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Athanasius of Alexandria

(c. 298 - 373) [Catholic Encyclopeda; Gams]

Patriarch of Alexandria (326 - 73); doctor of the church; opponent of Arianism

Athanasius praised Origen and used his testimonies against the Arians. 1570, p. 87; 1576, p. 60; 1583, p. 60.

Athanasius wrote that he knew monks and bishops who were married. 1570, p. 1350; 1576, p. 1152; 1583, p. 1181.

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Basil of Caesarea (the Great) (St Basil)

(c. 330 - 379) [Catholic Encyclopedia; Gams]

Cappadocian father of the church; bishop of Caesarea (370 - 79)

Thomas Arthur and Thomas Bilney, in their examination for heresy, cited Basil the Great as an authority. 1563, p. 465; 1570, p. 1137; 1576, p. 975; 1583, p. 1000.

He is mentioned as a source by Foxe: 1570, pp. 15, 127, 132; 1576, pp. 12, 92, 96; 1583, pp. 12, 91, 95.

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(d. 258) [Kelly]

Scholar; antipope (251 - 58) against Cornelius

Established a schismatic church, which lasted several centuries

Novatian opposed the reinstatement of lapsed Christians. 1570, p. 84; 1576, p. 58; 1583, p. 58.

Novatian was a priest under Cyprian in Carthage, where he appointed Felicissimus deacon without Cyprian's knowledge and stirred up factions. He later went to Rome and set himself up as antipope in opposition to Cornelius. 1570, p. 93; 1576, p. 65; 1583, p. 64.

Some of Novatian's chief supporters eventually returned to Cornelius. A synod was held in Rome in opposition to him. 1570, p. 93; 1576, p. 65; 1583, p. 65.

1091 [1067]

K. Henry. 8. A Letter of Tonstall and Stokesley to Cardinall Poole.

tries, as well byshoppes as others much infected with the heresies of the Arrians 

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An anti-Trinitarian sect condemned at Nicaea. Arians believed that the Father, Son and Holy Spirit were not of the same substance.

, whereof the West was in a manner cleare, and among them of the Orient, none were counted indifferent to decide those matters, but were al suspected of affectiō for one cause or other. Wherefore they desired the opinions of the Bishops of the West, as indifferent, and not tangled with affections of any of those partes, neither corrupted with any of the Arrians, as appeareth by the Epistles of S. Basil, written in all their names for the saide purpose In the which also it is especially to be noted, that their suite was not to the Bishop of Rome singularly, or by name: but (as the titles do shew) to the whole congregation of the Bishops of Italie, and Fraunce, or of the whole West, and sometime preferring the French and Italian Bishops, saying, Gallis, & Italis and neuer naming the Romanes. MarginaliaThe olde fathers neuer knew the Primacye of the church of Rome.And for a cleare proofe that the auncient fathers knewe not this premacie of one aboue all, we neede none other testimonie, but their determination in the Councel of Nice, that Alexandria, and Antiochia, and vniuersally all other primates, should haue the whole gouernance of their confine countries, like as the Bishop of Rome had of those that inhabited within his suburbes. And this determination proueth also, that your three Scriptures ment nothing lesse, then this primacie ouer all. For God forbid that we should suspect that Councel as ignorant of those plaine Scriptures, to the which sith that time, all Christendome hath leaned, as the anker of our fayth. And if you like to read the ancient Ecclesiasticall histories, there you may see, that Athanasius and other patriarches did execute that primacie, as in making consecrating, and ordering of Churches, Bishops and Clerkes in their countries East and South, as the Byshoppes of Rome in that time did in the West and North.

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And if you woulde yet any thing obiect against any of these witnesses, then for to eschew contention, and for a finall conclusion, let the bishop of Rome stand to his owne confession made many yeres past by his predecessor Agatho 

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The bishops refer here to Pope St Agatho of the late seventh century and to his epistles to emperors Constantine, Heraclius and Tiberius, wherein Roman supremacy was supposedly denied. These letters can be found in Agatho, 'S Agathonis Papae Epistolae', in Patrologiae cursus completus: series Latina, 221 vols., ed. by J P Migne (Paris, 1844-1903), lxxxvii, pp.1161-1260.

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to the Emperor Constantine, Heraclius, & Tiberius, in his Epistle written to them in his name, and in the name of all the Synodes which he thought to be vnder the See apostolicke: wherein soone after the beginning of the Epistle, he comprehendeth them all vnder the name of the byshoppes dwelling in the North and West partes of their Empire: So that there in his owne Epistle, he confesseth all his subiectes and obedienciaries to be onely of the North and West: and so it appeareth euidently by his owne confession, that neyther by Gods lawe dor by mans law he had to do with any person of the East or South. MarginaliaIn the tyme of Pope Agatho, the Sea of Rome had no rule ouer the East and South churches. And this his high souerainty ouer al, chalenged (as you and others say) by Scripture as by his own confession doth appeare, is brought into a litle and a straight angle. And this Agatho was not a man vnlearned, as appeareth by the actes of the vj. synode of Constantinople in the 4. act, wherein is written at large and expressed the saide Epistle and confession. MarginaliaPeters primacy hath no successours.And the primacie of Peter, which auncient doctors speake of, which was only in preaching and teaching the faith of Christ, which he first among all the Apostles, aud first of all mortall men, did expresse with his mouth, did after so adhere to his owne person, that it was neuer deriued either to any successor, or to any other apostle, but chiefly to himselfe: for all other afterwardes professing the same, spake it according vnto him, who had professed it before. Moreouer, MarginaliaApoc. the Apostles (as S. Iohn saith) be foundations in the heauenlie Ierusalem, and not Peter only. Also Cyprian affirmeth (as is aforesaid) that all the apostles were of equall dignitie and power: whiche all ancient authors likewise doe affirme. For Christ gaue 
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Matthew 28.19.

the apostles like power in the Gospell, saying: MarginaliaMath. 28.Go and teach all nations baptizing them, &c. And S. Paul (as is said before) knew no other primacie giuen to Peter to preache in any place, but among the Iewes as he himselfe had among the Gentiles, as he writeth to Galat. 
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The entire epistle is a vindication of Paul's apostolic authority, but especially 1.11-2.21.

Whervpon S. Ambrose writing (as is aforesayde) affirmeth the same. And that the mother of all Churches is Ierusalem (as afore is saide) and not Rome, the scripture is plaine, bothe in the Prophette Esaye: 
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Isaiah 2.3.

MarginaliaEsa. 2.Out of Syon shall the law proceed, and the word of the Lord out of Ierusalem. Vpon the which place S. Hierome sayth: In Hierusalem primum fundata ecclesia, totius orbis ecclesias seminauit: Out of the Church being first founded in Hierusalem, sprong all other churches of the whole worlde.) And also in the Gospell whiche Christ before his ascension commaunded his Apostles to preache throughout al the world, beginning first at Ierusalem: So that the byshop of Romes vniuersal power by him claymed ouer all, can not by any scripture be iustified: as if you haue read the auncient fathers expositions of the said scriptures (as we suppose you haue, sith your letters sent hyther concerning this matter) and would giue more credence to their humble and plaine speaking then to the latter contentious and ambitious writers of that high and aboue the Ideas of Plato 
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This begins a section devoted to rational thinking.

his subtilitie (which passeth as you write) the lawiers learning and capacitie: we doubt not but that you perceiue and thinke the same.

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MarginaliaA Prince may be eead of his churh and yet not preach nor minister Sacramentes.And where you thinke that the king can not be taken as supreme head of the Church, because he can not exercise the chiefe office of the Church in preaching and ministring of the sacramentes: it is not requisite 

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In his Pro Ecclesiasticae Unitatis Defensione, Pole had made the argument that he could never accept any argument of supreme authority invested in a temporal ruler (or sacerdotal monarchy) making the familiar argument that; 'If the soul is superior to the body, then faith is superior to reason, thus spiritual to temporal, and church over state', and used this as evidence that popes are superior to kings [for which, see Pro Ecclesiasticae Unitatis Defensione (Rome, c.1537), sigs. xxiv-xxiirv]. The bishops respond [at Public Records Office, State Papers 1/113, fol.8v] with Plato's famous body analogy [found in Timaeus]. In essence, the 'body politic' is examined through a series of logical connections between society and the human body - society (due to the organic nature of the state) should function is a manner similar to a body.

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in euerie bodie naturall, that the head should exercise eyther all maner of offices of the body, or thechiefe office of the same. For albeit the head is the highest & chief member of the naturall body, yet the distribution of life to al the members of the body, as well to the head as to other members, commeth from the heart, and it is the minister of life to the whole body, as the chiefe act of the body. Neyther yet hath this similitude his full place in a mysticall body, that a king shoulde haue the chiefe office of administration in the same: And yet notwithstanding the scripture speaking 
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I Samuel 15.17.

of king Saule, sayth MarginaliaReg. 15.I made thee head amongest the tribes of Israell. And if a king amongest 
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The bishops are drawing a logical conclusion.

the Iewes were the head in the tribes of Israell, in the time of the lawe, muche more is a Christian king head in the tribes of spirituall Israell, that is, of such as by true fayth see Christ who is the end of the law. The office deputed to the byshops 
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Ezekiel 3.17. This carries on both the natural/political body analogy and the commonality of the authority of spiritual officers (priests/bishops) arguments. The bishops flesh this out below with comparisons between the authority of a king with that of an admiral at sea and a captain on the field of battle.

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in the misticall body, is to be as eyes to the whole body, as almighty God saith to the prophet Ezechiell: MarginaliaEzech. 3. I haue made thee an ouerseer ouer the house of Israell. MarginaliaA bishop is a eye in the head, but not the head of the mystical bodye.And what Byshops soeuer refuseth to vse the office of an eye in the misticall body, to shew vnto the body the right way of beleeuing and liuing, which appertayneth to the spirituall eye to doe, shall shew himselfe to be a blinde eye: and if hee shall take anye other office in hand then appertayneth to the right eye, he shall make a confusion in the body, taking vppon hym an other office then is geuen him of God. Wherfore if the eye will not take vpon him the office of the whole head, it may be aunswered, it cannot so do, for it lacketh brayne. And examples shew likewise, that it is not necessary alway rhat the head should haue the facultie or chiefe office of administration, as you may see in a nauie by sea, where the admirall who is captayne ouer all, doth not meddle with stering or gouerning of euery ship, but euery mayster particular must direct the shyp to passe the sea in breaking the waues by his steryng and gouernaunce, whiche the admirall the head of all doth not hymselfe, nor yet hath the facultie to doe, but commaundeth the maysters of the ship to do it MarginaliaThe office of a head standeth not in doing but in cōmaunding.And likewise many a captayne of great armyes, whiche is not able, nor neuer coulde peraduenture shoote, or breake a speare by hys own strength, yet by his wisedome and commaundement onely atchieueth the warres, and attayneth the victory.

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MarginaliaVnity what it is, and wherein it consisteth.And where you thinke that vnitie standeth not onely in the agreeing in one fayth and doctrine of the Church, but also in agreeing in one head: if you meane the 

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This is a reference to St Augustine's City of God (book 22, chapter 18). The allusion is to the church as body and Christ as head of that body. This is to counter any argument of papal supremacy.

very & onely head ouer all the churche our Sauiour Christ: Whome the Father hath set ouer all the Church: which is his body, wherein all good Christen men doe agree, therin you say truth. But if you meane of any one mortall man to be head ouer all the Church and that to be the bishop of Rome, we do not agree with you: For you doe there erre in the true vnderstanding of Scripture, or els you must say, that the sayd Councell of Nice, and other most auncient did erre, which deuided the administration of Churches, the Orient from the Occident, and the South from the North, as is before expressed, and that Christ 
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Matthew 18.20.

the vniuersal head is present in euery church, the Gospell sheweth
: MarginaliaMath. 28.Where two or three be gathered together in my name, there am I in the middes of them. And in an other place: 
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Matthew 28.20.

Behold, MarginaliaMath. 28.I am wyth you, vntill the end of the world. By which it may appeare christ the vniuersall head, euery where to be with hys misticall body the Church: who by hys spirite worketh in all places (how far soeuer they be distaunt) the vnitie and concorde of the same. And as for any other vniuersall head to be euer all, then christ himselfe, Scripture prooueth not, as it is shewed before. MarginaliaAunswere to S. Ciprian.And yet for a further proofe, to take away the scruples, that peraduenture doe to your appearaunce rise of certayne wordes in some auncient authors, and especially in S. Cyprians epistles as that the vnitie of the church stood in the vnity with the bishop of Rome, though they neuer call him supreme head, if you will wey and conferre all their sayinges together, you shal perceiue that they neither spake nor ment otherwise, but whē the bishop of Rome was once lawfully elected and enthroned, if then anye other woulde by faction, might force, or otherwise, (the other liuing and doing his office) enterprise to put him downe, and vsurpe the same Bishopricke, or exercise the others office him selfe, as Nouatianus 
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The bishops are discussing the election of Novatian (elected as antipope) during the papacy of Cornelius (c.251). St Cyprian secured support for Cornelius' rightful election as bishop of Rome (not as supreme head of the church - as Pole interpreted the epistles).

did attempt in the tyme of Cornelius: then the sayd fathers reckoned them Catholicks that did communicate with him that was so lawfully elected, and the custome was, one primacye to haue to doe with an other, by congratulatorye letters soone after the certayntye of theyr election was knowne, to keepe the vnity of the Church: and that they that did take part or mayntayne the vsurper, to be schismatickes, because that vsurper was a schismaticke. Quia non sit fas in eadem ecclesia, duos simul Episcopos esse, nec priorem ligitimum Episcopum sine sua culpa deponi: Because it was not lawfull 
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The bishops are referring to epistles 41-3 [for which, see the on-line edition at].

for two Bishoppes to be at once together in one Church, neyther the former Byshop being lawfull, to bee deposed without his fault were proued. MarginaliaThe church of Rome hath no more prerogatiue, then any other Church.And this is not a prerogatiue of the church of Rome, more thē of any other cathedrall, speciall, patriarchall, or metropoliticall church, as appeareth in the third Epistle of the first booke, and in the eight of the second, and of the fourth booke of S. Syprian to Cornelius.

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