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Capel

English Dominican friar in Calais

Capel was present when William Button was called before Brian Darley in Calais and called a heretic by him. Capel agreed, and Button then made insulting remarks about the Dominicans. 1570, p. 1408; 1576, p. 1200; 1583, p. 1230.

 
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Germaine Gardiner

(d. 1544) [ODNB sub Stephen Gardiner]

Nephew and secretary of Stephen Gardiner; executed in 1544 on charges of denying the royal supremacy

When Stephen Gardiner had fallen out with Germaine, he asked Sir John Mason to speak to him so they could be reconciled. Robert Preston told Edmund Bonner that Germaine was repeatedly showing the king's letters to strangers. Bonner in turn told Thomas Cromwell. 1570, p. 1244; 1576, p. 1066; 1583, p. 1092.

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John Larke and Germaine Gardiner were executed for placing loyalty to the pope above the king's supremacy. 1563, p. 627; 1570, p. 1409; 1576, p. 1201; 1583, p. 1230.

 
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John Fisher

(c. 1469 - 1535) [ODNB]

Vice-chancellor of Cambridge University (1501 - 1504); chancellor of Cambridge University (1504); bishop of Rochester (1504 - 34); cardinal; martyr

John Fisher preached a sermon at the penance of Robert Barnes. 1563, p. 602; 1570, p. 1365; 1576, p. 1165; 1583, p. 1193.

Fisher preached a sermon against Luther in 1526. 1563, p. 436; 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, pp. 993-94.

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

John Fisher was one of the chief advocates for Queen Catherine before the papal legates considering the matter of the divorce. 1563, p. 458; 1570, p. 1194; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1051.

Fisher protested in parliament in 1530 about the proposed bill relating to the probate of testaments, saying it would mean the ruin of the church. 1570, p. 1131; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 995.

Thomas Hitten was imprisoned by Archbishop Warham and Bishop Fisher, tortured and then burnt at Maidstone. 1570, p. 1134; 1576, p. 971; 1583, pp. 997-98.

The bishop of Rochester said that angels were ministers to the souls in purgatory. 1570, p. 1156; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

Fisher wrote against Johann Oecolampadius and Luther. He was a persecutor of John Frith. He and Sir Thomas More had Frith burnt. 1570, p. 1216; 1576, p. 1042; 1583, p. 1068.

Fisher was associated with Elizabeth Barton (Joan of Kent). He was convicted of misprision of treason, had his goods confiscated and was imprisoned. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1055.

John Fisher, Sir Thomas More and Nicholas Wilson refused to swear an oath on the king's supremacy and were imprisoned in the Tower. Fisher and More were executed. 1570, pp. 1200, 1216; 1576, pp. 1028, 1042; 1583, pp. 1056, 1068.

The pope promoted John Fisher to cardinal, but Fisher was executed before he could be elevated. 1570, p. 1216; 1576, p. 1042; 1583, p. 1069.

Fisher is one of the Catholic martyrs written of by Nicholas Harpsfield. 1570, p. 1375; 1576, p. 1173; 1583, p. 1201.

 
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John Larke

(d. 1544) [G. Redworth, In Defence of the Church Catholic (Oxford, 1990) pp. 109, 193]

Sir Thomas More's vicar at Chelsea; convicted with Germaine Gardiner, executed

John Larke and Germaine Gardiner were executed for placing loyalty to the pope above the king's supremacy. 1563, p. 627; 1570, p. 1409; 1576, p. 1201; 1583, p. 1230.

 
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John London

(1485/6 - 1543) [ODNB; Emden]

Administrator; native of Hambleden, Buckinghamshire

BCL Oxford 1513; DCL 1519; warden of New College, Oxford (1526 - 42); regarded in Oxford and elsewhere as a great opponent of reform; notary public by 1533; dean of Wallingford 1536; canon and prebendary of Salisbury and Windsor 1540; dean of Oxford 1542; participated in the dissolution of the monasteries; convicted of perjury in 1543, died in prison

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Alice Doly's servant was brought before John London to give evidence against her mistress in Buckinghamshire in 1520. 1570, p. 1118; 1576, p. 957; 1583, p. 984.

The arrest of Thomas Garrard at Oxford brought great joy to John London and John Hygdon. 1563, p. 605; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1166; 1583, p. 1194.

After Thomas Garrard escaped, John Cottisford was blamed by the John Hygdon and John London. They sent out spies to search. 1563, p. 606; 1570, p. 1367; 1576, p. 1167; 1583, p. 1195.

Anthony Dalaber was brought before London, John Hygdon and John Cottisford and examined. 1563, p. 608; 1570, p. 1368; 1576, p. 1167; 1583, p. 1196.

Thomas Garrard was apprehended after his escape and examined by Cottisford, Hygdon and London. He was condemned as a heretic and made to bear a faggot. 1563, p. 609; 1570, p. 1369; 1576, p. 1168; 1583, p. 1197.

John London was one of the examiners of the reformers in Cardinal College, Oxford. 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

Some plate was stolen from New College, Oxford, and sold to William Callaway in London. Callaway bought the goods in good faith. When John London, warden of the college, discovered that he had bought it and that he was a protestant, he brought a charge of felony against him. 1563, pp. 626-27; 1570, p. 1408; 1576, pp. 1200-01; 1583, p. 1230.

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London was one of the chief persecutors of Robert Testwood, Henry Filmer and Anthony Pearson at Windsor. 1563, p. 630; 1570, p. 1386; 1576, p. 1182; 1583, p. 1211.

Anthony Pearson often preached in Windsor, where his sermons were very popular with the people, but not with the conservative clerics, especially William Symonds and John London. 1570, p. 1389; 1576, p. 1185; 1583, p. 1213.

After London had been in Windsor a while, he learned of the views of Robert Testwood and was shown the broken nose of the image of the Virgin. 1570, p. 1389; 1576, p. 1185; 1583, p. 1213.

Symonds and London kept notes of Pearson's sermons. They included the names of all those who frequented the sermons. They reported all of these to Stephen Gardiner. 1570, p. 1389; 1576, p. 1185; 1583, pp. 1213-14.

Henry Filmer's wife pleaded with the bishops who were commissioners for the Six Articles to give her husband an audience. She eventually found the bishops of Ely, Salisbury and Hereford together and put her case. However, John London and William Symonds ensured that Filmer was never brought before the bishops. 1570, p. 1395; 1576, p. 1189; 1583, p. 1218.

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Symonds brought Henry Filmer's brother to John London's house, where he was won over with food, drink and promises of friendship and plenty. London retained him as one of his household men until the day of Henry Filmer's trial, when his brother gave testimony against him. 1570, p. 1396; 1576, p. 1190; 1583, p. 1219.

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After the secret indictments against members of the privy council were discovered and the king's pardon granted, John London, William Symonds and Robert Ockham were brought before the council and found guilty of perjury. They were sentenced to ride backwards on horses, wearing papers, and to stand in the pillories of Windsor, Reading and Newbury. 1570, p. 1399; 1576, p. 1193; 1583, p. 1221.

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Mrs Callaway

of London; wife of William

Some plate was stolen from New College, Oxford, and sold to William Callaway in London. Callaway bought the goods in good faith. When John London, warden of the college, discovered that he had bought it and that he was a protestant, he brought a charge of felony against him. Callaway claimed the privilege of 'neck verse', but the judge denied him on the basis that he was a bigamist because his wife had two husbands. 1563, pp. 626-27; 1570, p. 1408; 1576, pp. 1200-01; 1583, p. 1230.

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To save her husband, Mrs Callaway swore under oath before the judges that she had never been married before and that her children were born out of wedlock. 1563, p. 627; 1570, p. 1408; 1576, p. 1201; 1583, p. 1230.

 
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Sir Thomas More

(1478 - 1535) [ODNB]

Humanist, author. Studied at Oxford (1492 - 94); Lincoln Inn (1496 - 1501/2); joined king's council 1518; royal secretary (1521 - 26); lord chancellor (1529 - 32); strong opponent of heresy; martyr

Both Sir Thomas More and William Tyndale related the story of how Humphrey of Lancaster proved the miracle of the blind man regaining his sight at St Albans to be fraudulant. 1563, p. 883.

Thomas Cromwell, Thomas More and Stephen Gardiner served together in Thomas Wolsey's household. 1563, p. 592; 1570, p. 1347; 1576, p. 1150; 1583, p. 1178.

Thomas Wolsey, having obtained large sums from the king's treasury, went to the French court to contribute to the ransom of Clement VII, hiring soldiers and furnishing the French army. He took with him Cuthbert Tunstall, William Sandys, the earl of Derby, Sir Henry Guildford and Sir Thomas More. 1563, p. 439; 1570, p. 1123; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 988.

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More became chancellor after Thomas Wolsey was deprived of office. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 994.

Thomas Phillips was handed over by Sir Thomas More to Bishop Stokesley in 1530. As well as holding heretical opinions, Phillips was charged with having a copy of William Tracy's will and butter and cheese during Lent. He was examined by More and Stokesley. 1570, p. 1185; 1576, p. 1014; 1583, p. 1042.

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More was prevented from persecuting Simon Fish because the king had given him his signet, but he sent for Fish's wife to appear before him. She was saved from molestation because her daughter was ill with plague. 1570, p. 448; 1570, p. 1153; 1576, p. 987; 1583, p. 1014.

More wrote The Supplication of Purgatory in opposition to Simon Fish's Supplication for the Beggars. 1570, p. 1156; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

More intercepted and confiscated a consignment of protestant books sent to England by Richard Bayfield. 1563, p. 486; 1570, p. 1162; 1576, p. 994; 1583, p. 1022.

About four days before Bayfield was arrested, a boy of Colchester was charged in London with bringing books to him. The boy was imprisoned by Sir Thomas More and died there. 1570, p. 1189; 1576, p. 1017; 1583, p. 1046.

More examined John Tewkesbury, and sentence was pronounced in More's house. 1563, p. 493; 1570, p. 1167; 1576, p. 998; 1583, p. 1026.

More pursued John Frith in England and abroad and promised large rewards for news of him. 1563, p. 498; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

John Fisher and More had Frith burnt. 1570, p. 1216; 1576, p. 1042; 1583, p. 1068.

When the king heard of the exhumation and burning of William Tracy's corpse, he angrily sent for Sir Thomas More. More blamed the now deceased archbishop of Canterbury, but was fined three hundred pounds to have his pardon. 1570, p. 1186; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1042.

Bishop Stokesley complained to More of the behaviour of his clergy in objecting to contributing large sums to the lifting of the praemunire on the higher clergy. More had the mayor of London arrest and imprison a number of clergy and laymen. 1570, p. 1196; 1576, p. 1024; 1583, p. 1052.

The king sent More to speak to parliament, giving the opinion of the universities on the validity of the king's marriage to Catherine. 1563, p. 459.

Because More opposed the king's separation from the pope, he was deprived of the chancellorship. 1570, p. 1198; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1054.

William Tyndale mentioned the martyr Thomas Hitten in his Apology against Sir Thomas More and in The Practice of Prelates. 1570, p. 1134; 1576, p. 971; 1583, pp. 997-98.

In the preface to his book against Tyndale, More gave evidence that Thomas Bilney had recanted before his burning. 1570, p. 1146; 1576, p. 981; 1583, p. 1008.

John Fisher, Sir Thomas More and Nicholas Wilson refused to swear an oath on the king's supremacy and were imprisoned in the Tower. Fisher and More were executed. 1570, pp. 1200, 1216; 1576, pp. 1028, 1042; 1583, pp. 1056, 1068.

 
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Stephen Gardiner

(c. 1495x8 - 1555) [ODNB]

Theologian, administrator; BCnL Cambridge 1518; DCL 1521; DCnL 1522; chancellor of Cambridge

Principal secretary to the king 1529; ambassador to France

Bishop of Winchester (1531 - 51, 1553 - 55)

Thomas Cromwell, Thomas More and Stephen Gardiner served together in Thomas Wolsey's household. 1563, p. 592; 1570, p. 1347; 1576, p. 1150; 1583, p. 1178.

Gardiner and Edward Fox urged leniency on Cardinal Wolsey when dealing with Robert Barnes. They stood surety for him and convinced him to abjure. 1563, pp. 601-02; 1570, pp. 1364-65; 1576, pp. 1164-65; 1583, pp. 1192-93.

Stephen Gardiner was sent as ambassador to Rome by Henry VIII during the time of Clement VII to deal with the matter of the king's divorce and to promote Thomas Wolsey as pope. Both the king and Wolsey wrote letters to him. 1570, pp. 1125-28, 1193; 1576, pp. 963-66, 1021; 1583, pp. 990-92, 1049.

Shortly after Gardiner became secretary to King Henry, he and William Fitzwilliam were assigned by the king to ensure that Thomas Wolsey's goods were not stolen after his deprivation of his offices, but returned to the king. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 994.

Richard Bayfield was tried before John Stokesley, assisted by Stephen Gardiner and others. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

John Frith was taken first to the archbishop of Canterbury at Lambeth, then to the bishop of Winchester at Croydon, and then to London to plead his case before the assembled bishops. He was examined there by the bishops of London, Winchester and Lincoln. 1563, pp. 501-03; 1570, pp. 1176-78; 1576, pp. 1006-08; 1583, pp. 1034-35.

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Andrew Hewett was examined by Stokesley, Gardiner and Longland. 1563, p. 506; 1570, p. 1180; 1576, p. 1009; 1583, p. 1036.

The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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Gardiner swore an oath of allegiance to Henry VIII as head of the church. 1570, p. 1203; 1576, p. 1030; 1583, p. 1057.

In his De vera obedientia, Gardiner challenged the authority of the pope and argued against the validity of the king's marriage to Catherine of Aragon. 1570, pp. 1204-06; 1576, pp. 1031-32; 1583, pp. 1058-59.

Gardiner was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Gardiner was sent with a Henry VIII's answer to Francis I, king of France, regarding Henry's supremacy over the English church. 1570, p. 1221; 1576, p. 1045; 1583, p. 1072.

Gardiner was suspected of involvement in the downfall of Anne Boleyn, and urged the king to disinherit Elizabeth. 1570, pp. 1233, 1243; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, pp. 1082, 1083.

Gardiner was a resident ambassador to France in 1538, when Edmund Bonner, through the efforts of Thomas Cromwell, was brought in to replace him. There were great disagreements between the two, since Bonner at the time was in favour of reform. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1088.

The bearward who had a book belonging to Archbishop Cranmer's secretary intended giving it to Sir Anthony Browne or Stephen Gardiner. 1570, p. 1356; 1576, p. 1157; 1583, p. 1186.

In a letter to Henry VIII, Philip Melancthon called Gardiner wicked and impudent. 1570, p. 1341; 1576, p. 1145; 1583, p. 1173.

Bonner sent a declaration to Cromwell of Stephen Gardiner's evil behaviour. 1570, pp. 1241-44; 1576, pp. 1063-66; 1583, pp. 1090-92.

Gardiner urged Henry VIII to withdraw his defence of religious reform in order to ensure peace within the realm and to restore good relations with foreign rulers. 1570, pp. 1296; 1576, p. 1109; 1583, p. 1135.

Stephen Gardiner urged Henry VIII to use the case against John Lambert as a means of displaying the king's willingness to deal harshly with heresy. 1563, pp. 533-34; 1570, p. 1281; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, pp. 1121-22.

Cranmer had sent letters for Henry VIII to sign relating to reform in the church. Gardiner convinced the king that these reforms would jeopardise a league with the king of France and the emperor, so the letters were never signed. 1570, p. 1426; 1576, p. 1215; 1583, p. 1245.

Gardiner disputed with Lambert during his trial. 1563, pp. 535-36; 1570, pp. 1282-83; 1576, p. 1097; 1583, p. 1123.

Stephen Gardiner was Thomas Cromwell's chief opponent. 1563, p. 598; 1570, p. 1359; 1576, p. 1160; 1583, p. 1189.

Stephen Gardiner complained to the king about the sermon of Robert Barnes preached during Lent at Paul's Cross. He disputed with Barnes, and Richard Coxe and Thomas Robinson acted as arbiters. Gardiner then submitted articles against Barnes. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, pp. 1169-70; 1583, p. 1198.

Adam Damplip was brought before Thomas Cranmer, Stephen Gardiner, Richard Sampson and others and examined. 1563, p. 657; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1194; 1583, p. 1224.

Thomas Broke, Ralph Hare, James Cocke and James Barber were sent from Calais with their accusers to England to be examined by Cranmer, Gardiner, Sampson and other bishops. 1563, p. 661; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1195; 1583, p. 1224.

William Symonds and John London kept notes of Anthony Pearson's sermons at Windsor. They included the names of all those who frequented the sermons and reported all of these to Stephen Gardiner, who in turn reported to the king and received a commission for a search at Windsor. 1570, pp. 1389-90; 1576, p. 1185; 1583, pp. 1213-14.

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Gardiner had Simon Haynes and Philip Hoby committed to the Fleet, but their friends secured their release. 1570, p. 1390; 1576, p. 1186; 1583, p. 1214.

Gardiner conducted the third examination of John Marbeck himself. He ordered Marbeck to be placed in irons and kept in isolation. 1570, pp. 1391-92; 1576, pp. 1186-88; 1583, pp. 1215-16.

On the orders of Stephen Gardiner, John Massie took Adam Damplip to Calais. 1570, p. 1400; 1576, p. 1193; 1583, p. 1223.

John Capon and others of the judges in the trial of Marbeck, Testwood, Pearson and Filmer at Windsor sent a message to Stephen Gardiner in favour of John Marbeck. Gardiner went straight to the king and obtained a pardon. 1570, p. 1397; 1576, p. 1191; 1583, p. 1220.

After the burning of Filmer, Pearsons and Testwood, Capon sent Robert Ockham with a report to Stephen Gardiner. 1570, p. 1398; 1576, p. 1191; 1583, p. 1221.

Gardiner was one of the questioners at the second examination of Anne Askew in 1546. 1563, p. 683; 1570, p. 1417; 1576, p. 1208; 1583, p. 1237.

Katherine Parr read and studied the scriptures and discussed them with her chaplains. The king was aware of this and approved, so she began to debate matters of religion with him. When the king became more ill-tempered because of his sore leg, her enemies, especially Stephen Gardiner and Thomas Wriothesley, took the opportunity to turn the king against her. 1570, pp. 1422-23; 1576, pp. 1212-13; 1583, pp. 1242-43.

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Gardiner and other enemies of Katherine Parr planned to accuse and arrest Lady Herbert, Lady Lane and Lady Tyrwhit and search their quarters for books and other evidence to use against the queen. 1570, p. 1423; 1576, p. 1213; 1583, p. 1243.

During Henry VIII's final illness, Sir Anthony Browne tried unsuccessfully to get Stephen Gardiner reinstated in the king's will. 1570, p. 1478; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1291.

After the death of Henry VIII, the duke of Suffolk related to Thomas Cranmer how Stephen Gardiner had nearly been arrested at the time of the execution of Germaine Gardiner. He confessed his fault to the king and was pardoned. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1290.

Stephen Gardiner preached a sermon contrary to King Edward's injunctions. He was arrested and taken to the Tower by Sir Anthony Wingfield and Sir Ralph Sadler; Sadler and William Hunnings were instructed to seal off doors to his house. He was transferred to the Fleet. 1563, pp. 728, 760; 1570, pp. 1521, 1529; 1576, pp. 1297, 1304; 1583, pp. 1340, 1353-54.

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Gardiner wrote to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, the Lord Protector and others while imprisoned in the Fleet. 1563, pp. 728-54; 1570, pp. 1522-25; 1576, pp. 1297-1300; 1583, pp. 1340-50.

Gardiner was released out of the Fleet by a general pardon, but was placed under house arrest for failure to conform. Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Smith and William Cecil were sent to him. He was called before the council. 1563, p. 755; 1570, pp. 1525-26; 1576, p. 1301; 1583, p. 1351.

Gardiner was imprisoned in the Tower with Cuthbert Tunstall under Edward VI and Edward Seymour. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1296.

After Gardiner had been in the Tower for nearly a year, Sir William Paulet and Sir William Petre visited and urged him to admit his fault. Paulet, Petre, the earl of Warwick and Sir William Herbert delivered the king's letters to him. 1563, pp. 761-62; 1570, pp. 1529-30; 1576, p. 1304; 1583, p. 1354.

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Edward Seymour, John Russell, John Dudley and Sir William Petre visited Stephen Gardiner in the Tower at various times to attempt to get him to accept the king's reforms. 1563, pp. 766; 1570, p. 1532; 1576, p. 1306; 1583, p. 1356.

Articles were put to him to answer. 1563, pp. 754-68; 1570, pp. 1525-34; 1576, pp. 1300-07; 1583, pp. 1350-57.

When Sir William Herbert and Sir William Petre went to Stephen Gardiner in the Tower with new articles, they took with them a canon and a civil lawyer: Nicholas Ridley and Richard Goodrich. 1563, p. 768; 1570, p. 1534; 1576, p. 1307; 1583, p. 1357.

After Gardiner's sequestration, Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Henry Holbeach, Sir William Petre, Sir James Hales, Griffith Leyson, John Oliver and John Gosnold were commissioned to examine him. 1563, p. 776; 1570, p. 1535; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1358.

William Paget, Andrew Baynton and Thomas Chaloner were deponents in the case of Gardiner. 1563, pp. 814-18; 1570, p. 1536; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1359.

Gardiner was examined and deprived of his bishopric. 1563, pp. 814-67; 1570, pp. 1536-37; 1576, pp. 1309-10; 1583, pp. 1359-60.

 
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William Callaway

Goldsmith of St Matthew's parish; charged in London in 1541 with membership of a secret conventicle [Fines]

Some plate was stolen from New College, Oxford, and sold to William Callaway in London. Callaway bought the goods in good faith. When John London, warden of the college, discovered that he had bought it and that he was a protestant, he brought a charge of felony against him. Callaway claimed the privilege of 'neck verse', but the judge denied him on the basis that he was a bigamist because his wife had two husbands. 1563, pp. 626-27; 1570, p. 1408; 1576, pp. 1200-01; 1583, p. 1230.

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To save her husband, Mrs Callaway swore under oath before the judges that she had never been married before and that her children were born out of wedlock. 1563, p. 627; 1570, p. 1408; 1576, p. 1201; 1583, p. 1230.

William Callaway was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1378; 1576, p. 1176; 1583, p. 1204.

 
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William Tyndale

(c. 1494 - 1536) [ODNB]

Translator of the bible and religious reformer; martyr

BA Oxford 1512; MA 1515; read theology

Strangled and burnt at Vilvorde Castle

John Frith was converted at Cambridge by William Tyndale. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1031.

Foxe erroneously includes Tyndale in a list of scholars imprisoned at Cardinal College, Oxford. Tyndale was in Germany at this time. [ODNB sub John Frith] 1563, p. 441; 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

William Tyndale was schoolmaster to Sir John Walsh's children. Sir John and his wife joined in discussing religion with a variety of senior clergy and with Tyndale. After Tyndale gave his master and mistress a copy his translation of Erasmus's Enchiridion militis Christiani, they invited the clergy less frequently. 1563, p. 518; 1570, p. 1225; 1576, p. 1048; 1583, p. 1075.

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Tyndale was examined on a charge of heresy by the bishop's chancellor. He returned to his master, but was troubled by the priests in the area and left for London. He tried to enter the service of Tunstall, the bishop of London, but was unsuccessful. Eventually, with the aid of Humphrey Monmouth and others, he left the country. 1563, p. 518; 1570, pp. 1225-26; 1576, p. 1049; 1583, pp. 1075-76.

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Humphrey Monmouth had heard Tyndale preach two or three sermons at St Dunstan-in-the-West. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

Tyndale preached repentance and had his books burned. 1570, p. 39; 1576, p. 32; 1583, p. 32.

Humphrey Monmouth was accused of helping William Tyndale and William Roy to get to the continent to join Martin Luther. Tyndale had wished to become chaplain to the bishop of London, but was turned down. Tyndale had lodged with Monmouth for about six months. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

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Tyndale went into Saxony and met Luther. 1570, p. 1226; 1576, p. 1050; 1583, p. 1076.

While in Germany, Tyndale met John Frith and became determined to translate the scriptures into English. Copies of these and other books he had written were sent to England. 1570, p. 1226; 1576, pp. 1049-50; 1583, p. 1076.

While abroad, Richard Bayfield met William Tyndale and John Frith and sold their books in France and in England. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

Simon Fish, sought by Cardinal Wolsey, was forced to go overseas to join Tyndale. While there, he wrote his book, Supplication for the Beggars. 1563, p. 448; 1570, pp. 1152-53; 1576, pp. 986-87; 1583, p. 1014.

Tyndale left Germany and went to Antwerp. As he was travelling to Hamburg, all his books and notes, including his translation of the book of Deuteronomy, were lost in a shipwreck. Miles Coverdale then helped him translate all of the first five books of the Old Testament in Hamburg. 1570, p. 1227; 1576, p. 1050; 1583, p. 1077.

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John Tyndale, William's brother, was charged in 1530 in London with having sent his brother five marks and having received and kept letters from him. 1570, p. 1185; 1576, p. 1014; 1583, p. 1041.

Lambert translated works from Latin and Greek to English and then went abroad to join William Tyndale and John Frith. 1563, p. 527; 1570, p. 1255; 1576, p. 1075; 1583, p. 1101.

Augustine Packington favoured William Tyndale, but pretended otherwise to Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of London, then in Antwerp. He offered to procure all the unsold copies of Tyndale's New Testament held by the merchants in the city if Tunstall would provide the money to buy them. Packington then paid Tyndale for the books, and Tyndale immediately had them reprinted. 1563, p. 443; 1570, pp. 1158-59; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1019.

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William Tyndale mentioned the martyr Thomas Hitten in his Apology against Sir Thomas More and in The Practice of Prelates. 1563, p. 1134; 1570, p. 971; 1576, p. ; 1583, pp. 997-98.

Both Sir Thomas More and William Tyndale related the story of how Humphrey of Lancaster proved the miracle of the blind man regaining his sight at St Albans to be fraudulant. 1563, p. 883.

William Tyndale was one of those Sir Thomas More in his The Supplication of Purgatory said the souls in purgatory railed against. 1570, p. 1156; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

Tyndale and Miles Coverdale translated the 'Matthew Bible'. Because Tyndale was arrested before it was completed, it was published under the name of Thomas Matthews. 1570, p. 1363; 1576, p. 1163; 1583, p. 1191.

Tyndale returned to Antwerp and lodged at a house of English merchants kept by Thomas Poyntz. He became acquainted with Henry Philips and obtained for him a place in the same house, befriended him and showed him his books. 1563, p. 515; 1570, p. 1227; 1576, p. 1050; 1583, p. 1077.

While Thomas Poyntes was away, Thomas Philips set a trap for Tyndale. He arranged for imperial officers to be ready in an alley when he tricked Tyndale into leaving the house. Tyndale was captured and imprisoned. 1563, p. 515; 1570, p. 1227; 1576, p. 1050; 1583, p. 1077.

Tyndale was strangled and then burnt at Villevorde. 1563, p. 519; 1570, p. 1229; 1576, p. 1052; 1583, p. 1079.

Tyndale wrote letters to John Frith in the Tower in London. 1563, pp. 520-22; 1570, pp. 1231-32; 1576, pp. 1053-55; 1583, pp. 1080-82.

Tyndale was one of the authors whose books were banned by the proclamation of 1546. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Calais

[Calyce; Calice; Calis; Callis]

Pas-de-Calais, France

Coordinates: 50° 56' 53" N, 1° 51' 23" E

 
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Chelsea (Chelchith)

[Chelsey; Chelsith]

west London

OS grid ref: TQ 275 775

 
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Gräfelfing [Graueling]

Munich, Germany

Coordinates: 48° 7' 8" N, 11° 25' 44" E

 
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Gravelines (Grevelingen: Dutch)

[Grauenidge; Graueling]

Nord, France

Coordinates: 50° 59' 14" N, 2° 7' 42" E

 
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Oxford

OS grid ref: SP 515 065

County town of Oxfordshire; university town

 
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Trier (Trèves: French) [Trere; Treuers]

Germany

Cathedral city

Coordinates: 49° 45' 24" N, 6° 38' 29" E

1254 [1230]

King Henry. 8. The hatred of D. London and the Papistes agaynst the Gospell. The six articles qualified.

asked if the holy father the Pope could deliuer soules out of purgatory? The frier said, there is no doubt of that. Why then, quoth Button, dooth he not of charitye deliuer all the soules thereout? MarginaliaHeresie to doubt of the Popes charitye.Of which wordes he was accused to the Commissary, who at his appearing before the sayd Commissary, confessed to haue asked such questions. The Commissary being angrye thereat sayd: Doubtest thou thereof thou hereticke? There was standing by a blacke fryer named Capel, an English man, who sayd to the Commissary. There is Tenne thousand of these heretickes betwene Graueling and Trere. Button aunswered, Maister fryer of all men you may keepe silence. For your coat hath bene twise cut of from the fayth. The first time your order was enioyned to haue your blacke coat shorter thē your white, and for the second time your order must goe to the furthest part of their church, and there sing an MarginaliaThis Antheme the blacke friers were inioyned to sing euery nighte to our Lady in prayse of her Conception.Antheme of our Lady. The Commissarye at these wordes chafed, called Button hereticke, with many other opprobrious words. Thē sayd Button to the Commissary, if your holy father the Pope may deliuer soules out of purgatory, and wil not of charity deliuer them, thē I would to God the king would make me Pope, and I would surely deliuer all out without money. At these wordes the Commissary raged, and reuiled Button exceedingly, causing him to beare a billet, & procured his wages (which was 6. d. a day) to be taken from him. Then went Button to the kinges maiesty, declaring all the whole matter to his grace, who sent him to Calice agayne, and gaue him after that 8, d. a day. MarginaliaW. Crosbowmaker pardoned of the king.

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A notable example, wherin may appeare as well the despite of D. London, and other papistes agaynst the Gospellers, as also the fidelity of a matrone towardes her husband.

FOr so much as mention was made a little before of D. London, we will somewhat more adde of him, MarginaliaThe cruell malice of D. London agaynst the Gospell. because the matter seemeth neither impertinent nor vnfruitefull, to the entent it maye more euidently appeare what trueth and trust is to be looked for of this cruell kinde of papists 

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This account first appeared in Rerum, p. 143. It is taken from Edward Hall, The union of the two noble and illustre famelies of Lancastre and Yorke (London, 1550), STC 1234a, fo. 257r.

. MarginaliaEx Edw. Hallo.This Doctor London was warden of the new Colledge in Oxford, where it happened that certayne plate was stolen and conueied, and brought vp to London, and sold to a Goldsmith, named William Calaway. MarginaliaW Calaway Goldsmith of London. This Calaway was a man of good and honest name, and reputation amongest his neighbours, but specially earnest and zelous towardes the Gospell, and a great maynteiner therof. He had oftentimes before bought much plate of the same man without any peril or daunger, wherfore he doubted þe lesse of his fidelity.

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At the last the principall of the theft being taken, MarginaliaThis principall was a chaplein of the sayd Colledge. and the Goldsmith also that was the byer being knowne, D. London, when he vnderstoode him to be a fauourer of the Gospel, wherof he was an extreme aduersary, began strait wayes to be in a rage, and to sweare great and deep othes that he woulde spare neither labour nor cost, but woulde bring the Goldsmith to the gallowes, although it shoulde cost him fiue hundred pound. To be short this good goldsmith was arraigned as accessary, and an action of Felony brought agaynst him. He contrariwise alledged that they ought not to proceed agaynst him, the principall beyng aliue. D. London on the contrary part, affirmed that the principall was hanged: which was most false, for he was one of the same Colledge, and was aliue, and but lately set at liberty. To be briefe, he being found gylty, the Iudge asked him what he coulde alledge, why he should not dye? MarginaliaCalaway clameth the priueledge of his booke.He required to haue the priuiledge of his booke, according to þe aūcient custome and maner. But here it was obiected agaynst him that he was Bigamus, MarginaliaBigamus, that is a man that hath had two Wiues. and therfore he might not haue his booke by the lawe, notwithstanding that he neuer had two wiues, but because his wife had two husbandes, it was imputed to him for Bigamia.

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Thus this good Goldsmith being secluded from all hope of life, by the craftye spite of his malignant aduersaries: his wife beyng a woman of proued honesty and good fame, came in before the Iudges, MarginaliaA singular example of a faithfull wife toward her husband.and perceiuing her former marriage to be hurtfull vnto her husband, to saue her husbandes life, she tooke an othe before the Iudges, that she was not Bigama, and that she was neuer marryed to moe men then to the sayd Goldsmith: and although she had children by her other husband, and continued diuers yeares with him, yet she sware that she was neuer married vnto him. MarginaliaTrue loue betweene man and Wyfe.Thus this woman by defaming of her selfe to her great praise, and singuler example of loue 

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This clause was added to the account by Foxe.

, deliuered her innocent husband: thinking it better for her to lyue wt ignominy and reproche, then for her husband to die, lesse esteming the losse of her good name, then of his life. Ez Ed. Hallo.

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As touching 

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This paragraph, drawing moral lessons from the episode, was added by Foxe.

the qualitye of this facte or periury, I in-termeddle not here to discusse, but leaue it at large to the iudgement of Lawyers to define vpon. Trueth it is, that periury neither in man nor woman is to be cōmmended, neither ought to be defended. But yet the true hart & faithfull loue betwene this man and his wife, counterpeasing agayne as much or more on the other side, the more rare & straūge I see it in many couples now a dayes, the more I thinke it worthy, not onely to be praised, but also for examples sake to be notified. But in the meaue time, what shall we say to these priestes and aduersaries, who in such sorte violently do presse and force the poore sheepe of Christ with perill of theyr consciences vnto such periury, & that in such causes, where no such trueth is sought, but innocency oppressed, true religion persecuted, & only their spite & wrath agaynst Gods word wreaked.

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During 

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This account of the executions of Germain Gardiner and John Lark originally appeared in Rerum, p. 144.

the time of these sixe articles aforesayd, which brought many good men vnto death: yet so it happened by another contrary acte sette forth before, for the kinges supremacy (as ye haue heard) that the contrary sect also of the Papistes was not all in quiet. For besides the death of Moore, and the Bishop of Rochester, and the other Charterhouse Monkes, Friers and Priestes aboue specified, about this yeare 
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I.e., 1544.

were also condemned and executed by the same law, two other, of whom one was a Priest of Chelsey, named Larke, MarginaliaLarke, Priest of Chelsey, Germaine Gardine traytors agaynstr the kings supremacye. which was put to death at London for defending the B. of Romes supremacy, aboue the kynges authority. The other was Germine Gardiner (nere kinsman 
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Germain Gardiner was Stephen Gardiner’s nephew and his secretary.

to Steuen Gardiner, and yet more neare to his secret coūsell, as it is supposed) who likewise in practising for the Pope, agaynst the kings iurisdiction, was taken wyth the maner, and so brought vnto the Gibbet. 
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John Lark had been granted his benefice at Chelsea by Sir Thomas More. John Heywood, who was condemned along with Gardiner and Lark (he recanted on the way to the scaffold and was reprieved) was More’s brother-in-law. Although Foxe is unclear about this, the men were executed for alledgedly conspiring with Reginold Pole. In reality, their executions were part of the factional struggles at Court in 1543-44.

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Vpon the detection of this Germaine Gardiner being Secretary to Gardiner bishop of Winchester his kinsman it semed to some, and so was also insinuated vnto the king not to be vnlike, but that the sayd Germain neither would nor durst euery attempt any such matter of popery, without some setting on, or consent of the Bishop, MarginaliaSuspitiō against Steuē Gardiner. he being so nere vnto him, & to all his secrets as he was. Wherby the king began somewhat more to smell and misdoubt the doinges of the Bishop: but yet he so couertly and clearely conueyed his matters, playing vnder the boord, after his wonted fetches in such sort, as I can not tel how) still he kept in with the king, to the great inquietatiō of the publick state of the Realme, and especially of Christes Church.

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In declaring 

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Foxe must have taken the information on theses different laws from the statute books.

the dreadfull lawe before set forthe of the sixe ayticles, which was, an. 1540. ye heard what penaltye was appoynted for the breach of the same, in like case as in treason & felony, so that no remedy of any recātatiō would serue. This seueritye was a little mitigated by an other Parliament, holden afterward an. 1544. MarginaliaStat. an. 35. Reg. Henr. 8. by the which parliament it was decreede, that such offenders which were conuict in the sayd articles, for the first time should be admitted to recant and renounce their opinions. MarginaliaThe rigour of the 6. articles a little aswaged. And if the party refused to recant in such forme as should be layd vnto him by his Ordinary, or after his recantation, if he eftsoones offended agayne, then for the second time he should be admitted to abiure, and beare a fagot. Which if he denyed to do or els being abiured, if he the third time offended, then he to susteiue punishment according to the Lawe. &c. Although the straitnes & rigor of the former act was thus somewhat tempered, as ye see, and reformed by this presēt Parliament: yet notwithstanding the venome and poison of the errors and mischiefe of those articles remayned still behind not remoued, but rather confirmed by this Parliament aforesayd. By the which Parliament moreouer many thinges were prouided for the aduauncement of Popery, vnder the coulor of religion: so that all maner of books of the old and new Testament, bearing the name of Will. Tindall, or any other hauing Prologues, or conteining any matters, annotations, preambles, wordes, or sentēces contrary to the sixe articles, were debarred. In like maner all songs, playes, and Enterludes, with all other books in English, conteining matter of religion, tending any way agaynst the sayd articles were abolished.

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In the which Parliament furthermore it was prouided, that the text of the new Testament or of the Bible, being prohibited to all women, artificers, prentises, iourneimen, seruingmen, yeomen, husbandmen, and laborers, yet was permitted notwithstanding to noble men and gentle men, & gentlewomen to read and peruse, to their edifying so that they did it quietly without arguing, discussing, or expounding vpon the Scripture.

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MarginaliaQualification of the acte of the 6. articles.Ouer and besides, wheras before the offender or defendaunt might not be suffered to bring in any witnesses to purge and try himself: In this Parliament it was permitted to the party detect, or complayned on, to try his cause by witnesses, as many, or mo in nūber, as the other which deposed agaynst him. &c.

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¶ Other
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