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Alexander III (Orlando Bandinelli)

(c. 1100 - 1181) [Kelly]

b.Siena; canon lawyer; cardinal-deacon 1150; cardinal-priest 1151; chancellor 1153; pope (1159 - 81)

The papacy was in schism for 18 years; Alexander moved to France.

Thomas Becket, having stood against the king's laws, went to the pope in France. 1570, p. 1295; 1576, p. 1108; 1583, p. 1134.

 
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Anne Boleyn

(c. 1500 - 1536) [ODNB]

Queen of England (1533 - 36); 2nd wife of Henry VIII; beheaded

While considering the question of the king's divorce, Cardinal Wolsey became aware that King Henry favoured Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1195; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1051.

Anne Boleyn was sent a copy of Simon Fish's Supplication for the Beggars. At the urging of her brother, she showed the book to the king. 1570, p. 448; 1570, p. 1153; 1576, p. 956; 1583, p. 1014.

Parliament approved Thomas Cranmer's separation of Henry and Catherine and his marriage to Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1197; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1053.

Henry married Anne Boleyn. She, her father and her brother maintained many learned men at Cambridge. 1570, p. 1198; 1576, pp. 1025-26; 1583, p. 1054.

Anne was crowned and soon after gave birth to a daughter. 1570, p. 1198; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1054.

Anne had Hugh Latimer placed in the bishopric of Worcester and Nicholas Shaxton in the bishopric of Salisbury. 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1055; 1583, p. 1082.

In 1536 parliament declared the marriage of the king and Queen Anne illegitimate and accused the queen of carnal relations with her brother and other men. 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1055; 1583, p. 1082.

Anne was imprisoned in the Tower with her brother and others. She was beheaded, delivering a short address before. 1563, p. 526; 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1055; 1583, p. 1082.

Catherine of Aragon died in the same year in which Anne Boleyn and William Tyndale were executed. 1570, p. 1232; 1576, p. 1055; 1583, p. 1082.

Anne Boleyn is given as an example of one wrongly accused and judged. 1570, p. 1360; 1576, p. 1161; 1583, p. 1189.

 
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Anne of Cleves

(1515 - 1557) [ODNB]

Queen of England (1540); 4th consort of Henry VIII; marriage annulled

Thomas Cromwell arranged the marriage between the king and Anne of Cleeves. 1570, p. 1295; 1576, p. 1109; 1583, p. 1134.

Henry VIII repudiated Anne of Cleves, divorced her and married Katherine Howard at the time of the execution of Cromwell. 1570, pp. 1361, 1385; 1576, pp. 1161, 1181; 1583, pp. 1190, 1210.

Not long before the king's death, Anne of Cleves, along with the king and Queen Katherine Parr and other noblewomen, attended a grand banquet for the French ambassador. 1570, p. 1426; 1576, p. 1215; 1583, p. 1245.

 
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Henry II

(1133 - 1189) [ODNB]

King of England (1154 - 89)

Duke of Normandy (1149 - 89); duke of Aquitaine (1152 - 89); count of Anjou (1151 - 89)

After Becket's murder, Henry II was compelled to agree to allow appeals to Rome from England.1570, p. 5, 1576, p. 4, 1583, p. 4.

Henry was made to remove the secular canons from Waltham church and install regular canons.1570, p. 1350, 1576, p. 1152, 1583, p. 1181.

 
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Henry VIII

(1491 - 1547) [ODNB]

Duke of York 1494; duke of Cornwall 1502; prince of Wales, earl of Chester 1503

King of England (1509 - 47)

After the death of Prince Arthur, his widow Catherine married his brother Henry. 1563, p. 456; 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Henry issued a proclamation against the heresies of Luther. 1570, p. 1159; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1019.

Through Thomas Wolsey, Henry received the title of defender of the faith from the pope. 1570, p. 1124; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 989.

After Clement VII had been taken prisoner by imperial forces, Wolsey urged Henry VIII to go to the pope's assistance. The king refused to send troops, but allowed Wolsey to take money out of the treasury to help. 1563, p. 439; 1570, pp. 1123; 1576, p. 961; 1583, p. 988.

Henry, encouraged by Cardinal Wolsey, began to question the validity of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. He sought the advice of universities and learned men, but needed the assent of the pope and the emperor to a divorce. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Stephen Gardiner was sent as ambassador to Rome by Henry VIII during the time of Clement VII to deal with the matter of the king's divorce and to promote Thomas Wolsey as pope. Both the king and Wolsey wrote letters to him. Nicholas Harvey was sent as ambassador to Emperor Charles V. 1570, pp. 1125-29, 1192; 1576, pp. 963-67, 1021; 1583, pp. 990-93, 1049.

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Wolsey and Cardinal Campeggi had a legatine commission to consider the matter of the king's divorce. Henry began to suspect that Wolsey was not fully supportive. 1570, pp. 1129, 1193; 1576, pp. 967, 1021; 1583, pp. 994, 1049.

Henry gave an oration at Bridewell setting out his reasons for the divorce. 1563, pp. 456-57; 1570, p. 1193; 1576, pp. 1021-22; 1583, p. 1050.

Henry and Queen Catherine were summoned to appear before the papal legates, Cardinals Wolsey and Campeggi, who had a commission to judge the matter of the divorce. Henry sent two proxies; Catherine arrived in person, accompanied by ladies and counsellors, including four bishops. Finally the king himself appeared, delivering an oration to the legates. 1563, pp. 456-57; 1570, p. 1194; 1576, p. 1022; 1583, p. 1050.

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Anne Boleyn was sent a copy of Simon Fish's Supplication for the Beggars and showed it to the king. He offered his protection to Fish, allowing him to return to England. 1563, p. 448; 1570, p. 1153; 1576, p. 986; 1583, p. 1014.

After Wolsey had been deprived of most of his offices and the associated lands and goods returned to the king, Henry allowed Cardinal College, Oxford, to continue, endowing it and renaming it King's College. 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 994.

When the king heard of the exhumation and burning of William Tracy's corpse, he angrily sent for Sir Thomas More. More blamed the now deceased archbishop of Canterbury, but was fined three hundred pounds to have his pardon. 1570, p. 1186; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1042.

Henry, failing to get a positive response from the pope on the question of his divorce, associated the clergy in Wolsey's praemunire and demanded over £100,000 for their pardon. 1570, p. 1195; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1052.

Henry had published the opinions of the universities against his marriage to Catherine. 1570, p. 1196; 1576, p. 1024; 1583, p. 1052.

Parliament approved Thomas Cranmer's separation of Henry and Catherine and his marriage to Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1197; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1053.

Thomas Temys asked parliament to urge the king to take Queen Catherine back as his wife. The king replied via the Speaker, Sir Thomas Audeley. The king also had the Speaker read in the Commons the two oaths taken by clergy, one to the pope and one to the king, to demonstrate that they were irreconcilable. 1570, p. 1197; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1053.

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Henry married Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1198; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1054.

The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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The king sent Edward Lee, under Cromwell, to visit the monasteries and nunneries to release all those in religious orders who wished to leave. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

Henry VIII ordered a religious procession in London in 1535 because the French king was ill. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

After the Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII attempted to improve relations with other monarchs by sending ambassadors. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

Messages were sent between Henry and François I about the pope's refusal of Henry's divorce from Catherine and his supremacy over the English church. 1570, pp. 1218-22; 1576, pp. 1043-46; 1583, pp. 1070-73.

Henry VIII wrote to Bonner commanding that excess holy days be abolished. 1563, p. 682; 1570, p. 1441; 1576, p. 1229; 1583, p. 1259.

Henry had Queen Anne imprisoned in the Tower with her brother and others. She was then beheaded. 1563, p. 526; 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1055; 1583, p. 1082.

Stephen Gardiner was suspected of involvement in the downfall of Anne Boleyn, and urged the king to disinherit Elizabeth. 1570, pp. 1233, 1243; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, pp. 1082, 1083.

Henry married Jane Seymour shortly after the execution of Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1234; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, p. 1083.

Cromwell urged King Henry to destroy the monastic houses and to grant the lands to the nobility and gentlemen. 1570, p. 1350; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1181.

The king answered the rebels in Lincolnshire and sent the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, the marquess of Exeter and the earl of Shrewsbury into Yorkshire to put down the Pilgrimage of Grace. 1570, pp. 1237-38; 1576, pp. 1059-60; 1583, pp. 1086-87.

Along with the protestant German princes, Henry refused to send delegates to the council in Mantua called by Pope Paul III. 1570, p. 1234; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, p. 1083.

The emperor and other princes requested Henry to attend the council or to send delegates. He again refused, sending a protestation. 1570, pp. 1293-94; 1576, pp. 1106-08; 1583, pp. 1132-33.

François I of France and Emperor Charles V retained Robert Granceter, a condemned traitor, and refused to hand him over to Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

Francis I had allied himself with Pope Clement VII in marrying his son to Clement's niece. He also married his daughter to James V of Scotland, breaking an agreement with Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1088.

Stephen Gardiner urged Henry to withdraw his defence of religious reform in order to ensure peace within the realm and to restore good relations with foreign rulers. 1570, p. 1296; 1576, p. 1109; 1583, p. 1135.

Stephen Gardiner urged Henry VIII to use the case against John Lambert as a means of displaying the king's willingness to deal harshly with heresy. The king himself would sit in judgement. 1563, pp. 533-34; 1570, p. 1281; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, pp. 1121-22.

At the end of Lambert's trial, the king had Cromwell read the sentence of condemnation. 1563, p. 537; 1570, p. 1283; 1576, p. 1097; 1583, p. 1123.

Cromwell was instrumental in getting Edmund Bonner's nomination to the bishopric of London. He procured letters from King Henry to François I that resulted in a licence being granted to print bibles in English at the University of Paris. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1191.

Although Edmund Bonner performed his ambassadorial duties well as far as Henry VIII was concerned, he displeased the king of France, who asked for him to be recalled. Henry recalled him, giving him the bishopric of London, and sent Sir John Wallop to replace him. 1570, p. 1245; 1576, p. 1066; 1583, p. 1093.

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The king sent Thomas Cromwell and the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk to dine with Thomas Cranmer to reassure him after his opposition to the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1298; 1576, p. 1111; 1583, p. 1136.

Henry asked for a summary of Cranmer's objections to the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1355; 1576, p. 1157; 1583, p. 1185.

Philip Melancthon wrote a letter to Henry VIII against the Six Articles. 1570, pp. 1340-44; 1576, pp. 1144-47; 1583, pp. 1172-76.

Thomas Cromwell arranged the marriage between the king and Anne of Cleeves. 1570, p. 1295; 1576, p. 1109; 1583, p. 1134.

Henry had Thomas Cromwell arrested on charges of heresy and treason. Shortly after Cromwell's execution, the king lamented his death. 1563, p. 598; 1570, p. 1360; 1576, p. 1157; 1583, p. 1185.

Henry VIII repudiated Anne of Cleves, divorced her and married Katherine Howard at the time of the execution of Cromwell. 1570, pp. 1361, 1385; 1576, pp. 1161, 1181; 1583, pp. 1190, 1210.

After Cromwell's death, the king was persuaded against the Great Bible and had sales stopped. 1570, p. 1363; 1576, p. 1163; 1583, p. 1191.

King Henry commanded that Robert Barnes, Thomas Garrard and William Jerome recant the doctrine they had been preaching. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, p. 1170; 1583, p. 1198.

King Henry wrote to Archbishop Cranmer, ordering that idolatrous images be removed from churches. 1563, p. 625; 1570, p. 1385; 1576, p. 1181; 1583, p. 1210.

For a long period, Henry VIII denied his daughter Mary the title of princess. Thomas Cranmer urged a reconciliation. 1570, p. 1565; 1576, p. 1335; 1583, p. 1396.

Katherine Parr read and studied the scriptures and discussed them with her chaplains. The king was aware of this and approved, so she began to debate matters of religion with him. When the king became more ill-tempered because of his sore leg, her enemies, especially Stephen Gardiner and Thomas Wriothesley, took the opportunity to turn the king against her. 1570, pp. 1422-23; 1576, pp. 1212-13; 1583, pp. 1242-43.

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Henry gave a warrant for the gathering of articles against Katherine. 1570, pp. 1422-23; 1576, pp. 1212-13; 1583, pp. 1242-43.

Henry told one of his physicians of the charges against Katherine; the physician was then sent to treat her when she fell ill, and he divulged the charges to her. 1570, p. 1423; 1576, p. 1213; 1583, p. 1243.

The king then visited Katherine, who explained that she was ill because she feared she had displeased him. She submitted humbly to him and was forgiven. 1570, p. 1423; 1576, p. 1213; 1583, p. 1243.

When Thomas Wriothesley with 40 of the king's guard came to arrest the queen and her ladies-in-waiting, he found them walking happily in the garden with the king. The king sent him away. 1570, p. 1425; 1576, p. 1214; 1583, p. 1244.

Henry gave an oration to parliament in 1545. 1570, pp. 1412-13; 1576, pp. 1203-04; 1583, pp. 1233-34.

When Claude d'Annebault, the French ambassador, went to see Henry VIII at Hampton Court, lavish entertainment was laid on for him, but he was recalled before he had received half of it. During the course of the banquet, he had private conversation with the king and Archbishop Cranmer about the reform of religion in the two countries. 1570, p. 1426; 1576, p. 1215; 1583, p. 1245.

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As long as Henry had good advisers, like Anne Boleyn, Thomas Cromwell, Thomas Cranmer, Anthony Denny and William Buttes around him, he did much to foster religious reform. 1563, p. 682; 1570, p. 1441; 1576, p. 1229; 1583, p. 1259.

During Henry VIII's final illness, Sir Anthony Browne tried unsuccessfully to get Stephen Gardiner reinstated in the king's will. 1570, p. 1478; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1291.

When Henry was on his deathbed, Anthony Denny asked him if he wished a spiritual adviser, and he asked for Thomas Cranmer. Before Cranmer could arrive, however, the king had lost the power of speech. He clasped Cranmer's hand, and shortly after died. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1290.

 
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John Frederick I (the Magnanimous)

(1503 - 1554) [C. Scott Dixon and M. Greengrass, www.leedstrinity.ac.uk/histcourse/reformat/biograph.htm]

Eldest son of Elector Johann 'The Constant' and nephew of Elector Friedrich 'the Wise'

Elector of Saxony (1532 - 54); early, strong supporter of Luther

Robert Barnes fled England and went to Germany, where he found favour with Luther, Melancthon, Bugenhagen, Justus Jonas, Hegendorph, Æpinus, the duke (elector) of Saxony and the king of Denmark. 1563, p. 603; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1165; 1583, p. 1194.

When Martin Luther was called to Rome to answer charges of heresy, John Frederick pleaded to have him tried by impartial judges. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1252; 1583, p. 1289.

The duke of Saxony was married to the sister of Anne of Cleves. He was thought not to approve of the proposed marriage between Anne and Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1296; 1576, p. 1109; 1583, p. 1134.

 
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Stephen Gardiner

(c. 1495x8 - 1555) [ODNB]

Theologian, administrator; BCnL Cambridge 1518; DCL 1521; DCnL 1522; chancellor of Cambridge

Principal secretary to the king 1529; ambassador to France

Bishop of Winchester (1531 - 51, 1553 - 55)

Thomas Cromwell, Thomas More and Stephen Gardiner served together in Thomas Wolsey's household. 1563, p. 592; 1570, p. 1347; 1576, p. 1150; 1583, p. 1178.

Gardiner and Edward Fox urged leniency on Cardinal Wolsey when dealing with Robert Barnes. They stood surety for him and convinced him to abjure. 1563, pp. 601-02; 1570, pp. 1364-65; 1576, pp. 1164-65; 1583, pp. 1192-93.

Stephen Gardiner was sent as ambassador to Rome by Henry VIII during the time of Clement VII to deal with the matter of the king's divorce and to promote Thomas Wolsey as pope. Both the king and Wolsey wrote letters to him. 1570, pp. 1125-28, 1193; 1576, pp. 963-66, 1021; 1583, pp. 990-92, 1049.

Shortly after Gardiner became secretary to King Henry, he and William Fitzwilliam were assigned by the king to ensure that Thomas Wolsey's goods were not stolen after his deprivation of his offices, but returned to the king. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 994.

Richard Bayfield was tried before John Stokesley, assisted by Stephen Gardiner and others. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

John Frith was taken first to the archbishop of Canterbury at Lambeth, then to the bishop of Winchester at Croydon, and then to London to plead his case before the assembled bishops. He was examined there by the bishops of London, Winchester and Lincoln. 1563, pp. 501-03; 1570, pp. 1176-78; 1576, pp. 1006-08; 1583, pp. 1034-35.

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Andrew Hewett was examined by Stokesley, Gardiner and Longland. 1563, p. 506; 1570, p. 1180; 1576, p. 1009; 1583, p. 1036.

The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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Gardiner swore an oath of allegiance to Henry VIII as head of the church. 1570, p. 1203; 1576, p. 1030; 1583, p. 1057.

In his De vera obedientia, Gardiner challenged the authority of the pope and argued against the validity of the king's marriage to Catherine of Aragon. 1570, pp. 1204-06; 1576, pp. 1031-32; 1583, pp. 1058-59.

Gardiner was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Gardiner was sent with a Henry VIII's answer to Francis I, king of France, regarding Henry's supremacy over the English church. 1570, p. 1221; 1576, p. 1045; 1583, p. 1072.

Gardiner was suspected of involvement in the downfall of Anne Boleyn, and urged the king to disinherit Elizabeth. 1570, pp. 1233, 1243; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, pp. 1082, 1083.

Gardiner was a resident ambassador to France in 1538, when Edmund Bonner, through the efforts of Thomas Cromwell, was brought in to replace him. There were great disagreements between the two, since Bonner at the time was in favour of reform. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1088.

The bearward who had a book belonging to Archbishop Cranmer's secretary intended giving it to Sir Anthony Browne or Stephen Gardiner. 1570, p. 1356; 1576, p. 1157; 1583, p. 1186.

In a letter to Henry VIII, Philip Melancthon called Gardiner wicked and impudent. 1570, p. 1341; 1576, p. 1145; 1583, p. 1173.

Bonner sent a declaration to Cromwell of Stephen Gardiner's evil behaviour. 1570, pp. 1241-44; 1576, pp. 1063-66; 1583, pp. 1090-92.

Gardiner urged Henry VIII to withdraw his defence of religious reform in order to ensure peace within the realm and to restore good relations with foreign rulers. 1570, pp. 1296; 1576, p. 1109; 1583, p. 1135.

Stephen Gardiner urged Henry VIII to use the case against John Lambert as a means of displaying the king's willingness to deal harshly with heresy. 1563, pp. 533-34; 1570, p. 1281; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, pp. 1121-22.

Cranmer had sent letters for Henry VIII to sign relating to reform in the church. Gardiner convinced the king that these reforms would jeopardise a league with the king of France and the emperor, so the letters were never signed. 1570, p. 1426; 1576, p. 1215; 1583, p. 1245.

Gardiner disputed with Lambert during his trial. 1563, pp. 535-36; 1570, pp. 1282-83; 1576, p. 1097; 1583, p. 1123.

Stephen Gardiner was Thomas Cromwell's chief opponent. 1563, p. 598; 1570, p. 1359; 1576, p. 1160; 1583, p. 1189.

Stephen Gardiner complained to the king about the sermon of Robert Barnes preached during Lent at Paul's Cross. He disputed with Barnes, and Richard Coxe and Thomas Robinson acted as arbiters. Gardiner then submitted articles against Barnes. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, pp. 1169-70; 1583, p. 1198.

Adam Damplip was brought before Thomas Cranmer, Stephen Gardiner, Richard Sampson and others and examined. 1563, p. 657; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1194; 1583, p. 1224.

Thomas Broke, Ralph Hare, James Cocke and James Barber were sent from Calais with their accusers to England to be examined by Cranmer, Gardiner, Sampson and other bishops. 1563, p. 661; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1195; 1583, p. 1224.

William Symonds and John London kept notes of Anthony Pearson's sermons at Windsor. They included the names of all those who frequented the sermons and reported all of these to Stephen Gardiner, who in turn reported to the king and received a commission for a search at Windsor. 1570, pp. 1389-90; 1576, p. 1185; 1583, pp. 1213-14.

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Gardiner had Simon Haynes and Philip Hoby committed to the Fleet, but their friends secured their release. 1570, p. 1390; 1576, p. 1186; 1583, p. 1214.

Gardiner conducted the third examination of John Marbeck himself. He ordered Marbeck to be placed in irons and kept in isolation. 1570, pp. 1391-92; 1576, pp. 1186-88; 1583, pp. 1215-16.

On the orders of Stephen Gardiner, John Massie took Adam Damplip to Calais. 1570, p. 1400; 1576, p. 1193; 1583, p. 1223.

John Capon and others of the judges in the trial of Marbeck, Testwood, Pearson and Filmer at Windsor sent a message to Stephen Gardiner in favour of John Marbeck. Gardiner went straight to the king and obtained a pardon. 1570, p. 1397; 1576, p. 1191; 1583, p. 1220.

After the burning of Filmer, Pearsons and Testwood, Capon sent Robert Ockham with a report to Stephen Gardiner. 1570, p. 1398; 1576, p. 1191; 1583, p. 1221.

Gardiner was one of the questioners at the second examination of Anne Askew in 1546. 1563, p. 683; 1570, p. 1417; 1576, p. 1208; 1583, p. 1237.

Katherine Parr read and studied the scriptures and discussed them with her chaplains. The king was aware of this and approved, so she began to debate matters of religion with him. When the king became more ill-tempered because of his sore leg, her enemies, especially Stephen Gardiner and Thomas Wriothesley, took the opportunity to turn the king against her. 1570, pp. 1422-23; 1576, pp. 1212-13; 1583, pp. 1242-43.

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Gardiner and other enemies of Katherine Parr planned to accuse and arrest Lady Herbert, Lady Lane and Lady Tyrwhit and search their quarters for books and other evidence to use against the queen. 1570, p. 1423; 1576, p. 1213; 1583, p. 1243.

During Henry VIII's final illness, Sir Anthony Browne tried unsuccessfully to get Stephen Gardiner reinstated in the king's will. 1570, p. 1478; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1291.

After the death of Henry VIII, the duke of Suffolk related to Thomas Cranmer how Stephen Gardiner had nearly been arrested at the time of the execution of Germaine Gardiner. He confessed his fault to the king and was pardoned. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1290.

Stephen Gardiner preached a sermon contrary to King Edward's injunctions. He was arrested and taken to the Tower by Sir Anthony Wingfield and Sir Ralph Sadler; Sadler and William Hunnings were instructed to seal off doors to his house. He was transferred to the Fleet. 1563, pp. 728, 760; 1570, pp. 1521, 1529; 1576, pp. 1297, 1304; 1583, pp. 1340, 1353-54.

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Gardiner wrote to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, the Lord Protector and others while imprisoned in the Fleet. 1563, pp. 728-54; 1570, pp. 1522-25; 1576, pp. 1297-1300; 1583, pp. 1340-50.

Gardiner was released out of the Fleet by a general pardon, but was placed under house arrest for failure to conform. Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Smith and William Cecil were sent to him. He was called before the council. 1563, p. 755; 1570, pp. 1525-26; 1576, p. 1301; 1583, p. 1351.

Gardiner was imprisoned in the Tower with Cuthbert Tunstall under Edward VI and Edward Seymour. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1296.

After Gardiner had been in the Tower for nearly a year, Sir William Paulet and Sir William Petre visited and urged him to admit his fault. Paulet, Petre, the earl of Warwick and Sir William Herbert delivered the king's letters to him. 1563, pp. 761-62; 1570, pp. 1529-30; 1576, p. 1304; 1583, p. 1354.

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Edward Seymour, John Russell, John Dudley and Sir William Petre visited Stephen Gardiner in the Tower at various times to attempt to get him to accept the king's reforms. 1563, pp. 766; 1570, p. 1532; 1576, p. 1306; 1583, p. 1356.

Articles were put to him to answer. 1563, pp. 754-68; 1570, pp. 1525-34; 1576, pp. 1300-07; 1583, pp. 1350-57.

When Sir William Herbert and Sir William Petre went to Stephen Gardiner in the Tower with new articles, they took with them a canon and a civil lawyer: Nicholas Ridley and Richard Goodrich. 1563, p. 768; 1570, p. 1534; 1576, p. 1307; 1583, p. 1357.

After Gardiner's sequestration, Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Henry Holbeach, Sir William Petre, Sir James Hales, Griffith Leyson, John Oliver and John Gosnold were commissioned to examine him. 1563, p. 776; 1570, p. 1535; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1358.

William Paget, Andrew Baynton and Thomas Chaloner were deponents in the case of Gardiner. 1563, pp. 814-18; 1570, p. 1536; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1359.

Gardiner was examined and deprived of his bishopric. 1563, pp. 814-67; 1570, pp. 1536-37; 1576, pp. 1309-10; 1583, pp. 1359-60.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sybilla of Cleves

(b. 1512) [ODNB sub Anne of Cleves]

Sister of Anne of Cleves; married John Frederick, future elector of Saxony

Sybilla had married John Frederick before Anne married Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1296; 1576, p. 1109; 1583, p. 1134.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Becket (St Thomas Becket)

(1120? - 1170) [ODNB]

Chancellor (1154 - 62); archdeacon of Canterbury (1154 - 62); archbishop of Canterbury (1162 - 70); murdered

Becket appealed to Pope Alexander III when Roger, archbishop of York, crowned Henry II's son Henry. 1563, p. 16.

After Becket's murder, King Henry II was compelled to agree to allow appeals to Rome from England.1570, p. 5, 1576, p. 4, 1583, p. 4.

One of the injunctions issued by Henry VIII declared that Becket was not to be considered a saint and martyr, but a rebel and traitor. Becket was said to have attacked William de Tracy. Another gentleman came to his rescue and in the process killed Becket. 1563, pp. 572-73; 1570, p. 1295; 1576, p. 1108; 1583, p. 1134.

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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Cromwell

(in or bef. 1485 - 1540) [ODNB]

Lawyer; king's secretary; chief minister

Earl of Essex 1540; beheaded gruesomely

Thomas Cromwell was the son of a smith. He had an impressive memory and was skilled in languages. He was retained by the English merchants in Antwerp as clerk. He accompanied Geoffrey Chambers to Rome to obtain indulgences for the guild of Our Lady in Boston. 1570, p. 1346; 1576, p. 1149; 1583, pp. 1177-78.

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As a young man Cromwell fought with the French at Garigliano. He was then destitute in Italy and was helped by the Italian merchant banker Francesco Frescobaldi. Cromwell years later repaid him with generous interest when Frescobaldi was impoverished in England. 1570, pp. 1357-58; 1576, pp. 1158-59; 1583, pp. 1186-87.

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Cromwell confessed to archbishop Cranmer that he had been wild in his youth. He was at the siege of Rome with the duke of Bourbon. 1570, p. 1346; 1576, p. 1149; 1583, pp. 1177-78.

Cromwell, Thomas More and Stephen Gardiner served together in Thomas Wolsey's household. 1563, p. 592; 1570, p. 1347; 1576, p. 1150; 1583, p. 1178.

Cromwell was one of Wolsey's chief councillors and was active in the dissolution of the monasteries. After Wolsey's fall and his departure to Southwell, Cromwell entered the king's service. 1570, pp. 1132, 1347; 1576, pp. 969, 1150; 1583, pp. 996, 1179.

Cromwell was knighted, made master of the jewels and admitted to the king's council. Two years later he was made master of the rolls. Shortly before the birth of Prince Edward, Cromwell was created earl of Essex and appointed viceregent. 1570, p. 1348; 1576, p. 1151; 1583, p. 1179.

Cromwell discovered and made public fraudulent miracles. 1570, p. 1359; 1576, p. 1160; 1583, p. 1188.

Elizabeth Barton prophesied that if the king divorced Queen Catherine and married Anne Boleyn, he would not reign more than a month thereafter. Through the efforts of Cranmer, Cromwell and Latimer, she was condemned and executed with some of her supporters. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, pp. 1054-55.

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Cromwell urged King Henry to destroy the monastic houses and to grant the lands to the nobility and gentlemen. 1570, p. 1350; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1181.

Edward Lee was sent, under Cromwell, to visit the monasteries and nunneries to release all those in religious orders who wished to leave. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

Cromwell gave an oration at the synod in 1537 of bishops and learned men. 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

Gardiner was a resident ambassador to France in 1538, when Edmund Bonner, through the efforts of Thomas Cromwell, was brought in to replace him. Bonner owed his major preferments to Cromwell. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1088.

Bonner sent a declaration to Cromwell of Stephen Gardiner's evil behaviour. 1570, pp. 1241-44; 1576, pp. 1063-66; 1583, pp. 1090-92.

Through the efforts of Cromwell, the destruction of the abbeys and religious houses was accomplished. 1570, p. 1255; 1576, p. 1075; 1583, p. 1101.

At the end of John Lambert's trial, the king had Cromwell read the sentence of condemnation. On the day of Lambert's execution, Cromwell asked for his forgiveness. 1563, pp. 537, 569; 1570, pp. 1283-84; 1576, pp. 1097-98; 1583, pp. 1123-24.

The king sent Cromwell and the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk to dine with Thomas Cranmer to reassure him after his opposition to the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1298; 1576, p. 1111; 1583, p. 1136.

The wife of Thomas Broke wrote to Thomas Cromwell, complaining of the way the imprisoned men in Calais, especially her husband, were treated. Cromwell wrote to the commissioners in Calais, commanding that Broke and a number of others be sent to England. 1563, p. 666; 1570, p. 1405; 1576, p. 1198; 1583, p. 1227.

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Cromwell was instrumental in obtaining Edmund Bonner's nomination to the bishopric of London. Cromwell procured letters from King Henry to Francois I that resulted in a licence being granted to print bibles in English at Paris. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1191.

When printing of English bibles was stopped in Paris, Cromwell got the presses and types sent to London. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1163; 1583, p. 1191.

Stephen Gardiner was Cromwell's chief opponent. Cromwell had other enemies as well, and in 1540 he was suddenly arrested in the council chamber and committed to the Tower. He was charged with heresy and treason. 1563, p. 598; 1570, p. 1359; 1576, pp. 1160-61; 1583, p. 1189.

Cromwell, having made an oration and prayer, was beheaded by an incompetent axeman. 1563, p. 598; 1570, pp. 1361-62; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1190.

Stephen Gardiner recalled that Cromwell spent a day and a half investigating a matter between Sir Francis Bryan and Gardiner, finally declaring Gardiner an honest man. 1563, p. 756; 1570, p. 1526; 1576, p. 1301; 1583, p. 1351.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William de Tracy

(d. in or before 1174) [ODNB]

One of the household and chamber knights who killed Thomas Becket in 1170; died on pilgrimage to the holy land

One of the injunctions issued by Henry VIII declared that Becket was not to be considered a saint and martyr, but a rebel and traitor. Becket was said to have attacked William de Tracy. Another gentleman came to his rescue and in the process killed Becket. 1563, pp. 572-73; 1570, p. 1295; 1576, p. 1108; 1583, p. 1134.

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1158 [1134]

K. Hen. 8. Jniunctions by the king. Thomas Becket a traytor. Religion going backward.

bookes with annotations or Prologues, vnles such books before be examined by the kings priuy Counsell, or others appoynted by his highnesse, and yet not to put therto these wordes: Cum priuilegio Regali, wtout adding, Ad imprimendum solum: neither yet to print it, without the kinges priuiledge be printed therewith in the English tongue, that all men may read it. MarginaliaNo bookes to be translated, without the name of the translator.Neyther shall they print any translated booke, without the playne name of the translator be in it, or els the printer to be made the translatour, and to suffer the fine and punishment therof at the kinges pleasure.

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MarginaliaEnglishe bokes of scripture forbidden to be printed.Item, that none of the occupation of Printing shall within the Realme, print, vtter, sell, or cause to be published any Englishe bookes of Scripture, vnlesse the same be first viewed, examined, and admitted by the kings highnesse, or one of his priuy Counsell, or one Byshop within the Realme, whose name shall therin be expressed, vpon payne of the kinges most high displeasure, the losse of their goods and cattels, and prisonment, so lōg as it shall please the king.

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MarginaliaAgaynst Sacramentaryes.Item, those that be in any errours, as Sacramentaries, Anabaptistes, or any other, or any that sell books, hauing such opinions in them, being once knowne, both the bookes and such persons shalbe detected and disclosed immediately vnto the kinges Maiesty, or one of hys priuye Counsell, to the intent to haue it punished without fauor, euen with the extremity of the law.

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MarginaliaNo man to dispute of the Sacrament.Item, that none of the kings subiects shall reason, dispute, or argue vpon the sacramēt of the aulter, vpon paine of losing theyr liues, goodes and cattels, without all fauor, onely these excepted that be learned in Diuinitye: they to haue theyr liberty in theyr scholes and appoynted places, accustomed for such matters.

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MarginaliaHoly bread and holy water, with other rites of the Church established.Item, that holy bread and holy water, procession, kneling, and creeping on good Friday to the crosse and Easter day, setting vp of lights before the Corpus Christi, bearing of candles on Candlemas day, Purification of women deliuered of child, offfering of Crisomes, keeping of the foure offering dayes, paying theyr tithes, and such like ceremonyes must be obserued & kept, till it shall please the king to chaunge or abrogate any of them. This 

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This sentence is Foxe's insertion into the text. Foxe is trying to establish that there was popular resistance to the retaining of these traditional ceremonies.

article was made for that the people was not quieted and contēted (many of them) with the ceremonies then vsed.

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MarginaliaMaryed priestes punished.Finally, all those Priestes that be maryed, and openly knowne to haue theyr wiues, or that hereafter do intēd to marry, shall be depriued of all Spirituall promotion, & from doyng any duety of a Priest, and shall haue no manner of office, dignity, cure, priuiledge, profit, or commodity in any thing appertaining to the Clergy, but from thence forth shalbe taken, had, and reputed as lay persons, to all purposes and intentes: and those that shall after thys proclamation marry, shall runne in his graces indignatō, and suffer punishment and imprisonment at his graces will & pleasure.

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MarginaliaDifference to be taught betwene things commaūded of God, and ceremonyes vncommaunded.Item, he chargeth all Archbishops, Bishops, Archdeacons, Deacons, Prouostes, Parsons, Vicars, Curates, & other Ministers, and euery of them in their own persons, within their cures diligently to preach, teach, open, and set forth to the people, the glory of God, & trueth of his word: and also considering the abuses & superstitions that haue crept into the hartes and stomackes of many, by reason of their fond ceremonies, he chargeth vpon payn of imprisonment at his graces pleasure, not onely to preach and teach the word of God accordingly, but also sincerely and purely, declaring the difference betwene things commaūded by God, and the rites and ceremonies in theyr church then vsed, least the people therby might grow into further superstition.

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MarginaliaThomas Becket noted of stubbernesse.Item, 

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This lengthy denunciation of Becket is a preparation to the total destruction of his shrine at Canterbury which followed almost immediately. These injunctions are part of the propaganda blitz which preceded the demolition of the shrine and they clearly reflect Cromwell's hand in these injunctions.

for as much as it appeareth now clearely, that Thomas Becket sometime Archbishop of Caunterbury, stubbernely withstanding the wholesome lawes established agaynst the enormityes of the Clergy, by the kynges highnesse noble Progenitour King Henry the second, for the common wealth, rest, and tranquility of thys Realme, of his froward minde fledde the Realme into Fraūce, and to the Bishop of Rome, maynteyner of those enormityes, to procure the abrogation of the sayd Lawes, (whereby arose much trouble in this sayd Realme) and that his death which they vntruely called Martyrdome, happened vpon a rescue by him made, and that (as it is written) he gaue opprobrious wordes to the Gentlemen, which then counselled him to leaue hys stubbernenesse, and to auoyde the commotion of the people risen vppe for that rescue, and he not onely called the one of them bawde, but also tooke Tracie by the bosome, and violently shook hym, and plucked hym in such maner, that he had almoste ouerthrowne him to the pauement of the church, so that vpon this fray, one of theyr companye perceiuing the same, strake him, and so in the thronge Becket was slayne: and further,that his canonization was made onely by the Byshop of Rome, because he had bene a champion to mayntayne his vsurped authority, and a bearer of the iniquitye of the Clergy.

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MarginaliaTho. Becket a rebell rather then a Sainct.For these and for other great and vrgent causes long to recite, the kinges Maiesty by the aduise of hys Counsell, hath thought expedient to declare to hys louyng subiectes, that notwithstanding the sayd canonization, there appeareth nothing in his life and exterior conuersation, wherby he should be called a Saynt, but rather estemed to haue bene a rebell and traytor to his Prince.

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Therefore his grace straytly chargeth and commaundeth, that from henceforth the sayd Thomas Becket shall not be esteemed, named, reputed, and called a Saynt, but Bishop Becket, and that his Images and Pictures thorow the whole Realme shalbe pluckt downe and auoyded out of all Churches, Chappels, and other places, and that from henceforth the dayes vsed to be festiuall in his name, shall not be obserued, nor the seruice, office, Antiphons, Collectes, & prayers in his name read, MarginaliaThe canonization of Tho. Becket rased.but rased & put out of all the bookes: & that all their festiuall dayes already abrogated, shalbe in no wise solmnized, but his graces ordinaunces, and iniunctions therupon obserued, to the intēt his graces louing subiectes shalbe no longer blindly ledde & abused to commit Idolatry, as they haue done in tymes passed, vpō payne of his maiestyes indignation, & imprisōment at his graces pleasure,

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Finally his grace straightly chargeth and commaundeth that his subiects do keep and obserue all and singuler his iniunctions made by his maiesty, vpon the payn therin conteined.

Here foloweth how religion began to goe backeward. 
Commentary  *  Close
Act of Six Articles

In this section Foxe turns to what had become, in restrospect, a defining event of the Henrician Reformation: the 1539 Act Abolishing Diversity in Opinions (31 Henry VIII c. 14), universally known then and since as the Act of Six Articles. This is a critical part of Foxe's narrative of Henry's reign; it is also thick with factual errors and dubious interpretation.Foxe was heir to twin Protestant and Catholic traditions which had decided that the Act was a mainstay of religious conservatism. For Catholic opponents of religious change under Edward VI, the Act became a touchstone of orthodoxy, with the southwestern rebels of 1549 demanding that the 'Lawes … concernynge the syxe articles' should be restored. (A Copye of a letter (RSTC 15109.3: London, 1549), sig. B6r.) Protestants had long concluded that the Act was a bloody instrument of persecution. Richard Grafton, in his continuation of Edward Hall's chronicle - which provides the narrative core for Foxe's account of this episode, and to which many of the problems with Foxe's account can be traced - claimed that 'of some [the Act] was named the whip withe sixe strynges' (Edward Hall and Richard Grafton, The vnion of the two noble and illustrate famelies of Lancastre & Yorke (STC 12721: London, 1548), part II, fo. 234v). A pamphlet of 1548 described it as 'their whip of correction ... hanged [with] .vi. stringes' (Peter Moone, A short treatise of certayne thinges abused (STC 18056: London, 1548), sig. A3v).This view of the Act as the brutal centrepiece of a popish backlash determined Foxe's view, not only of the Six Articles, but of the period 1539-47 as a whole. Recent scholarship has taken a less apocalyptic view of the Act and of that period. Alec Ryrie, The Gospel and Henry VIII (Cambridge, 2002), pp. 15-39, discusses the Act, its reputation and its genesis, arguing that it was the outcome of a particular diplomatic moment, that it had little immediate impact, and that many reformers were content with much of it. Rory McEntegart, Henry VIII, the League of Schmalkalden and the English Reformation (Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002), pp. 150-63, gives the critical diplomatic context. Glyn Redworth, 'A study in the formulation of policy: the genesis and evolution of the Act of Six Articles' in Journal of Ecclesiastical History vol. 37 (1986), pp. 42-67, reconstructs the process by which the Act came into being. The main factual errors of Foxe's account are chronological. The Hall and Grafton chronicle (his principle source for this section, alongside the text of the Act itself) used London mayoral years, which run from October to October: this led him to date the Act to 1540, rather than 1539. This is significant for Foxe's account of Thomas Cromwell's fall, for in 1570 and subsequent editions of the Acts and Monuments, Foxe redated Cromwell's fall, correctly, to 1540 - thus making it appear that Cromwell's arrest followed immediately on the passage of the Six Articles, whereas in fact more than a year separated the two events. His main account of the persecution under the Six Articles also suffers from serious chronological confusion.More significant, perhaps, is the vagueness of much of this account, for aside from Grafton's assertions and the text of the Act, Foxe had little hard evidence to back up his view that 'religion began to goe backward' from 1539-40 onwards. As a result, here as elsewhere Foxe is driven to embrace conspiracy theory. Behind every setback for the evangelical cause he detects the manipulating evil genius of Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester: a view only loosely related to reality but, like the reputation of the Six Articles, already firmly established in English Protestant mythology by the time Foxe wrote. See Michael Riordan and Alec Ryrie, 'Stephen Gardiner and the making of a Protestant villain' in Sixteenth Century Journal vol. 34 (2003), 1039-63.Alec Ryrie

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MarginaliaThe variable chaūges and mutations of religion in king Henryes dayes.TO many which be yet aliue, & can testifie these thinges, it is not vnknowne, how variable the state of Religiō stood in these daies: how hardly and with what difficulty it came forth: what chaunces and chaunges it suffered. Euen as þe king was ruled and gaue eare sometime to one, some time to an other, so one while it went forward, at an other season as much backeward agayne, and sometime clean altered & changed for a season, according as they could preuayle which were about the king. So long as Queene Anne liued, the Gospell had indifferent successe.

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MarginaliaThe course of the Gospell interrupted by malicious enemyes.After that she, by sinister instigation of some about the king was made away, the cause of the gospell began again to incline, but that the Lord then stirred vp þe Lord Cromwell, oportunely to helpe in that behalfe. Who, no doubt did much auayle for the encrease of Gods true Religion, & much more, had brought to perfection, if the pestilent aduersaryes maligning the prosperous glory of the Gospel, by cōtrary practising had not craftily vndermined him and supplanted his vertuous procedings. By the meanes of which aduersaries it came to passe after the taking away of the sayd Cromwel, that the state of Religion more and more decayed, during all the residue of the raygne of king Henry.

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Among these aduersaries aboue mentioned, þe chief captain 

Commentary  *  Close

A typical example of unsubstantiated, conspiratorial claims of Gardiner's role. See Michael Riordan and Alec Ryrie, 'Stephen Gardiner and the making of a Protestant villain' in Sixteenth Century Journal vol. 34 (2003), 1039-63.

was Steuen Gardiner bishop of Wint. who with his confederats and adherentes, disdayning at the state of the L. Cromwel, MarginaliaThe mariage of Queene Anne Cleueand at the late mariage of the Ladie Anne of Cleue (who in the beginning of the yere of our Lord. 1540. was maried to the king) as also greued partly at the dissolution of the Monasteries, and fearing the growing of the Gospell, sought al occasions how to interrupt these happy beginnings, and to traine the king to their owne purpose. Now what occasion this wilye Winchester found out to worke vpon, ye shall heare in order as followeth. MarginaliaThe occasiōs which Winchester did worke by.

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It happened the same time that the Lorde Cromwell for the better establishing of sincere religion in this realm, deuised a mariage 

Commentary  *  Close

Henry VIII's fourth and shortest marriage, to Anne of Cleves, remains a opaque episode. The fullest recent discussion - Retha M. Warnicke, The Marrying of Anne of Cleves (Cambridge, 2000) - provides useful detail, but the explanation of the marriage's failure which Warnicke advances has not proved persuasive. McEntegart, Henry VIII, the League of Schmalkalden and the English Reformation is invaluable on the diplomatic context. There is no serious case for believing Foxe's claim that Gardiner alienated the King from the marriage.

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for þe king to be concluded betwene him & the Lady Anne of Cleue, MarginaliaThis Lady Anne of Cleue was maryed to the king, an. 1540. whose other sister was already maried vnto the duke of Saxony. By this mariage it was supposed that a perpetual league, amitie, and ally shold be nourished between this realm and the princes of Germany, & so therby godly religion might be made more strong on both parts against the bishop of Rome, and his tyrannical religion. But the diuel euer enuying the prosperity of the gospell, layd a stumbling blocke in that cleare way, for the king to stumble at. For when the parentes of the noble lady were commoned withall for the furtherance of þe sayd mariage, among others of her frends, whose good wil was required, þe duke of Saxony her brother in law misliked þe mariage, partly for that he wold haue had her bestowed vpon some prince of Germany more nigh vnto her sister, & partly for other causes, which he thoght reasonable. Wherupon it followeth that the slacknes of the Duke in that behalfe being espyed, crafty Winchester taking good holdfast

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thereon
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