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Hugh Latimer

(c. 1485 - 1555) [ODNB]

of Thirkeson, Leicestershire; BA Cambridge 1511; MA 1514; BTh 1524

Bishop of Worcester (1535 - 39); preacher; martyr

While at Cambridge, Thomas Bilney converted to a reformed religion and convinced others there, including Thomas Arthur and Hugh Latimer, who was crosskeeper at the time. 1563, p. 461; 1570, pp. 1134-35; 1576, p. 972; 1583, p. 998.

Elizabeth Barton prophesied that if the king divorced Queen Catherine and married Anne Boleyn, he would not reign more than a month thereafter. Through the efforts of Cranmer, Cromwell and Latimer, she was condemned and executed with some of her supporters. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, pp. 1054-55.

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George Stafford visited a priest with plague, Henry Conjurer, to convert him. He succeeded, but himself contracted plague and died. Latimer had formerly preached against Stafford and barred his students from hearing him, but was grateful that he was able to ask Stafford's forgiveness before he died. 1570, p. 1152; 1576, p. 986; 1583, p. 1013.

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Queen Anne had Hugh Latimer placed in the bishopric of Worcester and Nicholas Shaxton in the bishopric of Salisbury. 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1055; 1583, p. 1082.

Latimer preached about Bilney's remorse over his abjuration in sermons before King Edward and the duchess of Suffolk. He credited Bilney with his own conversion. 1570, p. 1146; 1576, p. 981; 1583, p. 1008.

Latimer used Humphrey Monmouth in his sermons as an example of a godly rich man showing Christian patience. 1570, p. 1134; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

In his examination, James Bainham said that only Edward Crome and Hugh Latimer had preached the word of God sincerely and purely. 1570, p. 1169; 1576, p. 1000; 1583, p. 1027.

John Tyrel was charged in London in 1532 with holding heretical opinions. When asked how he came to hold these opinions, he said he had heard Hugh Latimer preach the same. 1570, p. 1189; 1576, p. 1018; 1583, p. 1046.

Latimer was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

At the burning of John Forest, Hugh Latimer read out the charges and urged him to repent. 1563, p. 571; 1570, p. 1254; 1576, p. 1074; 1583, p. 1100.

Melancthon wrote a letter to Henry VIII against the Six Articles. In it he complained of the imprisonment of Hugh Latimer, Edward Crome and Nicholas Shaxton. 1570, p. 1341; 1576, p. 1144; 1583, p. 1173.

Latimer attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Latimer opposed retaining the seven sacraments. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

Anne Askew became very ill and was in great pain during her second examination. She asked to see Hugh Latimer, but was refused. 1563, p. 683; 1570, p. 1417; 1576, p. 1208; 1583, p. 1238.

 
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John Forest

(c. 1470 - 1538) [ODNB]

Franciscan friar; Catholic martyr

Regular preacher at Paul's Cross; opponent of the king's divorce; convicted of heresy, burnt (the wooden image of Dderfel Gadam from the pilgimage site of Llandderfel, north Wales, was added to the fire)

John Forest preached at Paul's Cross against the visitation of religious houses ordered by Cardinal Wolsey. 1570, p. 1121; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 987.

Forest was accused of denying that the king was head of the church. He refused to abjure and was burnt at Smithfield. The image of Dderfel Gadam was burnt with him. 1563, p. 571; 1570, p. 1254; 1576, p. 1074; 1583, p. 1100.

 
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Ipswich
Ipswich, Ipswiche
NGR: TM 170 440

A borough in the liberty of Ipswich, county of Suffolk. 25 miles south-east by east from Bury St. Edmunds, 69 miles north-east from London. The borough comprises the parishes of St. Clement, St. Helen, St. Lawrence, St. Margaret, St. Mary at Elms, St. Mary at the Quay, St. Mary Stoke, St. Mary at the Tower, St. Mathew, St. Nicholas, St. Peter, St. Stephen, Witham with Thurlstone, and part of Westerfield; all within the Archdeaconry of Suffolk and Diocese of Norwich. St. Clement with St. Helen is a rectory in charge; St. Mary Stoke is a rectory; St. Mathew and St. Stephen are discharged rectories; St. Lawrence, St. Margaret, St. Mary at Elms, St. Mary at Quay, St. Mary at the Tower, St. Nicholas and St. Peter are perpetual curacies

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Smithfield

in the northwest part of the city of London

OS grid ref: TQ 31574 81732

Historic livestock market and place of execution

 
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Walsingham

Norfolk

OS grid ref: TF 935 367

Major pilgrimage site

 
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Willesden

[Wilsdone; Wilsedon]

Middlesex, London

OS grid ref: TQ 225 845

 
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Worcester
NGR: NGR: SO 855 554

A city and county of itself, having exclusive jurisdiction, locally in the county of Worcester, of which it is the capital. Seat of the Bishopric of Worcester. 111 miles north west by west from London. The City comprises the parishes of St Alban, All Saints, St Andrew, St Clement, St Helen, St Martin, St Nicholas, St Peter and St Swithin. All in the Archdeaconry and diocese of Worcester. St Alban is a discharged rectory in the patronage of the Bishop; All Saints is a discharged rectory in the patronage of the Crown; St Andrew is a discharged vicarage in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter; St Clement is a discharged rectory in the same patronage; St Helen is a discharged rectory in the patronage of the Bishop; St Nicholas is a discharged rectory in the patronage of the Bishop; St Martin is a rectory in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter; St Peter is a vicarage in the same patronage; and St Swithin is a discharged rectory in the same patronage.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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1124 [1100]

K. Hen. 8. Byshoppe Longlands sermon before the king against the Pope. Fryer Forest.

all folkes, meekely suffering aduersities, opprobries, rages, rebukes, and reproches, without grudge or contradiction. Innocens & simplex: MarginaliaSimplex. simplex sine plica. An innocēt, without pleit or wrincle. without error or doublenes, without hipocrisy or dissimulation, without flattering or glosing, without fraud or deceite: not seruing the body nor the world, but God. In this we ought also to follow our heauenly Bishop.

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MarginaliaImpollutus.Impollutus. He was vndefiled. He liued cleane without spot or blot, without wemme or strayne. No immūdicity in him, no vncleannesse, nor filthinesse: but all pure and cleane, chaste and immaculate, all bright and shining in grace and godlinesse: In so much that he was, Segregatus à peccatoribus, MarginaliaSegregatus a peccatis. cleane segregate from all kinde of vncleanesse, from all maner of sinnes, and from sinners. Segregate from them, not from theyr company: For as Mathew writeth: MarginaliaMath. 9. Publicans and sinners came and eate and drank with him and his dsciples in the house of Leui. And he also came as a Phisition, to heale the sinner. And yet he was segregate from them, quantum ad participationem cum eis in peccato: as touching theyr ill liuinges, not being participant with them them in sinne, but came onely to heale them, and to ridde them from sinne and sore of the soule. He entred the heauens, not with the bloud of kidde nor Goate, but with his owne proper bloud. For which and for his holynesse and perfectnes, MarginaliaExcelsior cœlis.Excelsior cœlis factus est. He is extolled and exalted aboue all the Aungels and beatitudes: aboue all the heauens sitting on the right hand of the father. Whō all the heauenly creatures doe worship, honor and do reuerence vnto Where he prayeth for his people, and is Mediatour in hys manhead to his father for vs.

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This our Bishop purgeth our consciences (as witnesseth the Apostle) he clenseth our soules, he maketh vs inwardly beautious and fayre. The Bishop of Rome lacketh manye of these notable vertues. He hath few or none of these properties, few or none of these qualities. He is (as we all are sinners) a sinner. To whom this word MarginaliaMagnus.Magnus, great, is not conuenient, nor can be in him any wayes verified. For he cannot forgeue sinne as our Byshop doth, nor iustify as he doth, neither enter in Sancta Sanctorum, with his owne bloud, as he did. How can he then be called a great Bishop that is (as we be all sinners) a sinner, a breaker of the lawes of God, and dayly doth or may fall and sinne? And for that cause the law commaunded that euery bishop and Priest shoulde first offer hostes and sacrifice for his owne sinnes and afterward, for the sinnes of the people How can he therfore be called a great Bishop or Priest?

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Our Bishop we speake of, is the very great bishop. No dole, no fraude, no guile, was euer founde in his mouth. And when the Prince of the worlde the deuill, came to him, he coulde finde no poynt of sinne in him. Whrefore Gabriell the Archaungell shewing his natiuity vnto Mary his mother, sayd: Hic erit magnus, & filius altissimi vocabitur. MarginaliaLuke. 1.He shalbe great and shalbe called the sonne of God. And agayne it is written of him: Propheta magnus surrexit inter nos. MarginaliaLuke. 7.A great Prophet is risen among vs. Sinne maketh a man small and litle: litle in reputation before God and man. Vertue maketh man great and of high reputation. Shew me one place in Scripture where you haue reedde, that a sinner was called great? MarginaliaNo sinner called great in the scripture. I trow it shall not be founde. Will you heare who were called great in scripture? It is written of Isaac, quod proficiebat valde, & factus est magnus valde. MarginaliaGene. 26.He profited greatly in vertue, and was made great, great in reputation of the world Moyses was called Magnus, MarginaliaExod 11. great for his vertue. Abraham and Iohn Baptist likewise. MarginaliaLuke. 1. Now Iesus our Bishop is called magnus Episcopus, magnus Sacerdos. And after him neuer Byshop called Magnus in all Scripture, neither in the reputation of man vnlesse it be in comparison one of an other (and so Sayntes and holy Lyuers are called great in respect of sinners, or other meane Liuers) but where Christ our Byshop commeth: there he, not in comparison of other, but simpliciter, by his owne magnitude and greatnesse, and of himselfe, euer was and is great, of whom it is written: MarginaliaPsal. 18.A summo cœlo egresio eius: & occursus eius vsque ad sūmum eius. And as the apostle also proueth in many places by expresse words. But now there is no Bishop or Priest in this world, that may worthely of himselfe be called great, nor ought to take this name Magnus vpon him.

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This is he therefore of whom it is written: MarginaliaLeuit. 21.Magnus Sacerdos ex fratribus suis. The great Byshoppe aboue all other. And as he is called and in very deed is, Pastor pastorum, Pontifex pontificum, Propheta prophetarum, Sanctus, sanctorum, Dominus dominantium, Rex regum: Ita & magnus magnorum est. And he is called the Heardesman of heardesmen, the Byshop of Byshoppes, the Prophet of prophetes, the Holy of holyest, the Lord of lordes, the King of kinges: euen so is he called, and verely is Episcopus magnus. Therefore the Prophet did adde, Magnus Sacerdos ex fratribus suis, the great Byshop or priest: great of himselfe, great in vertue and power, great of himselfe, and great in comparison afore all other. And therfore the Apostle sayd: Habemus Pontificē magnum, qui penetrauit cœlos IESVM filium DEI. We haue a great Byshop, which did penetrate the heauens, Iesus the sonne of God.

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MarginaliaPope en eth vponHere may ye now see how the Byshop of Rome doth wrong-fully encroch vpon our great Byshop Iesus Christ, to take from him, not onely this name Magnus, and is not with that name yet contented, but addeth more, Videlicet, Maximus, Summus, Sanctus, Beatissimus, Vniuersalis, and such other. The greater, the highest, the holyest, the blessedst, and vniuersall in the superlatiue degrees and yet there is no great Byshop but Christ onely no supreme Byshop, but he onely, none holy, none blessed, none vniuersall Bishop but only he. The B. of Rome, & all other bishops are but vnderlinges & vnworthy suffragans vnto this Bishop Christ.

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This our Christ (as witnesseth the Apostle) is Pontifex nostræ confessionis, the Bishop whom we do confesse to be our great bishop, our high bishop, our supreme Bishop, our holy, blessed and vniuersall Bishop. Which names are reserued onely vnto Christ, and to no earthly Bishop: Not to the Bishop of Rome, not to the Bishop of Ierusalem, not to the Bishop of Antioch, nor of Constantinople, nor to any other Bishop. No earthly byshop to presume to take vpon him these high and holy names onely to God apropriate.

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God of thy goodnes thou mayest and I trust wilt once make this vayneglorious bishop of Rome, first to know and knowledge thy sonne Christ to be the onely supreme and vniuersal bishop of the world. Secondarily to know himselfe, his weakenesse, his frailty and his presumption. To know his offfice and bounden dutye vnto thee. To knowe his owne Dioces, and to vsurpe no further. Thirdly to haue a low, hūble, meek hart and stomacke: to feare thee God and thy iudgementes, to knowledge his owne faultes, and vsurpations, and to redresse the same.

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Now to returne vnto our matter, it foloweth in þe letter first taken: De quo edere non habent potestatem qui tabernaculo deseruiunt. &c. And thus much out of Iohn Longlandes Sermon agaynst the Pope.

Marginalia

Anno 1538.

Images and Pilgrimages destroyed in England.

You heard before by the kings Iniunctions aboue expressed, and directed out. an. 1538. how all such Images & pictures, which were abused with pilgrimage or offrings of any Idolatry, where abolished: by vertue of which Iniunction, diuers Idols & especially þe most notable stockes of Idolatry, were taken downe the same yere. 1538. as the Images of Walsingham, Ipswich, Worcester, the lady of Wilsdon, Tho. Becket, with many moe, hauing engines to make their eies to open and role about, and other parts of theyr body to styrre, and many other false iugglings, as the bloud of hayles, & such like, wherewith the simple people a long time had bene deceiued. All which were espyed out, and destroyed.

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MarginaliaThe Idoll of Daruell Gatheren in Wales.Among diuers other of these foule Idols, there went also in the same reckoning, a certayne olde Idolatrous Image in Wales named Daruell Gatheren: whiche in the moneth of May, in the yere aboue mētioned was brought vp to London and burnt in smithfield. With the which Idol also was burnt the same time, and hanged for treason, Fryer Forrest, of whom some mētion was partly touched before in the story of Cardinal Wolsey.

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¶ Frier Forest.

MarginaliaFrier Forest executed for rebelling agaynst the kinges supremacye.THis Forest was an obseruaunt Frier 

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John Forrest

John Forest has the unenviable distinction of the only Catholic executed for heresy in England during the Reformation. Forest was arrested in March or April 1538 for denying the Royal Supremacy when hearing confession. However, the authorities charged him with heresy instead of treason. Peter Marshall, who has analysed Forest's arrest and martyrdom, and the circumstances behind them, has argued that Forest's conviction for heresy was partly due to the recent papal summoning of a council at Mantua, which had heightened Henry VIII's sensitivity to denials of his supremacy over the Church. It was also partly due to anxiety that confessionals were being used to hatch treasonable plots. Marshall also argues that the decision to try Forest as a heretic was made by Cromwell in the expectation that the friar would recant and perform a humiliating recantation. At first, all went according to plan and Forest, after being convicted of heresy, agreed to abjure at Paul's Cross. However, in prison, Forest changed his mind. When Cromwell's original plan foundered on Forest's refusal to submit, the Vicegerent turned Forest's execution into a piece of political theatre. Forest was burned, on 22 May 1538, along with Dderfel Gadern, a great wooden statue that had been an object of pilgrimage at Llandderfel in North Wales. (For a detailed analysis of Forest's trial and martyrdom see Peter Marshall, 'Papist as Heretic: The Burning of John Forest, 1538', Historical Journal 41 [1998], pp. 354-74).

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Foxe's first account of Forest was a brief note in the Rerum (p. 148) stating that friar Forest was executed for denying the Royal Supremacy in 1538. The account notes that Forest was burned along with an idol transported from Wales. This material was abridged from Hall's chronicle. In the 1563 edition, Foxe simply reprinted Hall's account word-for-word (cf. 1563, pp. 571-2 with Edward Hall, The union of the two noble and illustre families of Lancastre and York [London, 1550], STC 12723a, fos. 232v-233r). In the 1570 edition, Foxe made some changes to this account, deleting verses describing the burning of Forest and the statue and adding a brief account of the dissolution of the monasteries.

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, and had secretly in confessions declared to many of the kinges subiects, that the king was not supreme head, and being therof accused and apprehēded, he was examined how he could say that the king was not supreme head of the Church, when he himselfe had sworne to the contrary. He answered that he tooke his oth with his outward man, but his inwarde man neuer consented thereunto 
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During his trial, Forest admitted that he had told a penitent that when he [Forest] denyed papal supremacy, it was with an oath sworn by his outward man, but not the inward man [L&P XIII (1), no. 1043 (1)].

. And being further accused of diuers damnable Articles and thereupon conuicted, he gladlye submitted himselfe to abide the punishment of the Church. Vpon this his submission hauing more liberty then before he had to talke with whom he would he became as farre from his submission as euer he was. And when his abiuration was sent him to read, he vtterly refused it and obstinately perseuered in his errours 
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It is interesting to compare this denigrating account of Forest's submission, and then withdrawal of his submission, with the numerous admiring accounts, by Foxe, of Protestant martyrs - e.g. John Cardmaker and Thomas Whittle - doing exactly the same thing.

: MarginaliaFryer Forest burnt in Smithfielde.wherefore he was iustly condemned, after hanged in Smithfield in chaynes vpon a gallowes quicke, by the middle & arme holes, and fire was made vnder him, and so was he consumed and burnt to death.

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In the place of execution there was a scaffold prepared for the kinges most honorable Counsell and the nobles of the Realme to sitte vpon: to graunt him pardon, if he had any sprake of repentance in him. There was also a pulpite prepared where þe right reuerēd father Hugh Latimer B. of Worcester declared his errors, & manifestly confuted thē by the Scripture, with many godly exhortations to moue him to repentance. But he was so froward, that he neither would heare neither speake. A litle before, the foresayd Image called Daruel Gatheren 

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Foxe is deriving this spelling, or rather misspelling, from Hall. The statue was named 'Dderfel Gadern' and it was from Llanderfel, a pilgrimage site in North Wales.

cōming out of Wales, was brought to the gallowes, and there also with the foresayd Frier (as is sayde) was set on fire. Whome the Wealshmen muche worshipped, MarginaliaA Welshe prophesie of Daruell Gatheren.and had a Prophecye amongest

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them
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