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Lady Anne Walsh (née Poyntz)

Wife of Sir John Walsh; daughter of Sir Robert Poyntz [D. Daniell, William Tyndale; ODNB sub William Tyndale]

of Gloucestershire; Tyndale was schoolmaster to her children; Tyndale termed her wise

Lady Anne and her husband joined in discussing religion with a variety of senior clergy and with William Tyndale, schoolmaster to their children. After Tyndale gave his master and mistress a copy of a book of Erasmus he had translated, they invited the clergy less frequently. 1563, p. 518; 1570, p. 1225; 1576, p. 1048; 1583, p. 1075.

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Matthew Parker

Chancellor of the diocese of Worcester

By order of the archbishop of Canterbury and convocation, Dr Parker exhumed the body of William Tracy and burned it. 1570, p. 1186; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1042.

Parker examined William Tyndale on charges of heresy. 1563, p. 518; 1570, p. 1225; 1576, p. 1049; 1583, pp. 1075-76.

 
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Sir John Walsh

Knight of Gloucestershire; twice high sheriff [D. Daniell, William Tyndale; ODNB sub Tyndale]

Had been at court with young Henry VIII; Tyndale was schoolmaster to his children

Sir John Walsh and his wife commonly had senior clergy dining with them, who regularly conversed with their children's schoolmaster, William Tyndale. After Tyndale gave his master and mistress a copy of a book of Erasmus he had translated, they invited the clergy less frequently. 1563, p. 518; 1570, pp. 1224-25; 1576, p. 1048; 1583, p. 1075.

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William Tyndale

(c. 1494 - 1536) [ODNB]

Translator of the bible and religious reformer; martyr

BA Oxford 1512; MA 1515; read theology

Strangled and burnt at Vilvorde Castle

John Frith was converted at Cambridge by William Tyndale. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1031.

Foxe erroneously includes Tyndale in a list of scholars imprisoned at Cardinal College, Oxford. Tyndale was in Germany at this time. [ODNB sub John Frith] 1563, p. 441; 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

William Tyndale was schoolmaster to Sir John Walsh's children. Sir John and his wife joined in discussing religion with a variety of senior clergy and with Tyndale. After Tyndale gave his master and mistress a copy his translation of Erasmus's Enchiridion militis Christiani, they invited the clergy less frequently. 1563, p. 518; 1570, p. 1225; 1576, p. 1048; 1583, p. 1075.

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Tyndale was examined on a charge of heresy by the bishop's chancellor. He returned to his master, but was troubled by the priests in the area and left for London. He tried to enter the service of Tunstall, the bishop of London, but was unsuccessful. Eventually, with the aid of Humphrey Monmouth and others, he left the country. 1563, p. 518; 1570, pp. 1225-26; 1576, p. 1049; 1583, pp. 1075-76.

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Humphrey Monmouth had heard Tyndale preach two or three sermons at St Dunstan-in-the-West. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

Tyndale preached repentance and had his books burned. 1570, p. 39; 1576, p. 32; 1583, p. 32.

Humphrey Monmouth was accused of helping William Tyndale and William Roy to get to the continent to join Martin Luther. Tyndale had wished to become chaplain to the bishop of London, but was turned down. Tyndale had lodged with Monmouth for about six months. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

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Tyndale went into Saxony and met Luther. 1570, p. 1226; 1576, p. 1050; 1583, p. 1076.

While in Germany, Tyndale met John Frith and became determined to translate the scriptures into English. Copies of these and other books he had written were sent to England. 1570, p. 1226; 1576, pp. 1049-50; 1583, p. 1076.

While abroad, Richard Bayfield met William Tyndale and John Frith and sold their books in France and in England. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

Simon Fish, sought by Cardinal Wolsey, was forced to go overseas to join Tyndale. While there, he wrote his book, Supplication for the Beggars. 1563, p. 448; 1570, pp. 1152-53; 1576, pp. 986-87; 1583, p. 1014.

Tyndale left Germany and went to Antwerp. As he was travelling to Hamburg, all his books and notes, including his translation of the book of Deuteronomy, were lost in a shipwreck. Miles Coverdale then helped him translate all of the first five books of the Old Testament in Hamburg. 1570, p. 1227; 1576, p. 1050; 1583, p. 1077.

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John Tyndale, William's brother, was charged in 1530 in London with having sent his brother five marks and having received and kept letters from him. 1570, p. 1185; 1576, p. 1014; 1583, p. 1041.

Lambert translated works from Latin and Greek to English and then went abroad to join William Tyndale and John Frith. 1563, p. 527; 1570, p. 1255; 1576, p. 1075; 1583, p. 1101.

Augustine Packington favoured William Tyndale, but pretended otherwise to Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of London, then in Antwerp. He offered to procure all the unsold copies of Tyndale's New Testament held by the merchants in the city if Tunstall would provide the money to buy them. Packington then paid Tyndale for the books, and Tyndale immediately had them reprinted. 1563, p. 443; 1570, pp. 1158-59; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1019.

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William Tyndale mentioned the martyr Thomas Hitten in his Apology against Sir Thomas More and in The Practice of Prelates. 1563, p. 1134; 1570, p. 971; 1576, p. ; 1583, pp. 997-98.

Both Sir Thomas More and William Tyndale related the story of how Humphrey of Lancaster proved the miracle of the blind man regaining his sight at St Albans to be fraudulant. 1563, p. 883.

William Tyndale was one of those Sir Thomas More in his The Supplication of Purgatory said the souls in purgatory railed against. 1570, p. 1156; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

Tyndale and Miles Coverdale translated the 'Matthew Bible'. Because Tyndale was arrested before it was completed, it was published under the name of Thomas Matthews. 1570, p. 1363; 1576, p. 1163; 1583, p. 1191.

Tyndale returned to Antwerp and lodged at a house of English merchants kept by Thomas Poyntz. He became acquainted with Henry Philips and obtained for him a place in the same house, befriended him and showed him his books. 1563, p. 515; 1570, p. 1227; 1576, p. 1050; 1583, p. 1077.

While Thomas Poyntes was away, Thomas Philips set a trap for Tyndale. He arranged for imperial officers to be ready in an alley when he tricked Tyndale into leaving the house. Tyndale was captured and imprisoned. 1563, p. 515; 1570, p. 1227; 1576, p. 1050; 1583, p. 1077.

Tyndale was strangled and then burnt at Villevorde. 1563, p. 519; 1570, p. 1229; 1576, p. 1052; 1583, p. 1079.

Tyndale wrote letters to John Frith in the Tower in London. 1563, pp. 520-22; 1570, pp. 1231-32; 1576, pp. 1053-55; 1583, pp. 1080-82.

Tyndale was one of the authors whose books were banned by the proclamation of 1546. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

1099 [1075]

K. Henry. 8. Supremacie of the king. The story of William Tindall Martyr.

(that is to say Gods law) in the matter, and such maner of dealing of the Pope, as hee hathe shewed vnto hym in the same, doing sundry iniuries wtout effect of iustice, wherein he promised the same. But as for the kings matter to the Pope: he shall entreat with him a parte. As touching your maiestie, he taketh you for his frend, & as to a frend he openeth these matters vnto you, trusting to find your maiesty no les frendly hereafter vnto him, then he hath done heretofore.

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By these matters thus passed and discoursed to and fro betwene the King and these forrain Princes aboue rehersed, many things are to be vnderstāded of the reader, who so is disposed to behold and consider the state & proceeding of publike affairs, as wel to the church apperteining, as to the common wealth. MarginaliaThe kinges diuorce iust.First howe the king cleareth himselfe both iustly and reasonably for hys diuorce made wt the Lady Katherine the Emperors aunt. MarginaliaThe kinges mariage with Q. Anne lawfull.Secondly, how he proueth and defendeth his mariage with Qucene Anne, to be iust & lawful, both by the authority of Gods word, and the comprobation of the best & most famous learned men and vniuersities, and also by the assent of the whole realme.

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Furthermore 

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This refers to the first 'Succession Act of 1534' (25 Henry VIII, c.22).

for the stablishing of the kings succession in the Imperiall crowne of this Realme, MarginaliaThe Pope suppressed.for the suppression of the pope, and vniting the MarginaliaThe kinges title of supremacy.title of supremacie vnto the kings Crowne, what order therein was taken, and what penaltie was sette vppon the same, as may appeare 
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This is a quote from the second part of the 'Treasons Act of 1534' (26 Henry VIII, c.13). [See, G R Elton, The Tudor Constitution, Documents and Commentary (Cambridge, 1972), p.63].

by the Act of Parliament set foorth. MarginaliaStatut. An. 26. Hen. 8. cap. 13.An. 1534. Ex Henr. Reg. 26. cap. 13. in these wordes following.

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MarginaliaDenying of the kinges supremacy. made treasō.If any person or persons after the I. of Februarie next, doe maliciously imagine, inuent, practise, or attempt to depriue the king of the dignitie, title, or name of hys royall estate. &c. that then euery such person and persones so offending in any of the premisses, their aiders, counsellors, cōsenters, and abbettours being therof lawfully conuict, according to the lawes and customes of this Realme, shalbe reputed, accepted, and adiudged traytours, and that euery suche offence in any the premisses committed or done after the said first day of February, shalbe reputed, accepted, and adiudged high treason: and the offenders, therein their aiders, consenters, counsellors and abbettors being lawfully conuict of any such offence, shall haue & suffer such pains of death and other penalties, as is limited and accustomed in cases of high treason.

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Vppon thys and suche other Actes concluded in those Parlamentes, what stomacke the Pope tooke, what stirre hee kept, and what practises 

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This refers to Cardinal Reginald Pole's activities at the court of Charles V and elsewhere to stir up an anti-Henry VIII crusade.

hee wrought wyth Cardinall Poole, to stirre vp other natiōs to warre against vs, what difficultie also there was wt the Emperor, with the French king, and with the king of Scottes about the matter, and what labour was vsed on the kings parte, to concile these Princes for hys owne indemnitie, to keepe him from their warres and inuasions, and especially to obtein the Popes approbation, and to auoide his censures of excommunication, and finally, what despitefull iniuries & open wrongs the Pope wrought against hym, vpon the which Pope the king had bestowed so much money, and great treasors before, all this likewise by the premisses may appeare.

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Wherefore, to end now with these, and to go forwarde in our storie, as the order and computation of yeares doe giue, we haue now consequently to enter into the storie of the good Martyr of God, William Tindal, being this present yeare falsly betraied and put to death. Whych William Tyndall, as he was a speciall organe of the Lord appoynted, and as Gods mattock to shake the inward rootes and foundation of the Popes proud prelacie: so the great prince of darknes, with his impious impes, hauing a special malice against him, left no way vnsought, how craftely to entrap him, and falsly to betray him, & maliciously to spil his life: as by the proces of his story here folowing may apear.

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¶ The life and storie of the true seruaunt and Martyr of God William Tyndall 
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William Tyndale

The Rerum contained a fairly substantial narrative on William Tyndale, which is about one-and-a half pages long (Rerum, pp. 138-9). Almost all of this narrative was taken from the account of Tyndale in Hall's chronicle, which Foxe followed very closely (cf. Edward Hall, The union of the two noble and illustre famelies of Lancastre and York [London, 1550], STC 12723a, fo. 2227r-v). Foxe also repeated Hall's story of Augustine Packington buying up all the copies of Tyndale's New Testament on behalf of Bishop Tunstall, who burned them, only to find out that Tyndale, now supplied with sorely needed capital from the sales of these copies, could easily print more (Hall, Union, fo. 186r-v). Foxe also added the story of a magician of Antwerp who was unable to practise his art when Tyndale was present. Foxe declared that he heard the story of a reliable merchant (Rerum, p. 139).

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In the 1563 edition, Foxe scrapped most of this material. He replaced it with two more detailed narratives. The first is of Tyndale's life in the Walsh household in Little Sodbury and it apparently came from someone associated with the household or at least in the area. The second narrative is a long account of Tyndale's arrest, betrayal and death supplied by Thomas Poyntz, Tyndale's host in Antwerp, or by someone close to him. (Foxe, however, retained two items from the Rerum account: praise of Tyndale's learning and character from the procurator who prosecuted him and the story of the magician. These items would be reprinted in every edition of the Acts and Monuments). In the 1563 edition, Foxe also added two letters from Tyndale to John Frith, although Foxe did not know that the letter addressed to 'Jacob' was actually sent to Frith, until after the 1563 edition was printed (see Luke 15:11-32).

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In the 1570 edition, Foxe added new information concerning Tyndale's early years, notably that Tyndale had attended Magdalen Hall, that he preached in Bristol and that he visited Germany (but there is actually no evidence that Tyndale visited Saxony. He did, however, visit Cologne in 1525, where his translation of the New Testament was partially printed, before the printing house was raided by the authorities. Tyndale then journeyed to the safe Lutheran city of Worms where his New Testament was printed in 1526. Exactly when Tyndale reached Antwerp is unknown, but it was in the years 1526-8). He gleaned additional information concerning Tyndale's time at Little Sodbury and of Tyndale's rebuff by Bishop Tunstall, from reading Tyndale's preface to his translation of the Pentateuch (William Tyndale, Doctrinal Treatises and Introductions to Different Portions of the Holy Scriptures, ed. Henry Walter, Parker Society (Cambridge 1848) pp.394-396). He also adds the story of Tyndale's shipwreck and his sojourn in Hamburg. To make room for these additons, Foxe had to cut the Poyntz narrative by almost half of its length. The account of Tyndale printed in the 1570 edition remained unchanged in subsequent editions.

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David Daniell has perceptively observed that, in the 1570 edition, Foxe recast his account of Tyndale to establish parallels between Tyndale and St. Paul. Daniell argues persausively that Foxe even included a fictitious account of Tyndale being shipwrecked (see David Daniell, 'Tyndale and Foxe' in John Foxe: Historical Perspectives, ed. David Loades (Aldershot, 1999), pp. 26-8.), to increase the analogy with the book of Acts (David Daniell, 'Tyndale and Foxe' in John and Foxe: An Historical Perspective, ed. David Loades [Ashgate, 1999], pp. 24-28). The account of Tyndale provides a good example of the strengths and weaknesses of Foxe's historical method. On the one hand, he preserved valuable narratives about Tyndale from those who knew him and he preserved two letters of Tyndale's which would otherwise have disappeared. On the other hand, he was not above including (and probably inventing) fictitous material to suit his didactic and moral purposes.

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The significance of these passages for the interpretation of Foxe's (or perhaps John Day's) picture of the significance of print culture for the reformation can be found in John N. King, '"The Light of Printing": William Tyndale, John Foxe, John Day, and Early Modern Print Culture', Renaissance Quarterly, 54 (2001), pp. 52-85, where David Daniell's analysis of Foxe's use of the Tyndale material is largely repeated.

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Thomas S. Freeman

: Who for his notable paines and trauell maye well be called the Apostle of England in this our latter age 
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This heading was added in the 1570 edition as part of the effort to compare Tyndale ('the Apostle of England') to St. Paul.

.

Marginalia

W. Tindall Martyr.

Anno 1536.

WIlliam Tindall the faithfull Minister and constant Martyr of Christ, was borne about the borders of Wales, and brought vp from a childe in the Vniuersitie of Oxforde, where he by long continuance grewe vp, and increased as well in the knowledge of tounges, and other liberall Artes, as especially in the knowledge of the Scriptures: whcrunto his mind was singularly addicted: MarginaliaThe first taste of gods truth in Magdalen Colledge, by the meanes of M. Tindall.In so much that hee lying then in Magdalene Hall, read priuely to certaine students and felowes of Magdalen Colledge, some parcell of Diuinitie: instructinge them in the knowledge and truth of the Scriptures. Whose maners also and conuersation being correspondent to the same, were suche, that all they which knewe him, reputed and esteemed hymto be a manne of most vertuous disposition, and of life vnspotted.

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Thus he in the Vniuersitie of Oxforde increasing more and more in learning and proceeding in degrees of the schooles, spying his time, remoued from thence to the Vniuersitie of Cambridge 

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There is no solid evidence that Tyndale attended Cambridge but a tenuous link is suggested in Magnus Williamson, 'Evangelicalism at Boston, Oxford and Windsor under Henry VIII: John Foxe's Narratives Recontextualized' in John Foxe at Home and Abroad, ed. David Loades (Aldershot, 2004), pp. 31-45.

, where after hee had likewyse made his aboade a certaine space, being nowe further ripened in the knowledge of Gods worde, leauing that Vniuersitie also, he resorted to one M. Welche a Knight of Glocestershire 
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Sir John Walsh, lord of the manor of Little Sodbury, was later twice elected high sheriff of Gloucestershire. He had connections with the Tyndale family, having handed over his position as crown steward for the Berkeley estates to Edward Tyndale, William's elder brother.

, and was there Scholemaister to his children, and in good fauour with his master. This Gentleman, as he kept a good ordinarie commōly at his table, ther resorted to him many times sondry Abbots, Deanes, Archdeacons, wyth other diuers Doctors and great beneficed men: who there together with M. Tindall sitting at the same table, did vse many times to enter communication and talke of learned men, as of Luther and of Erasmus: Also of diuers other controuersies and questions vpon the Scripture.

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MarginaliaTindall disputing with the Doctours.Then maister Tindall, as hee was learned and well practised in Gods matters, so he spared not to shewe vnto them simply and plainely hys iudgement in matters, as hee thought: and when as they at any time did varie from Tyndal in opinions and iudgement, he would shew them in the booke, and lay plainly before them the open and manifest places of the Scriptures, to confute their errors, and to confirme his sayings. And thus cōtinued they for a certaine season, reasoning and contēding together diuers and sondry times, till at lengthe they waxed weary, and bare a secrete grudge in their hearts against him.

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Not longe after thys, it happened that certaine of these great Doctours had inuited M. Welche and his wife to a banket: where they had talke at wil and pleasure, vttering their blindnesse and ignoraunce without any resistance or gainesaying. Then M. Welche and his wife commynge home and calling for M. Tyndall, began to reason wt him about those matters, whereof the Priestes had talked before at their banket. MarginaliaTindall instructeth M. Welch and his wyfe in the truth.M. Tyndall answering by scriptures, maintained the truthe, and reproued their false opinions. Then sayde the Ladye Welche, a stoute and a wise woman (as Tyndall reported). Well (sayd shee) there was suche a Doctour which may dispend a C. li. and another CC. li. & an other CCC. li. and what? were it reason, think you, that we should beleue you before them? Maister Tindall gaue her no answere at that time, nor also after that (because hee sawe it would not auaile) he talked but little in those matters. At that time hee was about the translation of a booke called Enchiridion militis Christiani, MarginaliaEnchiridion a booke of Erasmus, translated by Tindall. which being translated 

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This is, of course, Erasmus's celebrated Enchiridion. It is unlikely that Tyndale was the translator of the edition of this work printed by Wynkyn de Worde in 1533 and if Tyndale did translate Erasmus's spiritual handbook, then his translation is now lost.

, he deliuered to his maister and Ladie. Who after they had read & well perused the same, the Doctorly Prelates were no more so often called to the house, neyther had they the cheare & countenance when they came, as before they had. Which thyng they marking and well perceiuing, and supposing no lesse but it came by the meanes of M. Tyndall, refrained them selues, and at last vtterly withdrew themselues, and came no more there.

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MarginaliaThe priestes storme agaynst Tindall.As thys grewe on, the Priestes of the Countrey clustring together, began to grudge and storme against Tindall, railing againste him in Alehouses and other places. Of whome Tyndall him selfe in his Prologue before the first booke of Moses 

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The quotation is actually from Tyndale's preface to the Penteteuch, not his prologue to Genesis. See William Tyndale, Doctrinal Treatises and Introductions to Different Portions of the Holy Scriptures, ed. Henry Walter, Parker Society (Cambridge 1848), p. 394.

, this testifieth in his own words, and reporteth that he suffred much in that countrey bya sort of vnlearned Priestes, MarginaliaThe rudenes of the countrey priestes.being full rude and ignoraunt (sayeth hee) God knoweth: which haue seene no more Latine then that onely which they read in their Portesses & Missalles: (whyche yet many of them can scarsely reade) excepte it be Albertus de secretis mulierum, 
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This was a popular medieval manual on gynecology and obstetrics attributed (incorrectly) to Albertus Magnus.

in which yet thoughe they be neuer so sorily learned, they pore day and night, and make notes therein, and all to teache the midwiues, as they say: and also an other called Lynwood 
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The reference is to William Linwood's collection of the constitutions of the Archbishop's of Canterbury from Stephen Langton to Lindwood's contemporary Henry Chichele.

, a booke of constitutions to gather tythes, mortuaries, offerings, customes, and other pillage, which they call not theirs, but Gods part, the duetie of holy Church, to discharge theyr consciences withall. For they are bound that they shal not diminish but encrease all things vnto þe vttermost of theyr powers, which pertaine to holy church. MarginaliaTindal troubled by the priests of the countrey.Thus these blind & rude Priestes flocking together to the Alehouse (for that was their preaching place) raged and railed againste him, affirming that his sayings were heresie: adding moreouer vnto hys sayings of their owne heades: more then euer he spake, and so accused him secretely to the Chauncelour and other of the Bishops Officers.

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MarginaliaTindall called before the Bishops Chauncellour.It followed not long after this, that there was a sitting of the bishops Chancellour appoynted 

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The account of Tyndale's encounter with the bishop's chancellor (Matthew Parker, who gained notoriety for ordering the exhumation of William Tracy - Parker burned Tracy's body in addition to exhuming it, which was illegal without receipt of a writ from Chancery and without the burning being managed by secular officials. Richard Tracy, William's son, petitioned the king, asking that Parker be punished for this violation of the law. Ultimately Parker was fined £100. (See John T. Day, 'William Tracy's Posthumous Legal Problems' in William Tyndale and the Law, ed. John A. R. Dick and Anne Richardson [Kirksville, MO, 1994], pp. 110-11)) is based on Tyndale's preface to the Penteteuch; see William Tyndale, Doctrinal Treatises and Introductions to Different Portions of Holy Scriptures, ed. Henry Walter, Parker Society (Cambridge, 1848), pp. 394-5. However, it is probably derived from Foxe's Gloucestershire informant , as Foxe does not seem to have consulted Tyndale's introduction before compiling the 1563 edition where this account first appears.

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, and warning was giuen to the priests to appeare: amongest whom M. Tindall was also warned to be there. And whether hee had any misdoubte by their threatnings, or knowledge geuen hym that they woulde lay some thyngs to hys charge it is vncertaine: but certaine this is (as hee hym selfe declared)

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that
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