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Clement VII (Giulio de Medici)

(1479 - 1534) [Kelly]

Illegitimate son of Giuliano de Medici; b. Florence

Archbishop of Florence 1513; cardinal 1513; vice-chancellor 1517; governed Florence from 1519

Pope (1523 - 34); cousin of Pope Leo X

The indulgences granted by Pope Leo X to the guild of Our Lady at Boston had been granted previously by Innocent VIII and Julius II and were later renewed by Clement VII. Further indulgences granted by Nicholas V, Pius II and Sixtus IV were also renewed by Clement at the request of Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1347; 1576, p. 1150; 1583, p. 1178.

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After Francois I was released from captivity in Spain, Clement VII released him from his oath, fearing the power of the emperor in Italy. He contracted an alliance with the Venetians and other princes. 1570, p. 1122; 1576, p. 961; 1583, p. 987.

Clement was captured by the duke of Bourbon when he sacked Rome in 1527. 1570, p. 1122; 1576, p. 961; 1583, p. 987.

He was besieged in the Castello Sant'Angelo after taking refuge there with many cardinals. He surrendered in July and was able to issue bulls, but was kept imprisoned in the fortress for six months. 1570, p. 1123; 1576, p. 961; 1583, p. 988.

Henry VIII, encouraged by Cardinal Wolsey, began to question the validity of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. He sought the advice of universities and learned men, but needed the assent of the pope and the emperor to a divorce. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Stephen Gardiner was sent as ambassador to Rome by Henry VIII during the time of Clement VII to deal with the matter of the king's divorce and to promote Thomas Wolsey as pope. 1570, pp. 1125-28, 1193; 1576, pp. 963-66, 1021; 1583, pp. 990-92, 1049.

Thanks to the influence of Lorenzo Pucci and other cardinals, Clement VII initially viewed the proposed divorce between Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon favourably. 1570, p. 1457; 1576, p. 1242; 1583, p. 1279.

Clement sent Cardinal Campeggi as legate to England to join with Cardinal Wolsey to consider the matter of the king's divorce. 1570, p. 1193; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Clement pronounced a sentence definitive against Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon. 1570, pp. 1458-59; 1576, p. 1243; 1583, p. 1280.

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Lorenzo Campeggi (Campeggio)

(1471/2 - 1539) [ODNB]

Born in Milan. DCnCL Bologna 1500; papal diplomat; bishop of Feltre (1512 - 20); cardinal legate 1517; sent to England 1518; bishop of Bologna (1523 - 25); bishop of Salisbury (1524 - 34); bishop of Huesca and Jaca (1530 - 34); bishop of Candia (1534 - 36)

Campeggi was one of three legates sent out to France, Germany and England when Leo X was planning to fight the Turks. Thomas Wolsey sent delegates to greet Campeggi in Calais, hoping to get himself appointed fellow legate. Campeggi complied, and within 30 days a papal bull had arrived in Calais with Wolsey's commission. 1563, p. 418; 1570, p. 1120; 1576, p. 959; 1583, p. 986.

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Campeggi was greeted with processions at every town in Kent, and then at Blackheath by the duke of Norfolk with great ceremony. From there he made his procession into London with twenty mules. 1563, p. 418; 1570, pp. 1120-21; 1576, pp. 959-60; 1583, p. 986.

Campeggi was sent back to England from Rome in 1528, when the question of the king's divorce was revived, to hear and debate the matter. Henry was disappointed in the lack of progress made by Campeggi and Wolsey. 1570, pp. 1129, 1193; 1576, pp. 967, 1021; 1583, pp. 994, 1049.

When Queen Catherine learned from the legates that they had been deputed to determine the matter of a divorce between the king and her, she composed an answer to them. Campeggi wrote down her answer in French, which was then translated by Edward Hall. 1563, pp. 456-57; 1570, pp. 1193-94; 1576, p. 1022; 1583, p. 1050.

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When the question of the king's divorce was calling into question the authority of the pope, Campeggi left for Rome. 1563, p. 458; 1570, p. 1195; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1051.

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Martin Luther

(1483 - 1546) [C. Scott Dixon and Mark Greengrass,]

b. Eisleben; of Wittenberg; German theologian, Augustinian monk, founder of the protestant reformation; translated the bible into German

Luther regarded the Donation of Constantine as fraudulent. 1570, p. 144, 1576, p. 106, 1583, p. 105.

Upon leaving England, William Tyndale went into Saxony and met Luther. 1570, p. 1226; 1576, p. 1050; 1583, p. 1076.

Humphrey Monmouth was accused of helping William Tyndale and William Roy to get to the continent to join Martin Luther. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

Leo X condemned writings and translations of Martin Luther. 1563, p. 462; 1570, p. 1135; 1576, p. 972; 1583, p. 999.

Leo X issued a bull against Martin Luther, in which his teachings and his works were condemned. 1570, pp. 1459-65; 1576, pp. 1244-47; 1583, pp. 1280-84.

Luther produced an answer to the papal bull and sent an appeal to the pope. 1570, pp. 1465-76; 1576, pp. 1247-52; 1583, pp. 1284-89.

Luther was called to Rome to answer charges of heresy. The duke of Saxony, John Frederick I, pleaded to have him tried by impartial judges. His case, however, was committed to be heard by the legate to Germany, Cardinal Cajetan, a sworn enemy of Luther. The cardinal rejected his case, and Luther appealed from the cardinal to the pope. This appeal was turned down, and Luther appealed to the next general council. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1252; 1583, pp. 1289-90.

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Henry VIII issued a proclamation against the heresies of Luther. 1570, p. 1159; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1019.

Robert Barnes fled England and went to Germany, where he found favour with Luther, Melancthon, Bugenhagen, Justus Jonas, Hegendorph, Aepinus, the duke of Saxony and the king of Denmark. 1563, p. 603; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1165; 1583, p. 1194.

Catholics defamed Luther, claiming he died of drunkenness. 1570, p. 1439; 1576, p. 1227; 1583, p. 1257.

Luther was one of those Sir Thomas More in The Supplication of Purgatory said the souls in purgatory railed against. 1570, p. 1156; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

1304 [1280]

K.Henry. 8. The Popes armes. The Popes definitiue sentence agaynst K. Henry. The Popes Bull.

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Foxe did not resort (as Lutherans had) to satirizing papal coats of arms, though he got somewhere near to it with the oblique dismissal of a carved ornamental pope holding broken keys in the capital C of his dedication to Queen Elizabeth. The martial Julius II (1503-13) received his fair share of invective in the text.

Clemens Papa.7.

MarginaliaThe tenour of the popes sentence definitiue agaynst king Henry. 8.CHRISTI nomine inuocato in Throno iustitiæ pro tribunali sedentes, & solum Deum præ oculis habentes, per hanc nostram diffinitiuam sententiam quam de Venerabilium Fratrū nostrorum Sanctæ Ro. Ec. Car. Consistorialiter coram nobis cōgregatorū Consilio & assensu ferimus in his scriptis, pronunciamus, decernimus, & declaramus in causa & causis ad nos & Sedem Apostolicam per appellationem, per charissimam in Christo Filiā Catherinam Angliæ Reginam Illustrem a nostris & Sedis Apostolicæ Legatis in Regno Angliæ deputatis interpositā legitimè deuolutis, & aduocatis, inter prædictā Catherinam Reginam, & Charissimum in Christo Filium Henricum VIII. Angliæ Regē Illustrem, super Validitate & Inualiditate Matrimonij inter eosdem Reges contracti & consummati rebus alijs inactis, causæ & causarum huiusmodi latius deductis, & dilecto filio Paulo Capissucho causarū sacri palatij tunc decano, & propter ipsius Pauli absentiam venerabili fratri nostro Iacobo Simonetæ Episcopo Pisaurien. vnius ex dicti palatij causaurū Auditoribus locū teneti, audiedis instruēdis, & in Consistorio nostro Secreto referendis cōmissis, & per eos nobis, & eiusdē Cardinalibus Relatis, & maturè discussis, corā nobis pēdētibus, matrimoniū inter predictā Catherinā, & Henricū Angliæ Reges cōtractū, & inde secuta quæcū fuisse & esse validū & canonicū valida & Canonica, suos debitos debuisse & debere sortiri effectus, prole exinde susceptam & suscipiēdā fuisse & fore legitimā, & præfatū Hēricum Angliæ Regē teneri, & obligatū fuisse & fore ad cohabitandū cū dicta Catherina Regina eius legitima cōiuge illā maritali affectione & Regio honore tractādū, & ede Hēricū Angliæ Regem ad præmissa omnia & singula cū effectu adimplendū, condedandū omnibus iuris remedijs cogendū & cōpellendū fore, prout condēnamus, cogimus, & compellimus, molestationes & denegationes per eundē Henricū Regē eidē Catherinæ Reginæ super inualiditate ac fœdere dicti matrimonij quomodo libet factas & præstitas, fuisse & esse illicitas & iniustas, & eidē Hērico Regi super illis ac inualiditate matrimonij huiusmodi perpetuū filetium imponēdū fore, & imponim, eundē Henricū Angliæ Regē in expensis in huiusmodi causa pro parte dictæ Catherinæ Reginæ coram nobis, & dictis omnibus legitimè factis cōdēnandū fore, & condmūnamus, quarū expensarum taxationem nobis imposterū reseruamus.

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Ita pronuntiamus. I.
Lata fuit Romæ in Palatio Apostolico publice in
Consistorio die. xxiii. Martij M.D.XXXIIII.

¶ The effect in English.

THe effect of this Sentence is as much to meane in english: That Pope Clement the vij. with the consent of his other brethrē the Cardinals assembled together in his Consistory, sitting there in the throne of (A Marginalia(A) The Pope sitteth in the throne of iustice, with the like humility & same fashiō, as Lucifer did sit in the seate of the highest, & Antichrist sitteth in the Tēple of God.) Iustice, calling vpon the name (B Marginalia(B) And sayd neuer a word.) of Christ, and hauing God onely before his (C Marginalia(C) Id est, hauing no bribes of money in his handes, nor no feare of the Emperour in his harte.) eyes, doth pronounce, define, & declare in the cause & causes betwene his dere daughter Katherine Quene of England appealing to the sea Apostolicke, & his beloued (D Marginalia(D) Is not thys a gloryous father that wil haue no beggars to his sonnes, & daughters, but Emperours, Kinges and Queenes?) sonne Henry the eight, king of England, concerning þe validity & inualidity of the Matrimony heretofore contracted betwene thē, and yet depending in the Consistory court of the said pope Clement: that the sayd Matrimony alwaies hath (E Marginalia(E) And why then did you sende Campeius to England to dissolue the same Matrimony before? as appeareth aboue pag. 1049.) and still doth stand firme & Canonicall, & that the issue proceding, or which shall proceed of the same, standeth, and shall stand lawfull and legitimate: and that the foresayd Henry king of England, is and shalbe boūdand obstrict to the Matrimoniall society and cohabitatiō with the sayd Lady Katherine his lawfull wife & Quene, to hold and maynteine her with such loue and princely honor, as becommeth a louing husbande, and his kingly honor to do.

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Also that the sayd Henry king of England, if he shall refuse so to performe and accomplish all and singuler the premisses, in all effectuall maner, is to be condemned and compelled hereunto by all remedies of (F Marginalia(F) By his owne Canon law, he meaneth, & not by the lawe of God.) the law, & enforced, according as we do cōdemne, compell and enforce him so to do, prouiding that al molestations and refusals what soeuer, made by the sayde king Henry agaynst the sayde Queene Katherine, vpon the inualidity of the sayd Mariage, to haue bene and to be iudged vnlawful and vniust: and the sayd king frō henceforth for euer to hold his peace, and not to be heard in any Court hereafter (G Marginalia(G) Here thou mayst see (good reader) howe the Pope may & doth erre lyke a false Prophet. For where he thought to put the king to silence, the same silence lighted vpon himselfe, & whereby the Pope is driuen himseife to stand mute in Englād, & God graunt he may so stand for euer Amen.) to speake touching the inualidity of the sayd matrimony: like as we also do here will and charge him to holde his peace, and do put him to perpetuall silence herein: Willing moreouer & adiudging the sayd king henry to be condemned and presently here doe condemne him in the expenses on the sayde Quene Katherines behalfe here in our Court, exposed & employed in trauersing the foresaid cause, the valuation of which expenses, we reserue for our selues to be limited and taxed, as we shall iudge meete hereafter.

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We do so pronounce. I.
At Rome in our Apostolicall palace publickely in
our Consistory. 23. Mart. M.D.XXXIIII.

Now as you haue heard the presumptuous and arrogant Sentence of Pope Clement, wherein he taketh vpon him, contrary to the ordinaunce of God in his Leuiticall law (as before is shewed pag. 1025) and contrary to þt best learned iudgementes of Christendome, to commaund and compell the king agaynst his conscience, to reteine in Matrimony his brothers wife: here foloweth in like order to be inferred, according to my promise, an other like wicked, blasphemous, and sclaūderous MarginaliaPope Leo his Bull agaynst Luther, and the Appellation of M. Luther from the Pope, by way of an Appendix.Bull of Pope Leo against Martin Luther, 

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Exsurge Domini

Martin Luther's excommunication by Pope Leo X was a classic moment of definition as far as the Reformers were concerned, and there are numerous biographies and other studies of Luther's development to this point. The best are probably H. Boehmer, Martin Luther: Road to Reformation (trs.J.W. Doberstein and T.G. Tappert) (London, 1946); R.H. Fife, The Revolt of Martin Luther (London, 1957); and M. Brecht, Martin Luther: His road to Reformation, 1483-1521 (trs J. L. Schaaf) (Minneapolis, 1985).

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David Loades
University of Sheffield

with the iust Appellation also of the sayd Martin Luther, from the Pope to a generall Counsell. Wherein may appeare to all men the lying spirite of the pope, both in teaching most heretical doctrine, derogating from the bloud of Christ, and also falsely deprauing & peruerting the sound doctrine of Luther, falsely and vntruely charging him with heresy, when he is the greater heretick himselfe. For what hereticke would euer say that the churche of Rome was consecrate and sanctified by the bloud of Peter, but onely the Pope? Or who would cal this heresy, to referre al our saluation and sanctification onely and totally to the bloud of the sonne of God, vnlesse he were an hereticke of all heretickes himselfe?

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MarginaliaThe Pope playeth with Luther, as Achab played with Elias, saying that he was the troubler of Israell, when it was he himselfe and his fathers house that so did.After the like dealing we read. 3. Reg. 18. of wicked king Achab, who being onely the disturber of Israel himselfe, crieth out vpon Elias, for troubling Israel. So here in semblablewise Pope Leo, with what heape of tragicall wordes and exclamations doth he fare and rage agaynst þ e true seruant of God poore Luther, for disturbing þe church of God, when it is the Pope onely & his fathers house that troubleth, and long hath troubled the true Church of the Lord, as by his doings all the world may see enough & to much. In the meane time read, I besech thee, with iudgement this impudent & false slaunderous Bull of the Pope, with the appeale also of Luther agayn from the sayd pope. The copy wherof because they be rare to be gotten, & hath not bene hetherto commonly sene, 

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The Bulla contra errors M. Lutheri et sequacium, had been published by J. Schott in Strasbourg in 1520. Luther's response had been published at once, but the version which Foxe probably used appeared in the Tomus primus omnium operum, published in Wittenberg by Johannes Lufft in 1545. The translation and commentary appear to be Foxe's original composition. The Latin texts of both the Bull and of Luther's response were omitted after 1563.

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being before omitted I thought to cōmit here to history, as I had it out of certayn Registers: the maner & tenor wherof is this as foloweth.

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A copy of the Bull of Pope Leo x. no lesse sclaunderous then barbarous, agaynst Martin Luther and his doctrine. Leo Papa. X.

MarginaliaThe Bul of pope Leo agaynst M. Luther.LEo Episcopus seruus seruorum Dei ad perpetuam rei memoriam: Exurge Domine & iudica causam tuam. Memor esto impropriorum eorum quæ ab insipientibus fiunt tota die. Inclina aurem tuam ad preces nostras, quoniam surrexeruent vulpes querentes demoliti veneam, cuius tu torcular solus calastic, & ascensurus ad patrem, eius curam, regimé, & administrationem Petro tanquam capiti, & tuo vicario eius successoribus instar triumphantis Ecclesiæ commisisti. &c. MarginaliaQue sequntur, vide superiore æditione Pag. 1459.

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¶ The sayd sclaunderous and barbarous Bull of Pope Leo the x. agaynst Luther, in English, with the aunswere of Luther ioyned to the same.

LEo Byshop, seruaunt of the seruauntes of God, for a perpetual memory hereof. Rise vp O Lord, & iudge thy

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