immediately after the time of the Apostles, as also the degrees and constitutions made in that behalfe, by the holy Fathers of the Catholique church assēbled in the first general councelles. And finally they doe transgresse theyr own profession, made in theyr creation. For all the Bishops of Rome alwayes when they be consecrated and made Bishops of that See, doe make a solemne profession and vowe, that they shall inuiolably obserue and keepe al the ordinances made in the eight first generall Councels: 

Commentary  *  Close

The first eight general councils were 1) the first council of Nicaea (325); 2) the first council of Constantinople (381); 3) the council of Ephesus (431); 4) the council of Chalcedon (451); 5) the second council of Constantinople (553); 6) the third council of Constantinople (680-1); 7) the second council of Nicaea (787); and 8) the fourth council of Constantinople (869).

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Marginalia

Fyrst the generall Coūcell of Nice decreed, that the Patriarkes of Alexandria, & Antiochia, should haue like power ouer the countreis about those cities, as the Byshops of Rome had ouer the countreis about Rome.

In the Councell of Mileuitane it was decreed, that if a clerke of Aphrick would appeale out of Aphrick vnto any Byshop beyonde the sea, he should be takē as a person excommunicate.

In the generall Councel of Constantinople the firste, it was likewise decreed, that euery cause betwene any persons, should be determined within the prouynces where the matters did le: And that no Bishop shoulde exercise any power out of his owne dioces or prouinc. And this was also the minde of holy S. Cyprian, & of other holy men of Aphrica.

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To conclude therefore, the Pope hath no such primacy geuen him, eyther by the wordes of Scripture, or by any generall Councell, nor by commō consēt of the holy catholicke Church.

Concilium tertium.

Carthaginense, cap. 26.

Gregorius lib. 4. epistolarum indictione 13. epist. 13.

among the whiche it is specially prouided & enacted, that al causes shal be finished and determined with in the prouince where the same begun, and that by the byshops of the same prouince: and that no Byshop shall exercise any iurisdiction out of his owne dioces or prouince. And diuers such other Canons were then made and confirmed by the sayd councels, to represse and take away out of the Church, all such primacy and iurisdiction ouer kinges and Byshops, as the Byshops of Rome pretend nowe to haue ouer the same. And we finde that diuers good fathers Byshops of Rome did greatly reproue, yea and abhorre (as a thing cleane contrary to the Gospel, and the decrees of the church) that anye Byshop of Rome, or els where, shoulde presume, vsurpe, or take vpon him the title and name of þe vniuersal byshop, or of the head of all priestes, or of þt highest priest, or any such lyke title. For confirmation whereof, it is out of all doubt, þt there is no mention made, neyther in Scripture, nor in the writinges of any Autenticall doctor or author of the Church, being within the tyme of the apostles, that Christ did euer make or institute any distinction or difference to be in the preeminence of power, order or iurisdiction, betweene the Apostles thēselues, or betweene þe bishops themselues, but þt they were all equall in power order, authoritie, & iurisdiction. And that there is now and sith þe time of the Apostles, any such diuersitie, or difference among the Bishops, it was deuised by the ancient fathers of the primitiue Church, for the conseruation of good order and vnitie of the Catholicke church and that eyther by the consent and authoritie, or els at the least by the permission and sufferaunce of the princes and ciuill powers for the tyme ruling. &c.

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And shortly after followeth: And for the better confirtion of this part, we thinke it also conuenient, that all Byshops and preachers shal instruct and teach the people cōmitted vnto theyr spirituall charge, that Christ did by expresse words prohibit, that none of his Apostles nor any of theyr successors, should vnder the pretence of the authority geuen vnto them by Christ, take vpon them þe authoritie of þe sword: þt is to say, the authoritie of kings, or of any ciuillpower in this world, yea or any authoritie to make lawes or ordinances in causes appertayning vnto ciuil powers. Truth it is, the priestes and byshops may execute all suche temporall power & iurisdiction, as is cōmitted vnto them by þe ordinance & authoritie of kings or other ciuil powers & by the consent of the people (as officers and ministers vnder the sayd kinges and powers) so long as it shall please the sayd kinges and people to permit and suffer them so to vse and execute the same. Notwithstanding if anye bishop of what estate or dignitie so euer he be, be he bish. of Rome or of any other citie, prouince, or dioces, do presume or take vppon him authoritie or iurisdiction in causes or matters which appertayne vnto kinges and the ciuill powers and their Courtes, and will mayntayne or thinke that he may so do by þe authoritie of Christ and his Gospell, although þe kings and princes would not permit and suffer hym so to doe: MarginaliaThe Bishop of Rome iudged to be a tyrant and vsurper.No doubt that Byshop is not worthy to be called a Byshop, but rather a tyranne & an vsurper of other mens rightes, contrary to the lawes of god, and is worthy to be reputed none otherwise then hee that goeth about to subuert the kingdome of Christ. For the kingdome of Christ in his Church is a spirituall, and not a carnall kingdome of the world, that is to say, the very kingdome that Christ by himself, or by his Apostles and disciples sought here in this worlde, was to bring all nations from the carnall kingdome of the prince of darkenes, vnto the light of hys spirituall kingdome, & so to raygne himselfe in the harts of the people by grace, fayth, hope, and charitie. And therefore sith Christ did neuer seeke nor exercise anye worldly kyngdome or dominion in this worlde, but rather refusing and fleeing from þe same, did leaue the said worldly gouernance of kingdomes, realmes, and nations, to be gouerned by Princes & potentates (in like maner as he did finde them) & commaunded also his Apostles and Disciples to doe the sēblable, as it was sayd before: what soeuer priest or bishop will arrogate or presume vpō him any such authoritie, and will pretende the authoritie of the Gospell for his defence therin, he doth nothing els, but (in a maner as you would say) crowneth Christ agayne with a crowne of thorne, and traduceth, & bringeth him foorth agayne with his mantle of purpure vppon his backe, to be mocked and scorned of the world, as the Iewes did to their owne damnation.

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This doctrine was subscribed and allowed by the witnes and testimony of these byshops and other learned mē, whose names hereunder follow, as appeareth in the Byshops booke aforenamed.

Testes.
MarginaliaTestimonies of Bishops of England against the Pope.
Thomas Cantarien.Gloucester.
Edouardus Ebor.Edmundus Boner.
Iohannes London.Archdia Leicester.
Cuthbertus Dunel.Gulielmus Skippe,
Stephanus Winton.Archdiaco. Doset.
Robertus Carliolen.Nicholaus Heth. Archdiaco
Iohannes Exon.Stafford.
Iohannes Lincoln.Cuthbertus Mashall.
Iohannes Bathonien.Arch. Notingham.
Rolandus Couen. &Ricardus Curten.
Lich.Archdia. Oxon.
Thomas Elien.Gulielmus Glife.
Nicolaus Sarum.Galfridus Dovnes,
Ioannes Bangor.Robertus Oking.
Edouardus Herefor.Radulphus Bradford.
Hugo Wigornien.Richardus Smith.
Ioannes Roffen,Simon Mathew.
Richardus Cicestren,Ioannes Prin.
Guliel. Norwiccn.Guliel Buckmaster,
Gulielmus Meneuen.Gulielmus May.
Robertus Assauen.Nicolaus Wotton.
Robertus Landauen.Ricardus Coxe.
Ioannes Edmundes.
Richardus Wolman.Thomas Robertson,
Archdiaco. Sudbur.Ioannes Baker.
Gulielmus Knight.Thomas Barret.
Arch. Richmond.Iohannes Hase.
Ioannes Bel. Arch.ioannes Tyson.

These were Doctours of Diuinitie,
and of both Lawes.

Iudge now thy selfe (louing reader) per confessata & allegata: that is, by these thinges heretofore confessed, alledged, allowed, prooued and confirmed, by penne set forth, by wordes defended, and by othe subscribed by these Bishops and Doctours, if either Martine Luther himselfe or anye Lutherane els could or did euer say more agaynst þe proud vsurpation of the Bishop of Rome, then these men haue done. MarginaliaThe Byshops of England then good Lutherans.If they dissembled otherwise then they meant, who

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