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1118 [1094]

K. Henry 8. The kinges iniunctions for reformation of the Church.

monies conteine in them no such power, to remitte sinne, but onely that to be referred vnto God, by whome onely our sinnes be forgeuen vs.

MarginaliaOf Purgatorye.And so concluding with Purgatory, he maketh an ende of those Articles, thus saieng thereof: that because þe booke of Machabes aloweth praieng for soules departed, hee therefore disproueth not that so laudable a custome, so long continued in the Church. But because there is no certeyne place named, nor kynde of paynes expressed in Scripture, he therefore thinketh necessarie suche abuses clearely to be put away, which vnder the name of Purgatory haue bene aduaunced: as to make men beleeue, that by the Bishop of Romes pardons, or by Masses sayd, at Scala cœli, 

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Literally, 'Ladder to Heaven' - i.e. places in churches where rote prayers could be said for the sake of souls in Purgatory.

or other where, in any place, or before any Image, soules mighte clearely bee deliuered out of Purgatory, and from the paynes thereof, to be sent straight to heauen, and such other like abuses, &c.

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And these were the contents of that booke of articles deuised, and passed by the Kings authority, a little before the stirre of Lincolneshire and Yorkeshire 

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I.e., the Pilgrimage of Grace and the Lincolnshire rebellion of 1536.

. Wherin, although there were many and great imperfections and vntruthes not to bee permitted in any true reformed Churche: yet notwithstanding, the king and his counsaile to beare with the weakelings, whiche were newely weyned from their mothers milke of Rome, MarginaliaMilke for newe wainlinges. thought it might serue somwhat for the time, in steade of a little beginning, till better might come.

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And so consequently, not long after these Articles thus set forward, MarginaliaIniunctions for abrogatyon certeine holydayes.certeyne other Iniunctions were also geuen out about the same yeare, 1536. whereby a number of holy daies were abrogated, and especially such as fel in the haruest time: the keping of which redounded greatly to þe hinderaunce of gathering in their corne, hay, fruite, and other such like necessarie commodities. The copie and tenour of which Iniunctions I haue also hereunto annexed, as vnder foloweth.

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¶ The Kings Iniunctions.

MarginaliaIniunctions by the king.FOrasmuch 

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What follows is an act made in the Convocation of 1536 abolishing many of the traditional holy days, particularly those occurring at the economically inconvenient periods of harvest time or during the legal terms.

as the number of holy dayes is so excessiuely growen, and yet daily more and more by mens deuotion yea rather superstition, was like further to encrease, that the same was and should be not onely preiudiciall to the common weale, by reason that it is occasion as well of much slouth and idlenes, the very nursse of theeues, vagabunds: and of diuers other vnthriftines and inconueniences, as of decay of good misteries & Artes profitable & necessary for the common wealth, & losse of mans foode, many times being cleane destroied through the superstitious obseruance of the said holydaies, in not taking the oportunity of good & serene weather, offered vpon the same in time of haruest, but also pernicious to the soules of many men, which (being entised by the licencious vacation & libertie of those holydaies, do vpon the same, commonly vse and practise more excesse, riot, and superfluitie, then vpon any other dayes. And sith the Sabboth day was vsed and ordeined, but for mans vse, and therefore ought to geue place to the necessitie and behoofe of the same whensoeuer that shall occurre, much rather any other holyday institute by man: It is therefore by the Kings highnes authoritie as supreme head in earth of the Church of England, with the common assent and consent of the Prelates and Cleargie of this his Realme, in conuocation lawfully assembled and congregated, amongst other things decreed, ordeyned and established.

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MarginaliaFeastes of dedication to be kept al vpon one day.First, that the feast of dedication of Churches, shall in all places through out this Realme, be celebrate and kept on the first Sonday of the moneth of October, for euer, and vpon none other day.

MarginaliaChurch holydayes forbidden.Item, that the feast of the patron of euerye Churche within this Realme, called commonly the Church holyday, shall not frō hencefoorth be kept or obserued as a holy day, as heretofore hath bene vsed, but that it shal be lawful to all & singular persons resident or dwelling within thys Realme, to go to their worke, occupation or mistery, & the same truely to exercise and occupy vpon the sayde feast, as vpon any other worke day: except the saide feast of Church holy day bee such as must bee else vniuersally obserued and kept as a holyday by this ordinance following.

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MarginaliaHolydayes in the haruest time put downe.Also that all those feastes or holydayes, which shall happen to fall or occurre either in the haruest tyme, whiche is to be counted from the first daye of Iuly, vnto the xxix. day of September, or else in the tearme time at Westminster, shall not be kept, or obserued frō hencefoorth as holydaies, but that it may be lawfull for euery man to go to his work or occupation vpon the same, as vppon any other worke day: except alwaies the feastes of the Apostles, of the blessed Virgin, and of Saint George: and also such feastes as wherein the Kings highnes Iudges at West minster doenot vse to sit in Iudgement. All whiche shall be kept holy and solemne of euery man, as in time past, haue bene accustomed: Prouided alwaies, that it may be lawfull vnto all Priestes and Clerkes, as well secular as regular, in the foresaid holydaies now abrogate, to sing or say their accustomed seruice for those holydayes, in their Churches: so as they do not the same solemnely, nor do ring to the same after the maner vsed in high holydayes, ne do commaund, or indict the same to be kept or obserued as holydayes.

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Marginalia4. offeriug dayes.Finally, that the feastes of the Natiuitie of our Lord, of Easter day, of the Natiuitie of S. Iohn the Baptist, and of S. Michaell the Archaungell, shall be from hencefoorth counted, accepted, and taken for the four generall offering dayes.

MarginaliaEaster terme.And for further declaration of the premisses, be it knowē that Easter tearme beginneth alwayes the xviij. day after Easter day, reckening Easter day for one, and endeth the Monday next folowing the Ascension day.

MarginaliaTrinitye terme.Trinitie terme beginneth alwaies the Wednesday next after the Octaues of Trinitie Sonday, and endeth the xj. or xij. day of Iuly.

MarginaliaMichaelmas terme.Michaelmas terme beginneth the ix. or x. day of October, and endeth the xxviij. or xxix. day of Nouember.

MarginaliaHilary terme.Hilary terme beginneth the xxiij. or xxiiij. day of Ianuary, and endeth the xij. or xiij. day of February.

In Easter terme, vpon the Ascension daye: in Trinitie terme, vppon the Natiuitie of S. Iohn Baptist: in Michaelmas terme vpon Alhalow day: in Hilary Terme, vpon Candlemas day, the kings Iudges at Westminster do not vse to sit in iudgement, nor vpon any Sonday.

After these Articles and Iniunctions thus giuen out by the King & his Counsaile, thē folowed moreouer (as time serued) other Iniunctions moe, concerning Images, reliques, and blind miracles, and for abrogating of Pilgremages deuised, by superstition, and mainteined for luker sake, also for the Pater noster, Creede, and Gods Commandements, and the Bible to be had in English, with diuers other points moe necessary for Religion. The wordes of which Iniunctions heere also ensue. 

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These Injunctions were not issued by the King or Convocation, but by Thomas Cromwell, in his capacity as Vicegerent. It went beyond any previous orders in its programme of Christian education, involving the co-operation between laity and clergy, and its idealistic that the Lord's Prayer, Apostle's Creed and Ten Commandents be provided in English and memorized by everyone. Particularly ambitious was the provision that every parish priest provide a copy of the Bible in Latin and English (This provision, mandating that every parish priest should provide a copy of the Bible in Latin and English by 1 August 1537, does not appear in certain manuscript copies of the Injunctions or in STC 10084.7. As a result it has often been denied that Cromwell's 1536 Injunctions contained this order, but this belief has been refuted; see Richard Rex, Henry VIII and the English Reformation (Basingstoke, 1993), pp. 185-6 and Margaret Bowker, 'The Henrician Reformation and the Parish Clergy' in The English Reformation Revised, ed. Christopher Haigh (Cambridge, 1987), p. 76 n. 8. The idea was somewhat impractical; at the time the only complete printed English language Bible was that produced by Matthew Coverdale and it did not have official approval). Foxe notably prints the full text of this document without emendations.

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Other Iniunctions geuen by the authoritie of the kings highnes to the Cleargy of this his Realme.

MarginaliaOther Iniunctions.IN the name of God, Amen. In the yere of our Lord god 1536. and of the most noble reigne of our soueraine Lord Henry the eight, king of England and of Fraunce, defendour of the fayth, Lord of Ireland, and in earth supreme head of the Church of England, the xxviij. &c. I Thomas Cromwell Knight, Lorde Cromwell, keeper of the priuie Seale of our sayd soueraigne Lorde the King, and vicegerent to the same, for and cōcerning all his iurisdiction Ecclesiasticall within this Realme, to the glory of Almightie God, to the Kings highnes honour, the publike weale of this Realme, and increase of vertue in the same: haue appointed and assigned these Iniunctions ensuing to be kept and obserued of the Deane, Persons, Vicares, Curates, and Stipendaries, resident or hauing cure of soules, or anye other spirituall administration within this Deanry: vnder the paynes heereafter limited and appointed.

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The first is, that the Deane, Persons, Vicares, and other hauing cure of soule any where within this Deanrye shall faithfully keepe and obserue, and as farre as in them may lye, shall cause to be kept and obserued of all other, all and singular lawes and statutes of this Realme, made for the abolishing and extirpatiō of the bishop of Romes pretensed and vsurped power, and iurisdiction within thys Realme, MarginaliaConfirmation of the kings supremacye.and for the stablishment and confirmation of the Kings authoritie and iurisdiction within the same, as of the supreame head of the Church of Englande, shall to the vttermost of their wit, knowledge, and learning, purely, sincerely, and without any colour or dissimulation, declare manifest, and open, by the space of one quarter of a yeare nowe next ensuing, once euery Sonday, and after at the leastwise, twise euery quarter of a yeare, in their Sermōs, and other collations, MarginaliaAgaynst the Popes primacye.that the Byshop of Romes vsurped power and iurisdictiō, hauing no establishmēt, nor groūd by the lawe of God, was of most iust causes taken away and abolished, and that therefore they owe vnto him no maner of obedience or subiection, and that the Kinges power is within his dominiō, the highest potentate & power vnder God to whome all men within the same dominion, by Gods commaundement, owe most loyaltie and obedience afore and aboue all other potentates in earth.

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Item, whereas certeine Articles 

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I.e., the Ten Articles: in the Convocation of 1536 there was a sharply abridged version of the Ten Articles and the first attempt at defining the doctrines of the newly established Church of England. This is published by Foxe earlier in this chapter. The total document is rather more traditional in its orientation that Foxe's version: notably it defended the real presence of Christ's body and blood in the Sacrament and it gave (an admittedly qualified) approval of prayers for the souls of the dead.

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were lately deuised and put forth by the Kings highnesse authoritie, and condiscended vpō by the Prelates and clergy of this his Realme in conuocation (whereof part were necessary to be holden

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