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Charles V

(1500 - 1558) [C. Scott Dixon, M. Greengrass, www.leedstrinity.ac.uk/histcourse/reformat/biograph.htm]

Duke of Burgundy; king of Spain (1516 - 56)

Holy Roman Emperor (1520 - 56); abdicated the Spanish throne in favour of son Phillip II of Spain and the imperial throne in favour of brother Ferdinand

Charles V had promised to marry Princess Mary, daughter of Henry VIII, but bowed to objections in Spain that the marriage of her parents had been irregular. He married Isabella of Portugal instead. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Henry VIII, encouraged by Cardinal Wolsey, began to question the validity of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. He sought the advice of universities and learned men, but needed the assent of the pope and the emperor to a divorce. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

After the Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII attempted to improve relations with other monarchs by sending ambassadors. Sir Thomas Wyatt was sent to Emperor Charles V. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

The emperor and other princes requested Henry VIII to attend the council to be held at Mantua or to send delegates. Henry again refused, sending a protestation. 1570, pp. 1293-94; 1576, pp. 1106-08; 1583, pp. 1132-33.

Francois I of France and Emperor Charles V retained Robert Granceter, a condemned traitor, and refused to hand him over to Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

Charles V requested of Edward VI that his cousin Mary Tudor be allowed to have the mass said in her house. The request was denied. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

 
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Federico II of Gonzaga

(1500 - 1540)

Marquis of Mantua 1519; duke of Mantua 1530

Pope Paul III put back the date of the council of Mantua because the duke demanded soldiers to defend the town. 1570, p. 1236; 1576, p. 1058; 1583, p. 1085.

 
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Henry VIII

(1491 - 1547) [ODNB]

Duke of York 1494; duke of Cornwall 1502; prince of Wales, earl of Chester 1503

King of England (1509 - 47)

After the death of Prince Arthur, his widow Catherine married his brother Henry. 1563, p. 456; 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Henry issued a proclamation against the heresies of Luther. 1570, p. 1159; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1019.

Through Thomas Wolsey, Henry received the title of defender of the faith from the pope. 1570, p. 1124; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 989.

After Clement VII had been taken prisoner by imperial forces, Wolsey urged Henry VIII to go to the pope's assistance. The king refused to send troops, but allowed Wolsey to take money out of the treasury to help. 1563, p. 439; 1570, pp. 1123; 1576, p. 961; 1583, p. 988.

Henry, encouraged by Cardinal Wolsey, began to question the validity of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. He sought the advice of universities and learned men, but needed the assent of the pope and the emperor to a divorce. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Stephen Gardiner was sent as ambassador to Rome by Henry VIII during the time of Clement VII to deal with the matter of the king's divorce and to promote Thomas Wolsey as pope. Both the king and Wolsey wrote letters to him. Nicholas Harvey was sent as ambassador to Emperor Charles V. 1570, pp. 1125-29, 1192; 1576, pp. 963-67, 1021; 1583, pp. 990-93, 1049.

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Wolsey and Cardinal Campeggi had a legatine commission to consider the matter of the king's divorce. Henry began to suspect that Wolsey was not fully supportive. 1570, pp. 1129, 1193; 1576, pp. 967, 1021; 1583, pp. 994, 1049.

Henry gave an oration at Bridewell setting out his reasons for the divorce. 1563, pp. 456-57; 1570, p. 1193; 1576, pp. 1021-22; 1583, p. 1050.

Henry and Queen Catherine were summoned to appear before the papal legates, Cardinals Wolsey and Campeggi, who had a commission to judge the matter of the divorce. Henry sent two proxies; Catherine arrived in person, accompanied by ladies and counsellors, including four bishops. Finally the king himself appeared, delivering an oration to the legates. 1563, pp. 456-57; 1570, p. 1194; 1576, p. 1022; 1583, p. 1050.

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Anne Boleyn was sent a copy of Simon Fish's Supplication for the Beggars and showed it to the king. He offered his protection to Fish, allowing him to return to England. 1563, p. 448; 1570, p. 1153; 1576, p. 986; 1583, p. 1014.

After Wolsey had been deprived of most of his offices and the associated lands and goods returned to the king, Henry allowed Cardinal College, Oxford, to continue, endowing it and renaming it King's College. 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 994.

When the king heard of the exhumation and burning of William Tracy's corpse, he angrily sent for Sir Thomas More. More blamed the now deceased archbishop of Canterbury, but was fined three hundred pounds to have his pardon. 1570, p. 1186; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1042.

Henry, failing to get a positive response from the pope on the question of his divorce, associated the clergy in Wolsey's praemunire and demanded over £100,000 for their pardon. 1570, p. 1195; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1052.

Henry had published the opinions of the universities against his marriage to Catherine. 1570, p. 1196; 1576, p. 1024; 1583, p. 1052.

Parliament approved Thomas Cranmer's separation of Henry and Catherine and his marriage to Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1197; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1053.

Thomas Temys asked parliament to urge the king to take Queen Catherine back as his wife. The king replied via the Speaker, Sir Thomas Audeley. The king also had the Speaker read in the Commons the two oaths taken by clergy, one to the pope and one to the king, to demonstrate that they were irreconcilable. 1570, p. 1197; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1053.

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Henry married Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1198; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1054.

The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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The king sent Edward Lee, under Cromwell, to visit the monasteries and nunneries to release all those in religious orders who wished to leave. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

Henry VIII ordered a religious procession in London in 1535 because the French king was ill. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

After the Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII attempted to improve relations with other monarchs by sending ambassadors. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

Messages were sent between Henry and François I about the pope's refusal of Henry's divorce from Catherine and his supremacy over the English church. 1570, pp. 1218-22; 1576, pp. 1043-46; 1583, pp. 1070-73.

Henry VIII wrote to Bonner commanding that excess holy days be abolished. 1563, p. 682; 1570, p. 1441; 1576, p. 1229; 1583, p. 1259.

Henry had Queen Anne imprisoned in the Tower with her brother and others. She was then beheaded. 1563, p. 526; 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1055; 1583, p. 1082.

Stephen Gardiner was suspected of involvement in the downfall of Anne Boleyn, and urged the king to disinherit Elizabeth. 1570, pp. 1233, 1243; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, pp. 1082, 1083.

Henry married Jane Seymour shortly after the execution of Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1234; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, p. 1083.

Cromwell urged King Henry to destroy the monastic houses and to grant the lands to the nobility and gentlemen. 1570, p. 1350; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1181.

The king answered the rebels in Lincolnshire and sent the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, the marquess of Exeter and the earl of Shrewsbury into Yorkshire to put down the Pilgrimage of Grace. 1570, pp. 1237-38; 1576, pp. 1059-60; 1583, pp. 1086-87.

Along with the protestant German princes, Henry refused to send delegates to the council in Mantua called by Pope Paul III. 1570, p. 1234; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, p. 1083.

The emperor and other princes requested Henry to attend the council or to send delegates. He again refused, sending a protestation. 1570, pp. 1293-94; 1576, pp. 1106-08; 1583, pp. 1132-33.

François I of France and Emperor Charles V retained Robert Granceter, a condemned traitor, and refused to hand him over to Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

Francis I had allied himself with Pope Clement VII in marrying his son to Clement's niece. He also married his daughter to James V of Scotland, breaking an agreement with Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1088.

Stephen Gardiner urged Henry to withdraw his defence of religious reform in order to ensure peace within the realm and to restore good relations with foreign rulers. 1570, p. 1296; 1576, p. 1109; 1583, p. 1135.

Stephen Gardiner urged Henry VIII to use the case against John Lambert as a means of displaying the king's willingness to deal harshly with heresy. The king himself would sit in judgement. 1563, pp. 533-34; 1570, p. 1281; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, pp. 1121-22.

At the end of Lambert's trial, the king had Cromwell read the sentence of condemnation. 1563, p. 537; 1570, p. 1283; 1576, p. 1097; 1583, p. 1123.

Cromwell was instrumental in getting Edmund Bonner's nomination to the bishopric of London. He procured letters from King Henry to François I that resulted in a licence being granted to print bibles in English at the University of Paris. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1191.

Although Edmund Bonner performed his ambassadorial duties well as far as Henry VIII was concerned, he displeased the king of France, who asked for him to be recalled. Henry recalled him, giving him the bishopric of London, and sent Sir John Wallop to replace him. 1570, p. 1245; 1576, p. 1066; 1583, p. 1093.

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The king sent Thomas Cromwell and the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk to dine with Thomas Cranmer to reassure him after his opposition to the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1298; 1576, p. 1111; 1583, p. 1136.

Henry asked for a summary of Cranmer's objections to the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1355; 1576, p. 1157; 1583, p. 1185.

Philip Melancthon wrote a letter to Henry VIII against the Six Articles. 1570, pp. 1340-44; 1576, pp. 1144-47; 1583, pp. 1172-76.

Thomas Cromwell arranged the marriage between the king and Anne of Cleeves. 1570, p. 1295; 1576, p. 1109; 1583, p. 1134.

Henry had Thomas Cromwell arrested on charges of heresy and treason. Shortly after Cromwell's execution, the king lamented his death. 1563, p. 598; 1570, p. 1360; 1576, p. 1157; 1583, p. 1185.

Henry VIII repudiated Anne of Cleves, divorced her and married Katherine Howard at the time of the execution of Cromwell. 1570, pp. 1361, 1385; 1576, pp. 1161, 1181; 1583, pp. 1190, 1210.

After Cromwell's death, the king was persuaded against the Great Bible and had sales stopped. 1570, p. 1363; 1576, p. 1163; 1583, p. 1191.

King Henry commanded that Robert Barnes, Thomas Garrard and William Jerome recant the doctrine they had been preaching. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, p. 1170; 1583, p. 1198.

King Henry wrote to Archbishop Cranmer, ordering that idolatrous images be removed from churches. 1563, p. 625; 1570, p. 1385; 1576, p. 1181; 1583, p. 1210.

For a long period, Henry VIII denied his daughter Mary the title of princess. Thomas Cranmer urged a reconciliation. 1570, p. 1565; 1576, p. 1335; 1583, p. 1396.

Katherine Parr read and studied the scriptures and discussed them with her chaplains. The king was aware of this and approved, so she began to debate matters of religion with him. When the king became more ill-tempered because of his sore leg, her enemies, especially Stephen Gardiner and Thomas Wriothesley, took the opportunity to turn the king against her. 1570, pp. 1422-23; 1576, pp. 1212-13; 1583, pp. 1242-43.

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Henry gave a warrant for the gathering of articles against Katherine. 1570, pp. 1422-23; 1576, pp. 1212-13; 1583, pp. 1242-43.

Henry told one of his physicians of the charges against Katherine; the physician was then sent to treat her when she fell ill, and he divulged the charges to her. 1570, p. 1423; 1576, p. 1213; 1583, p. 1243.

The king then visited Katherine, who explained that she was ill because she feared she had displeased him. She submitted humbly to him and was forgiven. 1570, p. 1423; 1576, p. 1213; 1583, p. 1243.

When Thomas Wriothesley with 40 of the king's guard came to arrest the queen and her ladies-in-waiting, he found them walking happily in the garden with the king. The king sent him away. 1570, p. 1425; 1576, p. 1214; 1583, p. 1244.

Henry gave an oration to parliament in 1545. 1570, pp. 1412-13; 1576, pp. 1203-04; 1583, pp. 1233-34.

When Claude d'Annebault, the French ambassador, went to see Henry VIII at Hampton Court, lavish entertainment was laid on for him, but he was recalled before he had received half of it. During the course of the banquet, he had private conversation with the king and Archbishop Cranmer about the reform of religion in the two countries. 1570, p. 1426; 1576, p. 1215; 1583, p. 1245.

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As long as Henry had good advisers, like Anne Boleyn, Thomas Cromwell, Thomas Cranmer, Anthony Denny and William Buttes around him, he did much to foster religious reform. 1563, p. 682; 1570, p. 1441; 1576, p. 1229; 1583, p. 1259.

During Henry VIII's final illness, Sir Anthony Browne tried unsuccessfully to get Stephen Gardiner reinstated in the king's will. 1570, p. 1478; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1291.

When Henry was on his deathbed, Anthony Denny asked him if he wished a spiritual adviser, and he asked for Thomas Cranmer. Before Cranmer could arrive, however, the king had lost the power of speech. He clasped Cranmer's hand, and shortly after died. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1290.

 
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John Ramsey

Ipswich artisan and protestant pamphleteer [ODNB sub John Ramsey (Bowle)]

John Ramsey witnessed the burning of Peke in Ipswich in 1515. 1570, p. 1292; 1576, p. 1106; 1583, p. 1132.

 
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Paul III (Alessandro Farnese)

(1468 - 1549) [Kelly]

b. Canino; received a humanist education; treasurer of the Roman church 1492; cardinal-deacon 1493; bishop of Parma 1509; dean of cardinals

Pope (1534 - 1549)

Paul III promoted John Fisher to cardinal, but Fisher was executed before he could be elevated. 1570, p. 1216; 1576, p. 1042; 1583, p. 1069.

He called a general council at Mantua to deal with heresy and the problem of the Turks. All princes were required to attend or to send delegates. 1570, p. 1234; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, p. 1083.

Paul III sent Cardinal Pole to the French king to stir him to war against Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

 
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Richard Nix

(c. 1447 - 1535) [ODNB]

Bishop of Exeter (1487 - 92); bishop of Bath and Wells (1492 - 94); bishop of Durham (1494 - 1501); bishop of Norwich (1501 - 35)

At the burning of Peke in Ipswich in 1515, Dr Redding, on behalf of the bishop of Norwich, promised 40 days' pardon for anyone who threw wood onto the fire. 1570, p. 1292; 1576, p. 1106; 1583, pp. 1131-32.

Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur were examined in the house of the bishop of Norwich. 1563, p. 462; 1570, p. 1135; 1576, p. 972; 1583, p. 999.

Two years after his abjuration, Thomas Bilney returned to Norfolk and preached openly. Richard Nix obtained a writ for his burning. 1563, p. 481; 1570, p. 1146; 1576, p. 981; 1583, p. 1008.

The priors of Pentney Priory and Westacre Priory assured Richard Nix, bishop of Norwich, that Nicholas Shaxton had not preached heresy at Westacre. 1563 p. 483.

After Bilney's burning, and the decision not to prosecute Nicholas Shaxton, Nix was afraid that he had burnt the wrong man. 1563, p. 484; 1570, pp. 1149-50; 1576, p. 984; 1583, p. 1011.

 
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Sir John Audley

Sir John Audley cut down boughs to stoke the fire under Peke at his burning in Ipswich in 1515. 1570, p. 1292; 1576, p. 1106; 1583, p. 1132.

 
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Sir Robert Curson

(c. 1460 - 1534/5) [ODNB]

Lord Curson and Baron Curson in the nobility of the Holy Roman Empire; soldier and courtier; JP Suffolk (1515 - 34); religious conservative

Baron Curson cut down boughs to stoke the fire under Peke at his burning in Ipswich in 1515. 1570, p. 1292; 1576, p. 1106; 1583, p. 1132.

 
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Mantua

Lombardy, Italy

Coordinates: 45° 10' 0" N, 10° 48' 0" E

Cathedral city

 
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Vicenza

[Vincence]

Veneto, Italy

Coordinates: 45° 33' 0" N, 11° 33' 0" E

1156 [1132]

K. Henry 8. The burning of Peeke. The kinges letter to the Emperour.

der, and sayd, Peke, recant, and beleue that the Sacrament of the aultar, is the very body of Christ, fleshe, bloud, and bone, after that the Priest hath spoken the words of Consecration ouer it, and heere haue I in my hande to absolue thee for thy misbeliefe that hath ben in thee, hauing a scrole of paper in his hande. When he had spoken these wordes, Peke answeared, and sayde, I defie it and thee also, & with a great violence he spit from him very bloud, whiche came by reason þt his vaynes brake in his body for extreame anguishe. And when the sayde Peke had so spoken, then D. Reding sayd: MarginaliaForty dayes of pardon proclaymed for casting sticks into Pekes fyer.To as many as shall cast a sticke to the burning of this heretique, is graunted fortye dayes of pardon by my Lord Byshop of Norwich 

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I.e., forty days indulgence from the punishments of Purgatory.

. Then Barne Curson, Sir Iohn Audley Knight, with many others of estimation being there present, did rise from their seates, and wyth their swords did cut downe boughes, and throw them into the fire, and so did all the multitude of the people.

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Witnes Iohn Ramsey and others,
who did see this acte. 

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Foxe is supplying these names to counter any criticisms that he that he had invented this account.

woodcut [View a larger version]

In the yeare last before this, whiche was of the Lorde. 1537. it was declared how Pope Paul the third indicted a general Councel to be holden at Mantua. MarginaliaOf this Coūcell of Mantua reade before 1084. Whereunto the king of England among other Princes being called, refused either to come or to sende at the Popes call, and for defence of himselfe, directed out a publique Apologie or Protestation, rendring iust and sufficient matter, why neyther he would, nor was bound to obey the Popes commandement. Which Protestation is before to be read, page. 1084. This Councell appointed to begin the 23. daye of Maye, the yeare aforesayde, was then stopped by the Duke of Mantua, pretending that hee woulde suffer no Councell there, vnlesse the Pope would fortifie the Citie with a sufficient armye, &c. For whiche cause the Pope proroged the sayd Councell, to be celebrate in the moneth of Nouember folowing, appointing at þe first no certaine place. At length named and determined the citie of Vincence (lyeng within the dominion of the Venetians) to be the place for the Councell. Whereunto when the King (the yeare next folowing, which is this present yeare of the Lorde 1538.) was requested by the Emperour and other states, to resort eyther hym selfe, or to sende: he agayne refusing (as hee dyd before) sendeth this Protestation in waye of defence and aunsweare for hymselfe, to the Emperour and other Christen princes: the copie and effect whereof heere vnder foloweth, and is this. 

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Henry VIII's letter to Charles V

The burning of Cowbridge at Oxford may well have been witnessed by Foxe himself, because he was in Oxford at the time. It also appears in the Rerum (p. 139). The 'Cope….his Dialogues' is a reference to Nicolas Harpsfield, Dialogi Sex, written over the name of Alan Cope, and published at Louvain in 1566. The stories of Leyton, Puttedew and Peke appear to be taken from the Norwich diocese visitation records, which are no longer extant. Henry's letter to the Emperor had been published, both in Latin and in English, by Thomas Berthelet in 1538 - see Henrici octaui regis Angliae et Franciae, fidei defensoris, supremiq[ue] post Christum Anglicae Ecclesiae capitis, ad Carolum Caesarem Augustum, caeterosq[ue] orbis Christiani monarchas, populumq[ue] Christianum, epistola, qua rex facile causas ostendit & curis Vincentiam, ad concilium falso nomine generale appellatum non sit uenturus, & quám periculorum sit aliis, qui ueram Christi doctrinam profitentur, eo sese conferre additus est et libellus ille, quem superiori anno, rex sereniss. vniuersiq[ue] Brytanniae proceres, de mantuanensi concilio aediderunt [ - STC 13080] and An epistle of the moste myghty [and] redouted Prince Henry the .viii. by the grace of God Kyng of England and of Fraunce, lorde of Irelande, defender of the faithe, and supreme heed of the churche of England, nexte vnder Christe, writen to the Emperours maiestie, to all Christen princes, and to all those that trewly and syncerely professe Christes religion [ - STC 13081].

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David LoadesHonorary Research Fellow,
University of Sheffield

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Henry the eight by the grace of God, King of Englande and Fraunce, &c. saluteth the Emperour, Christian princes, and all true Christen men, desiring peace and concord amongst them.

Marginalia

Anno. 1538.

The kings letter to the Emperor.

WHereas not long sithens, a booke came forth in our and al our Counsailes names, which cōteined many causes why we refused the Councell, then by the Byshop of Romes vsurped power first indicted at Mantua, to be kept the xxiij. day of May, after proroged to Nouember,no place appoynted where it shoud be kept, and whereas the same booke MarginaliaOf this book read before 1093. doth sufficiently proue, that our cause could take no hurt, neither with any thing done or decreed in such a company of addict men to one sect, nor in any other Councell called by his vsurped power: we thinke it nothing necessarie so oft to make newe protestations, MarginaliaThe Pope doth but mocke the world with his pretēsed Councells.as the Bishop of Rome and his Courts by suttletie and craft, do inuent wayes to mocke the world, by newe and pretensed generall Councels. Yet notwithstanding, because that some things haue now occurred, either vpon occasion geuen vs by change of the place, or else through other consideratiōs, which now being knowne to the worlde, may do muche good, we thought we should do but euen as that loue enforceth vs, which we owe vnto Christes fayth and religion, to adde this Epistle. MarginaliaGenerall Councells are to be wished so they might be free vniuersally for all partes. And yet we protest, that we neyther put forthe that booke, neither yet wee woulde this Epistle to be set afore it, that thereby we should seeme lesse to desire a generall Councell, then any other Prince or Potentate, but rather to be more desirous of it, so it were free for all partes, and vniuersall. And further, wee desire all good Princes, Potentates, and people, to esteeme and thinke that no Prince would more willingly be presente at such a Councell then we: suche a one we meane, as we speake of in our protestation made concerning the Councell of Mantua.

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Truely as our forefathers inuented nothyng more holyer then generall Councels, vsed as they ought to be, MarginaliaNothing more pernicious to the Church, then general Councels, if they be abused.so there is almost nothing that may do more hurt to þe Christian cōmon wealth, to þe faith, to our religion, then general Coūcels, if they be abused to lucre, to gaines, to þe establishment of errours. They be called general, and euen by their name do admonish vs, that all Christen mē which do dissent in any opinion, may in thē openly, frankly, & without feare of punishment or displeasure, say their mind. For seeing suche thyngs as are decreed in generall Councels, touche equally all men that geue assent thereunto, it is meete that euery man may boldly say there, that hee thinketh. And verily we suppose, that it ought not to be called a generall Councell, where alonely those men are heard, which are determined for euer, in all pointes, to defend the Popish parte and to arme themselues to fight in the Byshop of Romes quarrell, though it were against God and his Scriptures. MarginaliaThe Popes Councels, are no generall Councells.It is no generall Councell, neyther it ought to be called generall, where the same men be onely Aduocates and aduersaries: the same accused and iudges. MarginaliaThe Pope in his Coūcels is the party accused and also the iudge. No it is against the lawe of nature, either that we shoulde condescend to so vnreasonable a law against our selues, eyther that we should suffer our selues to be lefte without all defence, and beeing oppressed with greatest iniuries, to haue no refuge to succour our selues at. The Byshop of Rome and his, be our great enemies, as wee and all the world may well perceyue by his doings.

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He desireth nothing more then our hurt, and the destruction of our Realme: Do not we then violate the iudgement of nature, if we geue him power and authoritie to be our Iudge? MarginaliaAgaynst all reason that he which is our accuser should also be our iudge.His pretended honor first gotten by superstition, after encreased by violence, & other waies as euill as that: his power set vp by pretence of religion, in deed both against religion, and also contrary to the word of God: his primacie borne by the ignorancie of the world, nourished by the ambition of Bishops of Rome, defended by places of Scripture falsely vnderstande: MarginaliaThe Popes honor first gotten by superstytion borne by ignorance, nourished by ambition, increased by violence, defended by false vnderstanding & wrasting of scriptures. these three things (wee say) which are fallen with vs, and are like to fall in other Realmes shortly, shall they not be established agayne, if he may decide our cause as him lusteth? if he may at his pleasure oppresse a cause most righteous, and set vp his, most against truth? Certainely he is very blinde, that seeth not, what ende we may looke for of our controuersies, if suche our enemie may geue the sentence.

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We desire, if it were in any wise possible, a Councell, where some hope may be, that those things shall be restored, which now being deprauate, are like (if they be not amended) to be the vtter ruine of Christian Religion. And as we do desire suche a Councell, and thinke it meete that all men in all their praiers should desire & craue it of God: euen so we thinke it perteineth vnto our office, to prouide both that these Popishe subtilties hurte none of oure subiects, MarginaliaProuision to be made agaynst popishe subtylties.and also to admonishe other Christian Princes, that the Bishop of Rome may not by their consente, abuse the authoritie of kings, either by the extinguishing of the true preaching of Scripture (that nowe beginneth to spryng, to growe, and spreade abroade) eyther to the troubling of Princes liberties, to the diminishing of Kings authorities, and to the great blemish of their princely maiestie. We doubt nothing but a Reader not parciall, wyll soone approue such things as we heere write, not so muche for our excuse, as that the worlde may perceiue both the sundrye

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