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Ambrose (St Ambrose)

(c. 340 - 397) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Bishop of Milan (374 - 397); doctor of the church

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 15, 20, 56, 91, 128, 131, 146; 1576, pp. 12, 16, 35, 63, 92, 95, 102, 108; 1583, pp. 12, 16, 35, 63, 91, 94, 101, 107.

 
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Coel

Legendary king of Colchester [ODNB sub Helena]

According to Henry of Huntingdon, the father of St Helena

Coel was said to have founded Colchester and to have been the father of Lucius, the legendary king of Britain during the Roman occupation. 1570, p. 146; 1576, p. 108; 1583, p. 107.

 
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Commodus (Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus)

(161 - 192) [D. Quinn www.roman-emperors.org]

Son of Marcus Aurelius; co-emperor with his father (178 - 80)

Roman emperor (180 - 192); murdered

Commodus caused difficulties for the senate, but was not a persecutor of Christians. 1570, pp. 39, 75; 1576, pp. 31, 51; 1583, pp. 31, 51.

 
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Constantine VI

(d. 797) [L. Garland www.roman-emperors.org]

Only child of emperor Leo IV and Irene; co-emperor with Leo (776 - 80)

Byzantine emperor (780 - 97x805) (sole power from 790, although Irene ruled); blinded in 797 by Irene's supporters

Constantine was imprisoned by his mother, Irene. She then had him blinded, and he died shortly after. 1570, p. 176; 1576, p. 133; 1583, p. 132.

 
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Cyprian of Carthage(St Cyprian)

(d. 258) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Teacher of rhetoric; bishop of Carthage (249 - 58); there was opposition and schism in his see. Early Christian writer; in conflict with Pope Stephen I over the efficacy of baptism by heretics; executed

Cyprian was born in Carthage, grew up a pagan and became a skilled rhetorician. He was converted by a priest and baptised. Not long after he became a priest, he was made bishop of Carthage. 1570, p. 98; 1576, p. 69; 1583, p. 69.

Cyprian was called 'papas' or 'father'. 1570, p. 11; 1576, p. 8; 1583, p. 8.

Cyprian favoured the rebaptism of those baptised by heretics; in this he disagreed with Pope Stephen. 1570, p. 101, 1576, p. 71, 1583, p. 71.

Cyprian complained that many of the faithful, without having been subjected to any torture, through cowardice voluntarily agreed to sacrifice to the gods. 1570, p. 92; 1576, p. 64; 1583, p. 64.

Novatian was a priest under Cyprian in Carthage, where he appointed Felicissimus deacon without Cyprian's knowledge and stirred up factions. Novatian opposed the reinstatement of lapsed Christians. 1570, p. 93; 1576, p. 65; 1583, p. 64.

Cyprian was banished from Carthage during the reign of Gallus due to sedition within the church there. 1570, p. 95; 1576, p. 66; 1583, p. 66.

Cyprian returned from exile in the reign of Valerian. 1570, p. 99; 1576, p. 70; 1583, p. 69.

Cyprian received visions warning him of the persecution of Valerian. He wrote an Apology in defence of the Christians. 1570, p. 97; 1576, p. 68; 1583, p. 68.

He was banished a second time. When he refused to sacrifice to the gods, he was beheaded. 1570, p. 99; 1576, p. 70; 1583, p. 69.

Foxe discusses his writings. 1570, pp. 99-101; 1576, pp. 70-71;1583, pp. 69-71.

Constantine fulfilled Cyprian's vision of a time of peace for the church. 1570, p. 144; 1576, p. 106; 1583, p. 105.

 
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Damian (Deruvian; Dyfan)

Legendary missionary sent by Pope Eleutherius to King Lucius of Britain

Damian was one of two missionaries sent at the request of King Lucius and who converted him. 1570, pp. 78, 146; 1576, pp. 53, 108; 1583, pp. 53, 107.

 
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Fugatius (Phaganus; Hagar)

Legendary missionary sent by Pope Eleutherius to King Lucius of Britain

Fugatius was one of two missionaries sent at the request of King Lucius and who converted him. 1570, pp. 78, 146; 1576, pp. 53, 108; 1583, pp. 53, 107.

 
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Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletian

(236/7 - 316) [R. W. Mathisen www.roman-emperors.org]

Roman emperor (284 - 305), succeeding Carus's son, Numerian, in the east; controlled the whole empire after the death of Carinus, Carus's younger son, in 285. Introduced tetrarchy; enforced imperial cult; abdicated.

Declined an offer to take the throne in 308; died at Split.

Diocletian came to the throne with the support of the troops. 1570, p. 108; 1576, p. 77; 1583, p. 76.

Having accused Aper of killing Numerian, Diocletian killed him with his sword in front of the troops. 1570, p. 109; 1576, p. 78; 1583, p. 77.

Diocletian commanded that he be worshipped as a god. 1570, p. 109; 1576, p. 78; 1583, p. 77.

Diocletian introduced the most severe persecution of the Christians. The persecution began with the destruction of churches and books of scripture. 1570, pp. 39, 109-111; 1576, pp. 31, 78-79; 1583, pp. 31, 77-79.

He went on use threats and imprisonment, and eventually he devised a great variety of tortures and methods of execution. 1570, pp. 112-14; 1576, pp. 80-81; 1583, pp. 79-81.

Diocletian abdicated and, having heard of the edict of Constantine and Licinius granting freedom of worship to Christians, died. 1570, p. 121; 1576, p. 87; 1583, p. 86.

 
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Geoffrey of Monmouth (Galfridus Monumetensis)

(d. 1154/5) [ODNB]

Historian; bishop of St Asaph (1151 - 54/5); wrote History of the Kings of Britain

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 146, 160, 161; 1576, pp. 108, 120, 121; 1583, pp. 107, 119, 120.

 
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Gregory Nazienzen (St Gregory Nazienzen)

(c. 329 - 390) Greek church father; theologian and rhetorician

Patriarch of Constantinople (379 - 81) [Gams]; Eastern Orthodox saint

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 98; 1576, p. 69; 1583, p. 69.

 
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Gregory VII (Hildebrand) (St Gregory)

(c . 1020 - 1085 [Kelly]

Benedictine monk; treasurer of Roman church; archdeacon of Roman church 1059; chancellor of the see of Rome; pope (1073 - 85)

Hildebrand approached the emperor, Henry III, to nominate Gebhard of Dollnstein-Hirschberg as pope after the death of Leo IX. 1563, p. 12.

Hildebrand was sent as papal legate to France. He brought Berengar of Tours before a council at Tours. 1570, p. 1311; 1576, p. 1121; 1583, p. 1147.

Hildebrand supported the election of Alexander II and persuaded the imperial ambassador Anno to support him. 1563, p. 14.

Hildebrand fought for Alexander II against Cadalous (Honorius II). 1570, p. 1312; 1576, p. 1122; 1583, p. 1148.

Foxe records that Alexander II repented not having the emperor's consent to his election, and that Hildebrand imprisoned and deposed Alexander. In fact, Hildebrand remained Alexander's chancellor and supporter until his death. 1563, p. 14; 1570, p. 6; 1576, p. 5; 1583, p. 5.

Berengar of Tours recanted at a council in Rome under Gregory VII. 1570, p. 1311; 1576, p. 1121; 1583, p. 1147.

At the time of Gregory VII's synod in Rome, Henry IV held the right to invest archbishops, bishops and abbots. Gregory decreed that all those invested by the emperor had obtained their offices through simony. He decreed that all simonical clergy and those with wives were to be shunned. 1570, p. 1319; 1576, p. 1128; 1583, p. 1153.

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Opposition to clerical marriage increased greatly under Gregory VII. 1570, p. 1329; 1576, p. 1134; 1583, p. 1163.

Gregory VII deposed Emperor Henry IV. 1570, p. 7; 1576, p. 6; 1583, p. 6.

 
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Henry of Erfurt (Henricus de Erfordia)

Taught philosophy in Bologna in (1351 - 52); writer and historian

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 68, 78, 80, 86, 98, 104, 110, 146; 1576, pp. 40, 45, 53, 55, 60, 69, 74, 79, 108; 1583, pp. 40, 45, 53, 55, 59, 69, 74, 78, 107.

 
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Herculius Maximianus

(d. 310) [M. Di Maio www.roman-emperors.org]

Soldier; Roman emperor (286 - 305); elevated by Diocletian to rule in the West; made to abdicate with Diocletian

Attempted to depose his son Maxentius in 308; proclaimed himself emperor in 310; imprisoned by his son-in-law Constantine and pardoned. Maximian plotted to have Constantine killed; Maximian died soon after, either by suicide or on the orders of Constantine.

Maximian was made emperor in the west because uprisings and unrest made it impossible for Diocletian to rule the entire empire alone. 1570, p. 109; 1576, p. 78; 1583, p. 77.

Maximian was a persecutor of Christians. He decimated the troops of Maurice twice when they refused to sacrifice to his gods and finally commanded they all be killed. 1570, pp. 113-14; 1576, p. 81; 1583, pp. 80-81.

Having abdicated with Diocletian, he attempted to regain power when his son Maxentius was set up as emperor. 1570, p. 118; 1576, p. 85; 1583, p. 84.

Maximian plotted to have Constantine, his son-in-law, killed; the plot was detected by Fausta, Constantine's wife. Maximian was killed on the return journey from Gaul. 1570, pp. 118-19; 1576, p. 85; 1583, p. 84.

 
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Irene

(750x755 - 803) [L. Garland www.roman-emperors.org]

Married Emperor Leo IV in 769; empress (775 - 80); regent (780 - 90)

Restored icon veneration in 787; encouraged monasticism; co-ruler with her son (792 - 97); had her son blinded

Sole empress (797 - 802); deposed and exiled to a convent

Empress Irene had Pope Adrian exhume the body of Constantine Copronymus and burn it. She had the ashes thrown into the sea because Constantine had opposed the adoration of images. 1570, p. 176; 1576, p. 133; 1583, p. 132.

Nicephorus I deposed Irene and expelled her from the empire. She ended her life in poverty. 1570, p. 176; 1576, p. 133; 1583, p. 132.

Irene and the decrees of the Council of Nicea advocating the adoration of images were condemned at the Council of Frankfurt, presided over by Charlemagne. 1570, p. 175; 1576, p. 132; 1583, p. 131.

 
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Jerome (Eusebius Hieronomous) (St Jerome)

(c. 340/2 - 420) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Scholar; translator of the bible from Greek and Hebrew into Latin; studied at Rome and Trier. Lived as an ascetic (374 -79); lived in Constantinople (380 - 81), Rome (382 - 85) and Bethlehem (386)

Jerome was called 'papas' or 'father' by Boniface I and others. 1570, p. 11; 1576, p. 8; 1583, p. 8.

 
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Johannes Nauclerus

(c. 1425 - 1510)

German humanist historian; DCL 1450; taught at the University of Basel; rector of the University of Tübingen 1477; chancellor of the university; judge of the Swabian League (1502 -13); wrote World Chronicle

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 64, 78, 83, 96, 143, 174; 1576, pp. 37, 53, 57, 67, 106, 131; 1583, pp. 37, 53, 57, 67, 105, 130.

 
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Lucius Verus

(130 - 169) [P. B. Peacock www.roman-emperors.org]

Roman emperor (161 - 69), with Marcus Aurelius; both were adopted by Antoninus Pius; son-in-law of Marcus Aurelius

In a letter to Henry VIII, Philip Melancthon referred to Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius as emperors who received the apologies and defences of the Christians kindly. 1570, p. 1340; 1576, p. 1144; 1583, p. 1172.

Foxe calls him Marcus Aurelius Commodus here, but it was Lucius Verus and his brother and co-emperor, Marcus Aurelius, who fought together in the Germanic War referred to by Foxe. 1570, p. 75; 1576, p. 51; 1583, p. 51.

 
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Paulinus (St Paulinus)

(d. 644) [ODNB]

Bishop of York 625 and of Rochester 633; one of the monks sent by Gregory I in 601; worked to convert Eadwine of Northumbria

Eadwine of Northumbria was converted and baptised by Paulinus at York. 1563, p. 18; 1570, pp. 150, 163; 1576, pp. 112, 122; 1583, pp. 111, 121.

Eadwine was reluctant to convert, but Paulinus worked patiently to persuade him. Paulinus baptised many people in the rivers of the realm, and he built a stone church at Lincoln. 1570, p. 163; 1576, p. 122; 1583, p. 121.

Paulinus was the first bishop of York, consecrated by Justus, archbishop of Canterbury. Upon the death of Justus, Paulinus consecrated Honorius as his successor. 1570, p. 163; 1576, p. 122; 1583, p. 121.

After the death of King Eadwine, and the conquest by Cadwallon of Gwynedd and Penda of Mercia, the subsequent disorder forced Paulinus to flee into Kent, along with Queen Æthelburh and her daughter Eanflæd. There Paulinus became bishop of Rochester. 1570, p. 163; 1576, p. 122; 1583, p. 121.

 
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Robert Fabyan

(d. 1513) [ODNB]

Chronicler; freeman in Drapers' Company 1476-7; auditor of the city of London's accounts 1486-7

Sheriff (1493); master of the Drapers' Company (1495 - 56, 1501 - 02); alderman (1494 - 1503); wrote Newe Cronycles

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 146, 149, 160, 169, 1304; 1576, pp. 108, 111, 120, 128, 1116; 1583, pp. 107, 110, 118, 126, 1141.

 
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Caerleon-on-Usk (Urbe Legionum, Glamorgan)

[Glamorgantia, videlicet, in Vrbe legionum; Kayrleion]

near Newport, Wales

OS grid ref: ST 335 905

 
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Colchester
Colchester, Colchestre
NGR: TM 000 250

A borough, having separate jurisdiction, locally in the Colchester division of the hundred of Lexden, county of Essex. 22 miles north-east by east from Chelmsford. The town comprises the parishes of All Saints, St. James, St. Martin, St. Mary at the Walls, St. Nicholas, St. Peter, St. Rumwald and Holy Trinity within the walls; and St. Botolph, St. Giles, St. Leonard and St. Mary Magdalene without the walls; all in the archdeaconry of Colchester and Diocese of London

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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York
NGR: SE 603 523

A city and county of itself, having exclusive jurisdiction; locally in the East Riding of the county of York, of which it is the capital. 198 miles north-north-west from London. The city is the seat of the Archbishop, and comprised originally 33 parishes, reduced by amalgamation to 22; of which 33, 17 were discharged rectories, 10 discharged vicarages, and 6 perpetual curacies; all within the diocese of York.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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130 [107]

King Lucius. Eleutherius his Epistle to King Lucius. Want of succeßion.

of Cyprian. Neither was then any transubstātiation heard of, which was not brought in before a thousand yere after. Neither were then any images of Saints departed, set vp in Churches; yea a great number of the Saints worshypped in this our time, were not as yet borne, nor the Churches wherein they were worshipped, were yet set vp: but came in long after, especially in the time of Irene & Constans the Emperour. Likewise neyther Reliques nor peregrinations were then in vse. Priestes Mariage was then as lawfull, and no lesse receiued as now: neither was it condemned before the dayes of Hildebrand, almost a thousande yeares after that. Their seruice was then in the vulgare toung, as witnesseth Hierome. MarginaliaDe consecrat. Dist. 2. The Sacrament ministred in both kindes, as wel to lay men, as to Priestes, the witnes wherof is Cyprian. Yea, and that temporal men which would not then communicate at Easter, Whitsontide, and Christenmasse: were not coūted for Catholiks, the Popes owne distinction can testifie. In funeralles, Priestes then flocked not together, selling trentals and diriges for sweping of Purgatorie: but onely a funeral cōcion was vsed, with Psalmes of praises, & songs of theyr worthy deedes: and Alleluya sounding on high, which did shake the gilded seelings of the temple, as witnesseth Nazianzene, Ambrose, and Hierome, &c.

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In the Supper of the Lord, & at Baptisme, no such ceremonies were vsed, as now of late hath bene intruded, in so much that as in this story is shewed hereafter, both Austen and Paulinus Baptised then in Riuers not in halowed fountes, as wytnesseth Fabianus. MarginaliaFabianus. cap. 119. & 120. The Portuis of Sarum, of Yorke, of Bangor, with Mattens and Euensong of the day: againe neither the orders and religions of Monks & Friers, were not yet dreamed of, to the space almost of a thousand yeares after, &c. So that, as I sayde, if the Papistes woulde needes deriue the faith & religion of this Realme, from Rome: then let them set vs & leaue vs there, where they had vs: that is, let them suffer vs to stand content wt that faith and religion, which then was taught & brought from Rome by Eleutherius (as nowe we differ nothing frō the same) and we wil desire no better. And if they wil not, then let the wise Reader iudge, where the fault is, in vs or them which neither themselues will persist in the antiquitie of the Romish religion, whych they so much bragge of, neither will they permit vs so to do.

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And thus much by the way, to satisfie the foresayd obiection: whereby we may haue now a more ready passage into the order and course of the Hystorie. Beyng therefore graunted vnto them, whych they so earnestly sticke vpon, that the Christian faith and Religion of this Realme was brought from Rome, first by Eleutherius, MarginaliaEleutherius Byshop of Rome. then afterwarde by Austen: thus wryteth the Chronicles of that matter. MarginaliaAusten. 2. The fayth of Christ brought into this Realme. Lucius first christened king of the Britaines.About the time and yeare of the Lord. 180. 

Commentary  *  Close

Foxe is explicit about the difficulties of dating the letter from King Lucius to Pope Eleutherius to receive him into the Christian faith. Foxe primarily follows the details in Fabian's Chronicle (R. Fabyan, The Chronicle of Fabian [London, 1559], book 3, chs 58-59). Fabian himself notes that the sources differ, which is probably why Foxe had recourse to the Magdeburg Centuries, II ch. II, pp. 8-9 to pursue the issue, and also to Bale's English Votaries p. 14 for its mention of the evidence from Geoffrey of Monmouth and other authors. Interestingly, Fabian explicitly says that he disregards Monmouth's evidence. Foxe chose to disregard this, and thereby follow Bale's account. For the relevant passage in Geoffrey of Monmouth, albeit not directly used by Foxe, so far as one can judge, see The historia Regum Britannie of Geoffrey of Monmouth, edited and translated by Neil Wright, vol. 5 (Cambridge, 1991), ch. 72, pp. 125-6.

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king Lucius sonne of Coilus, which builded Colchester, king of the Britaines, who then were the inhabiters & possessors of thys land (which now we Englishmen call England) hearing of the myracles & wonders done by the Christians at that time in diuers places (as Monumetensis wryteth) directed hys letters to Eleutherius Byshop of Rome, to receaue of him the Christian faith. MarginaliaEx Monumetensi & alijs. Although about the computation of the yere and time: great difference there is in authours, when this shoulde be. Nauclerus sayth it was An. 156. but that cannot be, forsomuch as Eleutherius was not yet Byshop by the space of 20. yeres after that. Henricus de Erfordia sayth, it was An. 169. in the 19. yere of Verus Emperor, but that agreeth not with approued hystories: which all consent, that Verus raigned not 19. yeres, and if he had, yet that yeare commeth not to the yere of our Lord. 169. but to the yere. 181. Some other say, that Eleutherius was made Byshop, in the 6. yeare of Commodus, which was the yeare of our Lorde. 186. but that seemeth to goe to farre, but let the authours agree as they can. Let vs returne to Eleutherius the good Byshop, who hearing the request of thys king, & glad to see the godly towardnes of his wel disposed mind: sendeth him certaine teachers & preachers, called Fugatius, or by some Faganus, and Damianus, or Dimianus: MarginaliaFaganus, Damianus. which conuerted first the king and people of Britaine, and Baptised them wt the Baptisme and Sacrament of Christes faith. The Temples of Idolatry and all other Monuments of Gentilitie they subuerted, conuerting the people frō theyr diuers & many gods to serue one liuing God. Thus true religion with sincere faith increasing, superstition decaied, wt al other rites of Idolatrie. There were thē in Britaine 28. head Priestes, which they called Flamines, & 3. Archpriests among them, which were called Archflamines: hauing the ouersight of their maners, & as Iudges ouer the rest. Marginalia18. Byshops within this Realme. 3. Archb.These 28. Flamines they turned to 28. Bishops. And the 3. Archflamines, to 3. Archbyshoppes, hauyng then theyr seates in three principall Cityes of the Realme:that is, in London, in Yorke, and in Glamorgantia, videlicet, in Vrbe legionum, by Wales. Thus the Countreys of the whole Realme, being deuided euery one vnder his owne Bishop, and all things setled in a good order: the foresaide king Lucius sent againe to the sayd Eleutherius, for the Romane lawes: thereby likewise to be gouerned as in Religion nowe they were framed accordingly. Vnto whome Eleutherius againe writeth, after the tenour of these words ensuing.

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The Epistle of Eleutherius Bishop of Rome sent to king Lucius.

MarginaliaEx vetusto codice regum antiquorum. The Epistle of Eleutherius to king Lucius.ANno. 169. a Passione Christi scripsit Dominus Eleutherius l'apa Lucio Regi Britannia, ad correctionem Regis & procerum regni Britanniæ 

Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
Christianity comes to England.
Foxe text Latin

Anno. 169. a passione Christi scripsit dominus Elutherius Papa Lucio Regi Britanniæ, ad correctionem regis & procerum regni Britanniæ

Translation

John Wade, University of Sheffield

In the 169th year from the passion of Christ the Lord Pope Elutherius wrote to Lucius the King of Britain for the improvement of the king and the nobles of the kingdom of Britain.

, and so foorth, as foloweth in English.Yee require of vs the Romane lawes and the Emperours, to be sent ouer to you: which you may practise & put in vre wythin your Realme. The Romane lawes, & the Emperours, we may euer reproue, but the lawe of God we may not. Yee haue receaued of late through Gods mercie in the realme of Britaine, the lawe and faith of Christ: ye haue with you within the Realme both the parties of the Scriptures. Out of them by gods grace, with the Coūcel of your realme, take ye a law, and by that lawe (through gods sufferance) rule your kingdome of Britayne. MarginaliaThe king Gods vicare within hys owne kingdome.For you be Gods Vicare in your kingdome, according to the saying of the Psalme. Deus iudicium tuum Regi da, &c. That is. O God geue thy iudgement to the King, and thy righteousnes to the kings sonne. &c. He sayd not the iudgement & righteousnes of the Emperor, but thy iudgement and iustice: that is to say: of God. The kinges sonnes be the Christian people & folke of the Realme, which be vnder your gouernement, and liue and continue in peace within your kingdome, as the Gospel sayeth: like as the henne gathereth her chickes vnder her wings, so doth the king his people. The people and folke of the Realme of Britayne be yours, whome if they be deuided ye ought to gather in concord and peace: to call them to the faith and lawe of Christ, and to the holy church, to cherish and maintaine them, to rule and gouerne tbem, and to defende them alwaies from such as would do them wrōg, from malicious men and enemies. A king hath his name of ruling, and not of hauing a Realme. You shalbe a king while ye rule wel, but if you do otherwise, the name of a king shall not remaine with you, & you shall lose it, which God forbid The almightie God graunt you so to rule the Realme of Britayne, that you may raigne wyth him for euer, whose Vicar ye be in the Realme.

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After this maner, 

Commentary  *  Close

Foxe here elaborates briefly on several important and implied parallels between the Christian conversion of the British Isles and the contemporary experience of reformation. The conversion had occurred through the activity of preachers ('through whose ministery this realm & ileland of Britain was eftsones reduced to the faith & law of the Lord'. The British Isles were Christianised whilst the Roman emperors were still heathens. Foxe weaves in a prophecy from Isaiah ch. 42 and the passage is loosely based on Henry Huntingdon's Chronicle (T. Arnold, ed. Henry of Huntingdon. Henrici Huntendunensis Historia Anglorum, the History of the English, by Henry, Archdeacon of Huntingdon, from B. C. 55 to A. D. 1154 [London: Rolls Series, 1879], ch. 1, pp. 27-8). For the narrative of the death of King Lucius and events thereafter, Foxe relied on Matthew Paris' Flores Historiarum, which had been published in 1567 (H. R. Luard, ed. Matthew Paris. Flores Historiarum 3 vols [London: Rolls Series, 1890], 1, p. 149) and also on the Magdeburg Centuries, II, ch. 2, p. 9.

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as you haue heard, was the Christiā faith either first brought in, or els confirmed in this realme of Britayne, by the sending of Eleutherius, not wt any crosse or procession, but onely at the simple preaching of Fagane and Damian, through whose ministerie this realme & Ileand of Britaine was eftsoones reduced to the faith & lawe of the Lord, according as was prophecied by Esay, MarginaliaEsay. 42. as wel of that, as other Ilelands mo, where he sayth, chap. 42. he shall not faint, nor geue ouer till hee hath set iudgement in earth, and Ilelands shal waite for hys lawe. &c. The faith thus receiued of the Britaynes cōtinued among them and florished the space of 216. yeres, till the cōming of the Saxones: who then were Paganes: whereof more followeth hereafter to be sayde, the Lord Christ assisting thereunto. In the meane time somthing to speake of this space before, which was betwixt the time of Lucius, and the first cōming in of the Saxones: first is to be vnderstanded, that all this while as yet the Emperors of Rome had not receiued the faith, what time the kings of Britaine, & the subiects therof, were cōuerted now, as is sayd, to Christ: for the which cause much trouble and perturbation, was sought against them, not onely here in Britayne, but through all parts of Christendome by the Heathen infidels. In so much that in the persecution onely of Dioclesian & Maximinian raigning both together within one moneth xvij. thousand martyrs are nūbred to haue suffered for the name of Christ, as hath bene hetherto in the booke before sufficiently discoursed.

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Thus therefore although the foresayd Lucius, the Britaine king, through the mercifull prouidence of God, was then Christened and the gospel receaued generally almost in all the land: yet the state thereof as wel of the Religion, as of the common wealth, coulde not be quiet, for that the emperors & nobles of Rome were yet infidels, & enemies to the same: but especially for this cause, the cause so happening, that Lucius the Christen king died without issue: MarginaliaH. Huntendon. Lib. 1 What incommoditie commeth by lacke of succession. for therby such trouble & variance fel amōg the Britaines (as it happeneth in al other Realmes, namely in this our Realme of England when soeuer succession lacketh) that not onely they brought vpon them the Idolatrous Romaines, & at length the Saxons: but also inwrapped them selues in suche miserie and desolation, as yet to thys day amongest them remayneth. Such a thyng it is (where a Prince or a King is in a kingdome) there to lacke succession, as especially in this case may appere. For after þe death

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