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Anne Boleyn

(c. 1500 - 1536) [ODNB]

Queen of England (1533 - 36); 2nd wife of Henry VIII; beheaded

While considering the question of the king's divorce, Cardinal Wolsey became aware that King Henry favoured Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1195; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1051.

Anne Boleyn was sent a copy of Simon Fish's Supplication for the Beggars. At the urging of her brother, she showed the book to the king. 1570, p. 448; 1570, p. 1153; 1576, p. 956; 1583, p. 1014.

Parliament approved Thomas Cranmer's separation of Henry and Catherine and his marriage to Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1197; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1053.

Henry married Anne Boleyn. She, her father and her brother maintained many learned men at Cambridge. 1570, p. 1198; 1576, pp. 1025-26; 1583, p. 1054.

Anne was crowned and soon after gave birth to a daughter. 1570, p. 1198; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1054.

Anne had Hugh Latimer placed in the bishopric of Worcester and Nicholas Shaxton in the bishopric of Salisbury. 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1055; 1583, p. 1082.

In 1536 parliament declared the marriage of the king and Queen Anne illegitimate and accused the queen of carnal relations with her brother and other men. 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1055; 1583, p. 1082.

Anne was imprisoned in the Tower with her brother and others. She was beheaded, delivering a short address before. 1563, p. 526; 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1055; 1583, p. 1082.

Catherine of Aragon died in the same year in which Anne Boleyn and William Tyndale were executed. 1570, p. 1232; 1576, p. 1055; 1583, p. 1082.

Anne Boleyn is given as an example of one wrongly accused and judged. 1570, p. 1360; 1576, p. 1161; 1583, p. 1189.

 
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François I

(1494 - 1547)

King of France (1515 - 47)

Having engaged in wars against Charles V, allied to Henry VIII, François I was captured at the battle of Pavia by the duke of Bourbon and the viceroy of Naples and taken into Spain in 1525. 1570, p. 1122; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 987.

François was imprisoned for over a year, until he agreed with the emperor to focus their joint efforts against the Lutherans and Turks. François left his eldest sons, François and Henri, behind as pledges, but he was absolved of his oath by the pope. 1570, p. 1122; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 987.

Henry VIII ordered a religious procession in London in 1535 because the French king was ill. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

After the Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII attempted to improve relations with other monarchs by sending ambassadors. Sir Francis Brian was sent to François I. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

Paul III sent Cardinal Pole to the French king to stir him to war against Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

François I of France and Emperor Charles V retained Robert Granceter, a condemned traitor, and refused to hand him over to Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

François had allied himself with Pope Clement VII in marrying his son to Clement's niece. He also married his daughter to James V of Scotland, breaking an agreement with Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1088.

Cromwell was instrumental in getting Edmund Bonner's nomination to the bishopric of London. He procured letters from King Henry to François I that resulted in a licence being granted to print bibles in English at the University of Paris. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1191.

Although Edmund Bonner performed his ambassadorial duties well as far as Henry VIII was concerned, he displeased the king of France, who asked for him to be recalled. Henry recalled him and sent Sir John Wallop to replace him. 1570, p. 1245; 1576, p. 1066; 1583, p. 1093.

 
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George Joye

(1490x95 - 1553) [ODNB]

Evangelical author; BA Cambridge 1513; BTh 1524-5. Suspected of heresy, fled abroad in 1527; revised Tyndale's 1526 English New Testament in 1534 (Tyndale produced his own 3 months later); in conflict with Gardiner; returned to England after the death of Henry VIII

In a letter to John Frith, William Tyndale reported that George Joye in Bergen op Zoom had printed two leaves of Genesis and sent one copy to the king and the other to the new queen (Anne). He had also asked for licence to print the whole of the scriptures. 1563, p. 521; 1570, p. 1231; 1576, p. 1054; 1583, p. 1081.

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George Joye wrote a rejoinder to Stephen Gardiner's articles against Robert Barnes. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, p. 1169; 1583, p. 1198.

Joye was one of the authors whose books were banned by the proclamation of 1546. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

In a letter to Edward Seymour, Lord Protector, Stephen Gardiner complained of Joye's books. 1563, p. 733; 1583, p. 1342.

 
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Philip Melancthon (Philipp Schwartzerdt)

(1497 - 1560) [C. Scott Dixon, M. Greengrass, www.leedstrinity.ac.uk/histcourse/reformat/biograph.htm]

Educated at Heidelberg (1509 - 12) and Tübingen (1512 - 18); professor of Greek at Wittenberg 1518; protestant reformer, associate of Luther; split the Lutheran movement

In his oration for his BTh at Cambridge, Hugh Latimer spoke against Philip Melancthon. He was heard by Thomas Bilney, who converted him to a reformed position. 1570, p. 1146; 1576, p. 981; 1583, p. 1008.

Robert Barnes fled England and went to Germany, where he found favour with Luther, Melancthon, Bugenhagen, Justus Jonas, Hegendorph, Aepinus, the duke of Saxony and the king of Denmark. 1563, p. 603; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1165; 1583, p. 1194.

Melancthon wrote a letter to Henry VIII against the Six Articles. In it he complained of the imprisonment of Hugh Latimer, Edward Crome and Nicholas Shaxton. 1570, pp. 1340-44; 1576, pp. 1144-47; 1583, pp. 1172-76.

 
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Thomas Bilney

(c. 1495 - 1531) [Fines; ODNB]

Proctor of Cambridge; evangelical reformer; martyr burnt at Norwich

While at Cambridge, Bilney converted to a reformed religion and convinced others there, including Thomas Arthur and Hugh Latimer. Bilney and Arthur left the university, going about teaching and preaching. Cardinal Wolsey had them imprisoned in 1527. 1563, pp. 461, 481; 1570, pp. 1134-35; 1576, p. 972; 1583, p. 998.

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John Lambert was converted at Cambridge by Thomas Bilney. 1563, pp. 482, 527; 1570, p. 1255; 1576, p. 1075; 1583, p. 1101.

Bilney was well acquainted with Thomas Benet. 1570, p. 1180; 1576, p. 1009; 1583, p. 1037.

Bilney preached repentance and had his books burned. 1570, p. 39; 1576, p. 32; 1583, p. 32.

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

Thomas Bilney wrote five letters to Tunstall. 1563, pp. 465-73; 1570, pp. 1140-47; 1576, pp. 977-81; 1583, pp. 1003-08.

Thomas Bilney and John Brusyerd entered into a dialogue on images in Ipswich around the time of Bilney's examination. 1563, pp. 474-79; 1570, pp. 1138-40; 1576, pp. 975-76; 1583, pp. 1001-03.

Bilney initially refused to recant and asked to introduce witnesses; this request was refused by the bishop of London because it was too late in the proceedings. Bilney was given two nights to consult with his friends, and they persuaded him to abjure. 1563, p. 479; 1570, p. 1140; 1576, p. 977; 1583, p. 1003.

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Thomas Wolsey forced Thomas Arthur, Thomas Bilney, Geoffrey Lome and Thomas Garrard to abjure for speaking against the authority of the pope. 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 994.

Bilney was sentenced to bear a faggot at Paul's Cross and to imprisonment at the pleasure of Cardinal Wolsey. 1563, p. 479; 1570, p. 1140; 1576, p. 977; 1583, p. 1003.

For two years Bilney repented of his abjuration. He moved to Norfolk and preached openly. He was arrested when he gave books to an anchoress he had converted in Norwich. Richard Nix obtained a writ for his burning. 1570, p. 1146; 1576, p. 981; 1583, p. 1008.

Lawrence Staple was charged in London in 1531 for, among other things, receiving four copies of Tyndale's New Testament from Bilney. 1570, p. 1187; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1043.

Edmund Peerson presented a list of charges against Richard Bayfield in 1531, especially concerning Bayfield's praise for Thomas Arthur and Thomas Bilney. 1570, p. 1191; 1576, p. 1020; 1583, p. 1048.

Bilney was arrested by the sheriff, Thomas Necton, his good friend. He was examined and condemned by Thomas Pelles. The night before his burning, his friends found him cheerful and enjoying his dinner. He put his finger into the candle flame several times to test the heat. He was burnt the next day at Lollards' Pit in Norwich. 1563, pp. 482-83; 1570, pp. 1150-51; 1576, pp. 984-85; 1583, p. 1012.

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Michael Lobley was charged in London in 1531 for, among other things, saying that Bilney was a good man. 1570, p. 1189; 1576, p. 1017; 1583, p. 1046.

 
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Antwerp

[Antwarpe]

Flanders, Belgium

Coordinates: 51° 13' 0" N, 4° 24' 0" E

 
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Bergen-op-Zoom

[Barrow]

North Brabant, Netherlands

Coordinates: 51° 30' 0" N, 4° 18' 0" E

 
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Lille (Insula: Latin; Rijsel: Dutch)

[Lisle; Insulam; Rysels]

Nord-Pas de Calais, France

Coordinates: 50° 37' 57" N, 3° 3' 30" E

 
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Luke

Flanders

 
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Rouen

[Rowocum; Rhone; Rouan; Roan; Roane; Rowan; Rhoan]

Normandy, France

Coordinates: 49° 26' 38" N, 1° 6' 12" E

Capital of Normandy; cathedral city

1105 [1081]

K. Hen. The story and letters of William Tindall Martyr.

that it may be fashioned like vnto his glorious body, according to the working wherby he is able euen to subiect al things vnto him 

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Romans 8: 13, Phil. 3: 21.

.

MarginaliaBoldnes of spirite.Dearely beloued, be of good courage, and comfort your soule with the hope of this hye reward, and beare the image of Christ in your mortall body, that it may at his comming be made like to his immortall: and followe the example of all youre other deare breethren, which choose to suffer in hope of a better resurrection. Keepe your conscience pure and vndefiled, MarginaliaWounde not Conscience, and say against that nothing. Sticke at necessary things, MarginaliaStanding vpon things necessarye. and remember the blasphemies of the enemies of Christ, saieng: they finde none but that wil abiure rather then suffer the extremitie. Moreouer, the death of them that come againe after they haue once denied, though it bee accepted wyth God, and all that beleeue, yet is it not glorious, for the hypocrites say, MarginaliaDeath after denying euil spoken of by the aduersaryes.he must needes dye, denyeng helpeth not: But might it haue holpen, they would haue denied fiue hundreth times: but seeing it would not helpe them, therefore of pure pride and meere malice together, they spake with their mouthes, that their conscience knoweth false. MarginaliaObedience to God.If you geue your selfe, cast your selfe, yeeld your selfe, commit your selfe wholy and onely to your louing father, then shall his power be in you and make you strōg, and that so strong, that you shall feele no payne: which should be to another present death: and his spirite shall speake in you, and teach you what to aunswere, according to his promise. He shall set out his truth by you wonderfully, and worke for you aboue all that your hart can imagine: Yea, and you are not yet dead, though the hypocrites all, with all they can make, haue sworne your death. Vna salus victis, nullam sperare salutem: MarginaliaTo looke for no mans helpe, bringeth Gods helpe.To looke for no mans helpe, bringeth the helpe of God to them that seeme to be ouercome in the eyes of the hypocrites: Yea, it shall make God to carry you through thicke and thinne for his truthes sake, in spite of all the enemies of hys truth. There falleth not an heare till his houre be come: and when his houre is come, necessitie carieth vs hence though we be not willing. But if we be willing, then haue we a reward and thanke.

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Marginalia

Constancye in standing.

Patience in suffering.

Feare not threatening therefore, neyther be ouercome of sweet words: with which twayne the hypocrites shall assayle you. Neyther let the persuasions of worldly wisedome beare rule in your hart: no, though they be your friends that counsayle you. MarginaliaBilney.Let Bilney be a warning to you. Let not their visure beguile your eyes. Let not your body faynt. MarginaliaPerseuerāce to the ende. He that endureth to the end, shall be saued 
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Matt. 10: 22.

. If the payne be aboue your strength, remember: MarginaliaMath. 22.Whatsoeuer ye shall aske in my name, I will geue it you. And pray to youre father in that name, and he shall cease your payne, or shorten it. The Lord of peace, of hope, and of fayth, be with you, Amen.

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William Tyndall.

MarginaliaTwo Martirs at Antwerpe.TWo haue suffred in Antwerpe, In die sanctæ Crucis, vnto the great glory of the Gospell: MarginaliaFoure Martyrs in Flaūders, & one at S. Luke.four at Rysels in Flanders, and at Luke, hath there one at the least suffered, and all the same day. MarginaliaPersecution at Roane.At Roane in Fraunce they persecute. MarginaliaFiue Doctors at Paris taken for the Gospel.And at Paris are fiue Doctors taken for the Gospell. See, you are not alone: Be cheerefull and remember that among the hard harted in England, there is a number reserued by grace: for whose sakes if neede be, you must be ready to suffer. Sir, if you may write, how short soeuer it be, forget it not, that we may knowe howe it goeth with you, for oure harts ease. The Lord be yet againe with you, with all his plenteousnes, and fill you that you flowe ouer, Amen.

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If when you haue read this, you may send it to Adrian, do I pray you, that he may knowe howe that our harte is with you.

George Ioy at Candlemas being at Barrow, printed ij. leaues of Genes. in a great forme, and sent one copy to the King, and another to the new Quene, with a letter to N. for to deliuer them: and to purchase licence, that he might so go through all the Bible. Out of this is sprong the noise of the new Bible 

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This would be the New Testament of 1534.

: and out of that is the great seeking for English bookes at all printers and bookebinders in Antwerpe, and for an English Priest that should print.

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This chaunced the 9. day of May. 

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9 May 1533.

Sir, your wyfe is well content with the will of God, and would not for her sake haue the glory of God hindred. 

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In other words, Frith's wife approves of his imminent martyrdom.

William Tyndall.

Another notable and woorthy letter of Maister William Tyndall sent to the sayd Iohn Frith, vnder the name of Iacob.

MarginaliaAn other letter of W. Tindal.¶ The grace of our Sauiour Iesus, his pacience, meekenesse, humblenesse, circumspection, and wisedome, be with your hart, Amen.

DErely beloued brother Iacob, mine 

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Tyndale, in this letter, is urging Frith not to write on or debate issues on the theology of the Eucharist, for fear of opening divisions anong Protestants.

harts desire in our Sauiour Iesus is, that you arme your selfe with pacience, and bee cold, sober, wyse and circumspect, and that you keepe you alowe by the ground, MarginaliaHigh questions to be auoyded.auoiding hie questions that passe the common capacitie. But expound the law truly, and open the vayle of Moses to condemne all flesh, & proue all men sinners, & all deedes vnder the law, before mercy haue taken away the cōdemnatiō therof, tobe sinne and damnable: MarginaliaAll deedes before they be iustified by faith are sinne. and then as a faythfull minister, set abroche the mercy of our Lord Iesus, and let the wounded cōsciences drinke of the water of him. MarginaliaPreaching the lawe of God & mercy of Christ.And then shall your preaching be with power, & not as the doctrine of the hypocrites: and the spirite of God shall worke with you, and all cōsciēces shall beare record vnto you, and feele that it is so. And all doctrine that casteth a miste on those two, to shadow and hide them Imeane the law of God and mercy of Christ, that resist you withall you power. MarginaliaSacraments without significations to be refused.Sacramentes without signification, refuse. If they put significations to them, receiue them, if you see it may helpe, though it be not necessary.

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Of the presence of Christes body in the Sacrameut, meddle as little as you can, MarginaliaM. Tindall here beareth with tyme. that there appeare no diuision among vs. Barnes will be whote agaynst you. The Saxons 

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I.e., the Lutherans.

be sore on the affirmatiue, whether constant or obstinate, I omitte it to God. Phillip Melancthon is sayd to be with the French kyng. There be in Antwerpe that say, they saw him come into Paris with an C. and L. horses, and that they spake with him If the Frenchmē receiue the word of God, he will plant the * Marginalia* By the affirmatiue he meaneth the opiniō which M. Luther and the Saxons do holde of the sacramēt.affirmatiue in thē 
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In other words, if the French converted to Protestantism, the Lutherans would see that they still accepted the Real Presence of Chrst in the Sacrament.

. George Ioy would haue put forth a Treatise of the matter, but I haue stopt him as yet, what he wil do if he get money, I wot not 
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In other words, if George Joye received enough money to print a treatise on the Eucharist, he would do so.

. I beleue he would make many reasons little seruing to the purpose. My mynd is, that nothyng be put forth till we heare how you shall haue sped. I would haue the right vse preached, and the presence to be an indifferent thyng, till the matter might be reasoned in peace at laysure, of both parties. If you be required, shew the phrases of the Scripture, and let them talke what they will. MarginaliaM. Tindall againe beareth with tyme.For as to beleue that God is euery where, hurteth no man that worshippeth him no where but within in the hart, in spirite and veritie: euen so to beleue that the body of Christ is euery where (though it cannot bee proued MarginaliaVbiquitie cānot be proued.) hurteth no man that worshyppeth hym no where saue in the faith of his Gospell 
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In his marginal note to this passage, Foxe is trying to emphasize that Tyndale's reluctance to discuss the Eucharist was only temporary.

. You perceiue my mynde: howbeit if God shewe you otherwise, it is free for you to doe as he moueth you.

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I gessed long agoe, that God would send a dasing into the head of the spiritualitie, to catche them selues in their owne subtletie, and I trust it is come to passe. And now me thinketh I smell a counsaile to be taken, litle for their profites in tyme to come. But you must vnderstand, that it is not of a pure hart and for loue of the truth, but to aduenge them selues, and to eate the whores fleshe, MarginaliaEating the Whores fleshe, is to spoyle the Popes Church onely for the pray and spoile thereof. and to sucke the mary of her bones. Wherefore cleaue fast to the rocke of the helpe of God, and commit the ende of all thynges to him: and if God shall call you, that you may then vse the wisedome of the worldly, MarginaliaWorldly wisedome so farre as it may serue to Gods glory may be vsed. as farre as you perceiue the glory of God may come thereof, refuse it not: and euer among, thrust in, that the Scripture may be in the mother toung, and learnyng set vp in the Vniuersities. But and if ought be required contrary to the glory of God and his Christ, then stand fast, and commit your selfe to God, and be not ouercome of mens persuasions, whiche happely shall say: we see no other way to bryng in the truth.

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Brother Iacob, beloued in my hart, there lyueth not in whom I haue so good hope and trust, and in whom myne hart reioyseth and my soule comforteth her selfe, as in you: not the thousand part so much for your learnyng, and what other gifts els you haue, as that you will creepe allow by the ground, MarginaliaLow walking. and walke in those thynges that the conscience may feele, and not in the imaginations of the brayne: in feare and not in boldnesse: in open necessary thynges, and not to pronounce or define of hyd secretes, or thynges that neither helpe or hynder whether they be so or no in vnitie and not in seditious opinions: in so much that if you be sure you know, yet in thynges that may abide laysure, you will deferre, or say (till other agree with you:) me thinke the text requireth this sense or vnderstādyng: Yea and that if you be sure that your part be good, and an other hold the contrary, yet if it be a thyng that maketh no matter, you will laugh and let it passe, and referre the thyng to other men, and sticke you stifly and stubburnely in earnest and necessary thynges. And I trust you bee perswaded euen so of me. MarginaliaThe vpright handling in the translation of M. Tindall.For I call GOD to recorde agaynst the day we shall appeare before our Lord Iesus, to geue a reckenyng of our doynges, that I neuer altered one syllable of Gods word agaynst my conscience, nor would this day if all that is in the earth, whether it be pleasure, honour or riches, might be geuen me. Moreouer I take God to recorde to my conscience: that I desire of God to my selfe in this world, no more then that without which I can not keepe his lawes.

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Finally, if there were in me any gift that could helpe at hād, and ayde you if neede required: I promise you I would not be farre of, and commit the ende to God: my soule is not faynt, though my body be wery. But God hath made me euill fauoured in this world, and without grace in the sight of mē, speach lesse and rude, dull and slow wytted: your part shalbe to supply that lacketh in me, remembryng, that as lowlynesse of hart shall make you hygh with GOD, euen so meekenesse of wordes shall make you sinke into the hartes of men. Nature geueth age authoritie, but meekenesse is the glory of

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youth,
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