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Aaron

(d. c. 303?) of Verulamium.

Said to have been martyred with St Alban

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 124, 1576, p. 90, 1583, p. 89.

 
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Alban (St Alban)

(d. c. 303?) [ODNB]

Christian martyr in Roman Britain at Verulamium (St Albans)

Alban was converted by the example of a Christian priest staying at his house. When the soldiers came for the priest, Alban put on the priest's cloak and went in his place. He refused to worship the Roman gods and was whipped and then beheaded. 1570, pp. 123-24; 1576, p. 89; 1583, p. 88.

 
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Aldroenus (Aldrwn)

Legendary king of Brittany C5

He sent help to defend Britain. 1570, p. 148; 1576, p. 109; 1583, p. 108.

 
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Allectus

(d. 296) [ODNB; M. Di Maio, www.roman-emperors.org ]

Murdered Carausius and took the throne

Emperor in Britain (293 - 296); died in battle with Asclepiodotus

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 147; 1576, p. 109; 1583, p. 108.

 
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Amphibalus

Legendary priest sheltered by St Alban, in whose place Alban was arrested [ODNB sub Alban]

The name is the Latinized Greek equivalent of caracalla, cloak. This was misread as the name of the priest

The name is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 124; 1576, p. 89; 1583, p. 89.

 
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Asclepiodotus

Pretorian prefect under Constantius I Chorus; sent to Britain in 296 to defeat Allectus, emperor in Britain [M. Di Maio, www.roman-emperors.org, sub Allectus]

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 147; 1576, p. 109; 1583, p. 108.

 
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Aurelius Ambrosius

(fl. C5) [ODNB]

Military leader of Romano-British forces against the Anglo-Saxons

Ambrosia and Uther repeatedly drove the Anglo-Saxons out of Britain. Geoffrey of Monmouth said that he had Hengist beheaded at Conisbrough. 1570, p. 148; 1576, p. 110; 1583, p. 109.

He was said to have killed Vortigern and fought against Aelle, king of the South Saxons. 1570, p. 152; 1576, p. 114; 1583, p. 113.

He was said to have been poisoned by Vortigern's son Pasgen. 1570, p. 153; 1576, p. 114; 1583, p. 113.

 
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Caracalla (Lucius Septimius Bassianus)

(188-217) [ODNB; M. L. Meckler www.roman-emperors.org]

Elder son of Septimius Severus; co-ruler with his father in 198

Roman emperor (211 - 217), jointly with his brother in 211; reconstructed Hadrian's Wall

He arranged the murder of his brother Geta; he was himself murdered

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 39, 83, 147; 1576, pp. 31, 57, 109; 1583, pp. 31, 57, 108.

 
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Carausius

(d. 293) [ODNB; M. Di Maio, www.roman-emperors.org]

Led naval fleet under Herculius; fled to Britain with the fleet and declared himself emperor (286/7 - 293); murdered by Allectus

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 147; 1576, p. 109; 1583, p. 108.

 
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Conan Meriadoc

Legendary C5 leader of British settlement in Brittany

He was supposed to have sent for 11,000 virgins, one of whom was St Ursula. 1570, p. 148; 1576, p. 109; 1583, p. 108.

 
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Constans

(d. 411) [ODNB sub Constantine III]

Son of Constantine III; monk at the time of his father's succession; appointed his father's caesar in 408; led army in Spain; promoted to augustus in 409, but the soldiers rebelled; killed by Gerontius in Vienne

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 147, 152; 1576, pp. 109, 113; 1583, pp. 108, 112.

 
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Constantine I

(271x273 - 337) [H. A. Pohlsander www.roman-emperors.org]

Roman emperor in the West (306 - 37); defeated Maxentius, rival emperor, in 312

Sole Roman emperor (324 - 37)

Constantine took three legions with him out of Britain, thereby weakening its defence. 1570, p. 148; 1576, p. 109; 1583, p. 108.

Maximian plotted to have Constantine killed; the plot was detected by Fausta, Constantine's wife and daughter of Maximian. 1570, p. 118; 1576, p. 85; 1583, p. 84.

The citizens and senators of Rome appealed to Constantine to rid them of Maxentius. 1570, p. 118; 1576, p. 85; 1583, p. 84.

Constantine, preparing for battle against Maxentius and fearing his magical powers, saw the sign of a cross in the sky. He then had a dream with a vision of the cross and of Christ. He took a cross into battle with him as a standard and defeated Maxentius at Milvian Bridge. 1570, p. 119; 1576, p. 86; 1583, p. 85.

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After the defeat of Maxentius, Constantine no longer sacrificed to the Roman gods, but he deferred baptism to his old age. He issued edicts restoring church goods and bringing Christians back from exile. 1570, pp. 139-41; 1576, pp. 103-04; 1583, pp. 101-03.

Constantine wrote to Anulinus, his proconsul in Africa, instructing him to restore goods to the Christian churches and to ensure that Christian ministers were freed from public duties. 1570, p. 141, 1576, p. 104, 1583, p. 103.

Constantine wrote to Pope Miltiades, instructing him to set up a synod to examine the cause of Cæcilian of Carthage, and sent letters to other bishops, issuing instructions and encouraging the ending of schisms. 1570, p. 141, 1576, p. 104, 1583, p. 103.

Initially Constantine and Licinius were on good terms, and Constantine gave Lucinius his sister in marriage. 1570, p. 122; 1576, p. 88; 1583, p. 87.

Licinius and Constantine issued a joint edict authorising freedom of worship for Christians. But Licinius began to turn against Constantine and the Christians, instigating a new, more surreptitious persecution. 1570, pp. 120-21, 122; 1576, pp. 86-87, 88; 1583, p. 86, 87.

Constantine defeated Licinius. 1570, p. 39; 1576, p. 31; 1583, p. 31.

He wrote to Alexander of Alexandria and Arius, urging them to end their disagreement. 1570, p. 142, 1576, p. 104, 1583, p. 103.

Constantine built churches and schools and provided books of scripture. 1570, pp. 142-43, 1576, p. 105, 1583, pp. 103-04.

Constantine wrote a letter to Shapur II, asking him to treat the Christians in Persia well. 1570, p. 137; 1576, p. 100; 1583, p. 99.

Constantine renounced the Roman gods and was baptised. 1563, p. 8.

Constantine fulfilled St Cyprian's vision of a time of peace for the church. 1570, p. 144; 1576, p. 106; 1583, p. 105.

 
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Constantine III

(d. 411) [ODNB; H. Elton, www.roman-emperors.org]

Proclaimed emperor in Britain (407 - 11) to replace Gratian; ruled Britain, Gaul and Spain; surrendered and executed

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 47; 1576, p. 109; 1583, p. 108.

 
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Constantius I Chlorus

(c. 250 - 306) [ODNB; M. DiMaio www.roman-emperors.org]

Caesar of Maximian in the West (293 - 305); Roman emperor in the West (305 - 06); died in York

Father of Constantine I

Constantius was sent to Britain to collect tribute. 1570, p. 109; 1576, p. 78; 1583, p. 77.

Constantius behaved favourably towards Christians. 1570, p. 114; 1576, p. 82; 1583, p. 81.

 
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Deonotus

Legendary king of Cornwall; father of Ursula [ODNB sub Ursula]

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 148; 1576, p. 109; 1583, p. 108.

 
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Gildas (St Gildas)

(fl. C5-6) [ODNB]

Wrote an account of the defeat of the Britons by the Anglo-Saxons

Gildas was denounced as a false prophet. 1570, p. 39; 1576, p. 32; 1583, p. 32.

Gildas was one of the sources used by William the Conqueror to compile a book of canons and ordinances to govern the clergy. 1570, p. 1302; 1576, p. 1114; 1583, p. 1139.

 
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Gratian

(fl. 406/07) [ODNB sub Constantine III]

British civilian proclaimed emperor by the Roman Garrison 31 December 406; deposed him four months later

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 147; 1576, p. 109; 1583, p. 108.

 
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Guithelinus

Legendary bishop of London C5

He sent to the king of Brittany for help in defending Britain. 1570, p. 148; 1576, p. 109; 1583, p. 108.

 
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Helena Augusta (St Helena)

(c. 248 - 328/9) [ODNB; J. W. Drijvers www.roman-emperors.org]

Concubine of Constantius Chlorus c. 270 - 89; mother of Constantine I; prominent at Constantine's court; journeyed to Palestine 327-28

Foxe records the legend, according to Henry of Huntingdon, that Helena was British and the daughter of King Cole. 1570, p. 109; 1576, p. 78; 1583, p. 77.

 
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Hengist

(d. 488?) [ODNB sub Kings of Kent]

Semi-legendary ruler of Kent C5; Germanic mercenary for Vortigern; rebelled

Hengist married his daughter Rowen to Vortigern and then betrayed him. 1570, p. 148; 1576, p. 109; 1583, p. 109.

Hengist was driven out of Britain by Vortimer but, at the urging of Rowen, Vortigern called him back. He returned with a large navy and, through trickery, defeated the Britons in battle. He was captured eventually and either beheaded or died in Kent. 1570, p. 152; 1576, p. 114; 1583, p. 113.

 
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Julius III

Pope (1550 - 1555)

Born Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte

Received a letter dated 30 November 1554 from King Philip of England announcing the restoration of Catholicism to England (1563, pp. 1011-12; 1570, p. 1650; 1576, pp. 1407-8; 1583, p. 1478).

Received a letter from Cardinal Pole, dated 30 November 1554, announcing the restoration of Catholicism to England (1563, pp. 1012-13 [in Latin, only in this edition]; pp. 1013-14; 1570, pp. 1650-51; 1576, p. 1408; 1583, pp. 1478-79).

Received a message from Parliament asking him to confirm the purchasers of monastic lands and chantry lands in their current ownership (1570, p. 1652; 1576, p. 1409; 1583, p. 4179 [recte 1479]).

Reconciled England to Rome and absolved the English (1563, pp. 1083-84; 1570, p. 1707; 1576, p. 1457;1583, p. 1531).

Issued a bull excommunicating anyone who retained monastic lands or Church property (1570, p. 1729;1576, p. 1477; 1583, pp. 1559-60).

Permitted homosexuality in the papal court (1563, p. 1117; 1570, p. 1730; 1576, p. 1477; 1583, p. 1560).

Proclaimed a jubilee, presided over the Council of Trent and sponsored the shrine of Our Lady ofLoretto (1563, p. 1117; 1570, p. 1730; 1576, p. 1477; 1583, p. 1560).

Foxe relates anecdotes concerning his gluttony (1563, pp. 1117-18; 1570, p. 1730; 1576, p. 1477; 1583,p. 1560).

Stephen Gardiner issued instructions for Julius's funeral in April 1555 (1563, p. 1118; 1570, p. 1730;1576, p. 1477; 1583, p. 1560).

A London woman was imprisoned for refusing to pray for Julius III at his funeral ceremonies (1563, p.1118; 1570, p. 1730; 1576, p. 1477; 1583, p. 1560).

 
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Lucius Septimius Severus

(145/6 - 211) [ODNB; M. L. Meckler www.roman-emperors.org]

Roman emperor (193 - 211); reformer and efficient administrator

Led imperial expedition into Britain to quell rebellions in 208; died at York

For the first ten years of his reign, Severus was favourable to the Christians, but then began to persecute them. 1570, p. 79; 1576, p. 54; 1583, p. 54.

Foxe says Severus built a great wall between England and Scotland and that he was killed under siege. 1570, p. 83; 1576, p. 57; 1583, p. 57.

 
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Magnus Maximus (Maximian)

(d. 388) [ODNB; W. E. Roberts www.roman-emperors.org]

Spaniard; general of the field army in Britain in 380; acclaimed emperor by the troops in 383

Defeated Gratian; recognised as augustus in 384; ruled Britain, Gaul, Spain and Africa; executed after he invaded Italy

He took troops out of Britain to fight in other countries. 1570, p. 153; 1576, p. 115; 1583, p. 114.

 
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Merlin (Myddin)

(supp. fl. C6) [ODNB]

Welsh poet and seer; historicity not proven

Foxe discounts the legend that Merlin brought the stones of Stonehenge from Ireland. 1570, p. 148; 1576, p. 109; 1583, p. 108.

 
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Octavius (Eudaf Hen)

Legendary king of the Britons during the reign of Constantine I

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 147; 1576, p. 109; 1583, p. 108.

 
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Rowen

Legendary daughter of Hengist C5 married to Vortigern [ODNB sub kings of Kent]

Recorded in C9 Welsh Historia Brittonum and by Geoffrey of Monmouth, History of the Kings of Britain, chapter 12

Rowen ordered the poisoning of Vortimer and urged Vortigern to send for Hengist. She then helped trick Vortigern into leading his men into a trap. 1570, pp. 148, 152; 1576, pp. 109, 114; 1583, pp. 109, 113.

 
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Ursula (St Ursula)

(fl. mid-C5) [ODNB]

Legendary virgin martyr with 11 virgin companions from Cologne; traditionally of British birth; the 11 virgins came to be expanded to 11,000

All 11,000 virgins, including Ursula, were in various ways destroyed. 1570, p. 148; 1576, p. 109; 1583, p. 108.

 
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Uther Pendragon

(supp. fl. late C5) [ODNB sub Arthur]

Breton king of sub-Roman Britain

He and Aurelius Ambrosius repeatedly drove the Anglo-Saxons out of Britain, but in the end were forced into Wales. He was said to have killed King Eormenric of Kent. 1570, p. 148; 1576, p. 110; 1583, p. 109.

Uther defeated and captured Kings Osca and Octa. They escaped and returned with reinforcements. Uther was too ill to fight, but he had himself taken on his bed into the camp, and his troops were victorious. Soon after, Uther died of poison. 1570, p. 153; 1576, p. 114; 1583, p. 113.

 
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Vortigern

(fl. C5) [ODNB]

Ruler in Britain; reputed to be responsible for inviting the Anglo-Saxons into Britain

Vortigern caused Constans to be murdered, then sent for aid to the Anglo-Saxons and married Rowen, the daughter of Hengist. He was betrayed by the Anglo-Saxons. 1570, p. 148; 1576, p. 109; 1583, p. 108.

Vortigern was justly deposed by the British nobility and replaced with Vortimer. After Vortimer's death, he regained the throne. Through the trickery of Hengist and Rowen, his men were defeated in battle. He was captured and ransomed for all the major cities in the land. He fled into Wales and was killed by Ambrosius Aurelianus. 1570, p. 152; 1576, p. 114; 1583, p. 113.

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Vortimer

C5 legendary son of Vortigern [ODNB sub Vortigern]; said to have fought for a time against the Anglo-Saxons

Vortimer replaced Vortigern after he had been desposed. Vortimer drove the Anglo-Saxons out, but was poisoned at the instigation of Rowen, daughter of Hengist and wife of Vortigern. 1570, pp. 147, 152; 1576, pp. 109, 114; 1583, pp. 108, 113.

 
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Amesbury

[Almisbury; Almsbury]

near Stonehenge, Wiltshire

OS grid ref: SU 155 415

 
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Gloucester
Gloucester
NGR: SO 830 187

A city and county of itself, locally in the hundred of Dudstone and Kings Barton, county of Gloucester. 34 miles north-north-east from Bristol. The city comprises the parishes of St. Aldate, St. John Baptist, St. Mary de Crypt, St. Mary de Grace, St. Nicholas, St. Owen and Holy Trinity; also parts of St. Catherine, St. Mary de Lode and St. Michael, all in the Archdeaconry and diocese of Gloucester, of which it is the seat. St. John Baptist, St. Mary de Crypt and St. Michael are discharged rectories; St. Mary de Lode and Holy Trinity are discharged vicarages; St. Aldate, St. Catherine, St. Mary de Grace and St. Nicholas are perpetual curacies

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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131 [108]

Kinges of Brittayne from Lucius, till the comming of the Saxons.

of Lucius, when the Barons and Nobles of the land could not accord wtin themselues vpon succession of the crowne: stept in the Romaines, & got the crowne into their owne hands, wherupon followed great misery and ruine to the realme: for sometimes the Idolatrous Romaines, sometimes the Britaynes raigned and ruled, as violence and victorie would serue, one king murderyng an other, till at length the Saxones came and depriued them bothe, as in processe hereafter followeth to be seene.

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In the meane season touching the story of king Lucius, here is to be reproued the fable of some wryters falsely faining of him, that he shoulde after hys Baptisme receaued, put of all his kingly honor, and forsake the land & be made a preacher: who after long trauaile in preaching and teaching, in Fraunce, in Germany, in Augusta, & in Sueuia, at length was made Doctor and Rector of the Churche of Cureak: where (as this fable sayeth) he suffered Martyrdome. But this phātasie of whomsoeuer it first did spring, disagreeeth from all our English stories: Who with a full consent do for the most part cōcord in this, that the said Lucius, after he had foūded many Churches, and geuen great riches and liberties to the same: deceased with great tranquillitie in his owne lande, and was buried at Glocester, MarginaliaThe decease of King Lucius. Ex Florilego. the 14. yeare after his Baptisme, as the booke of Flores Historiarum, doeth counte, which was the yeare of our Lorde (as he sayeth) 201. and reckeneth his conuersion to be. An. 87. In some I finde hys decease to be the fourth, & in some the tenth yeere after his Baptisme, and holde that he raigned all the space of lxxvij. yeares, and thus much concerning king Lucius.

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Now to proceede in order of the storie, 

Commentary  *  Close

This is the first in a series of tables running through the early books of Foxe's martyrology from the 1570 edition onwards, laying out the English regnal succession. Here Foxe provides that for the early British kingship. Foxe constructed it independently, and from a number of sources. It is a good example of his collating and critical skills. He certainly used Ranulph Higden's Polychronicon (J. R. Lumby, ed. Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden monachi Cestrensis: together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century [London: Rolls Series, 1879], book 4, ch.19-book 5, ch. 4) as well as Bede book 1. Geoffrey of Monmouth (ch. 79) might have been drawn on indirectly (through John Bale's Catalogus or the English Votaries, or even from Fabian's Chronicles (R. Fabyan, The Chronicle of Fabian [London, 1559], preface: table 3). He would almost certainly have consulted one of the editions of the sixteenth-century Breviat chronicles, with their lists of British King, and may even have worked with John Stow whilst he was preparing his A Summary of English Chronicles (London, 1565), which furnishes a similar genealogy, albeit Foxe here provides some telling additional details. Information may have also been taken from Henry Huntingdon's Chronicle (T. Arnold, ed. Henry of Huntingdon. Henrici Huntendunensis Historia Anglorum, the History of the English, by Henry, Archdeacon of Huntingdon, from B. C. 55 to A. D. 1154 [London: Rolls Series, 1879], book 8 ch. 8, pp. 575-77). The evidence suggests that Foxe prepared this material independently, and made up his own mind on the various issues relating to the sensitive issues of chronology which the table contains.

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briefly to touch the state of the foresaid land of Britayne, betwene the time of king Lucius, and the entring of the Saxones, who were the kings thereof: and in what order they succeeded, or rather inuaded one after an other, this Catalogue heere vnder written will specifie.

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MarginaliaEx Beda Polycro, monumentensi.Kinges of Britaine from the time of Lucius till the cōming of the Saxons.Lucius,a Britayne.
Seuerus,a Romaine.
Bassianus,a Romaine by the father.
Cerausius,a Britayne.
Alectus,a Romaine.
Asclepiodotus,a Britayne.
Coilus,a Britayne.
Constantius,a Romaine.
Constantinus,a Britayne by the Mother, named Helena, who being þe daughter of Coel, & maryed to Constantius, father of Cōstantinus, is said to make the walles first of London, also of Colchester, muche about the yere of the Lorde, 305. and borne in Britayne.
Octauius,a Gewissian.
Maximinianus,a Romaine borne, but hys mother a Britaine.
Gratianus,a Romaine.
MarginaliaAn. D. 390 Secund fab. bed.Constantinus,a Britayne by the mother.
MarginaliaAn 433. fab.Constans,a Romaine by the father.
MarginaliaAn. 433.Votigerus,a Gewissian or Bri.
MarginaliaAn. 448.Vortimerus,
Brit.
MarginaliaAn. 464.Vortigernus.againe.

By this table may appere a lamentable face of a common wealth so miserably rent and diuided into two sortes of people, differing not so much in coūtrey, as in religion. For when the Romaines raigned: so were they gouerned by the Infidels. When the Britaynes ruled, so they were gouerned by Christians. Thus what quietnesse was or could be in the Church, in so vnquiet and doubtful dayes, it may easely be considered.

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Albeit, notwithstanding al these foresayd Heathen rulers of the Romaines, 

Commentary  *  Close

Foxe's account of the Roman government of Constantine in Britain and the eventual retreat of Rome from the British Isles made the important point, from Foxe's point of view, that it was religious persecution, rather than Christianity, which had been imported from Rome. He could have taken his material from a number of sources. He seems to have used Fabian's Chronicle as his base-text (R. Fabyan, The Chronicle of Fabian [London, 1559], book 5, chs 68-75) for most of the passage, although the brief reference to the rise of persecution in the British Isles under Diocletian seems most closely to correspond to Henry Huntingdon's Chronicle (T. Arnold, ed. Henry of Huntingdon. Henrici Huntendunensis Historia Anglorum, the History of the English, by Henry, Archdeacon of Huntingdon, from B. C. 55 to A. D. 1154 [London: Rolls Series, 1879], book 1, ch. 36). The source for the two Latin citations from Gildas at the end of the passage represents something of a puzzle. Neither of them appear in Fabian's Chronicle. The first one could have come from one of a number of sources, though the Joscelyn edition of Gildas, published in 1567, includes it in a version which accords most nearly to the form it appears in Foxe's text. The second quotation does not appear, however, in the Joscelyn edition - indeed it does not appear in Gildas at all, or in any of the sources Foxe habitually used. Its appearance here is something of a mystery.

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which here gouerned, yet (God be praised) we read of no persecution, during all these x. persecutiōs aboue mentioned, that touched the christian Britaynes, before the last persecution onely of Dioclesian, MarginaliaThe Brittaynes neuer touched with any persecution before the time of Dioclesian. and Maximianus Herculius, whych here then exercised much crueltie. Thys persecution, as it was the last among the Romane Christians, so it was the first of many & diuers that followed after in thys Churche and Realme of England: wherof we will here after intreate (Christ willing) as order of the matter shall leade vs. In the meane tyme this rage of Dioclesian as it was vniuersally through all the churches in the world fierce & vehement: so in this realme of Britayne also it was so sore, that as all our English Chronicles do testifie, and recorde, all Christianitie almost in the whole land was destroied: Churches were subuerted, all bookes of the Scripture burned, many of the fayth-full both men and women were slaine. Among whom the first and chiefe was Albanus, then Iulius, Aaron, and Amphibalus. Of whome sufficiently hath bene sayde before. What were the other, or howe many they were that suffered beside, stories make no rehearsall. And thus much thereof.

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MarginaliaConstant. the great, borne and bred in Brittayne.Nowe as concerning the gouernement of these aboue named kinges of Britayne, although I haue little or nothing to note, which greatly appertaineth to the matter of this Ecclesiasticall hystorie: yet this is not to be past ouer: first how in the order of these kings commeth Constantinus the great & worthy Emperor, not onely a Britayne borne by hys mother Helina being kyng Coilus daughter, but also by the helpe of the Britaynes army (vnder the power of God) whych the sayde Constantine tooke wyth hym out of Britain to Rome: MarginaliaThe cause of how this Realme of Brittaine was first weakened. obtained with great victory, peace and tranquilitie to the whole vniuersall Church of Christ: hauing iij. legions wt him out of this realme, of chosen & able soldiors. Wherby the strēgth of the lād was not a litle impaired & indangered, as afterward in this story foloweth.

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After him likewise Maximian following his steppes, tooke wyth him also (as stories recorde) all the power and strength whych was left: and whatsoeuer he could make, of able and fighting men, to subdue Fraunce: besides the garrisons whych he had out wyth him before, sending for mo to the number of C.M. souldiors at once, to be sent to hym out of Britayne into Fraunce. MarginaliaBrittayne spoyled of souldiours. At whych time also Conanus his partener being then in Fraunce, sent ouer for virgins from Britaine to the number of xi.M. who with Vrsula, the Prince Dionets daughter being shypped ouer, many perished in the sea: MarginaliaVrsula, with a xi. thousand virgins. some were taken of the infidels, marching vppon the borders, wyth whome because they wold not be polluted, all were destroyed, being miserably dispersed (some one way, some an other) so þt none escaped.

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Thus poore Britayne being left naked and destitute on euery side, as a maimed body wtout myght or strength: was left open to hys enemyes, not able to succour it selfe, without helpe of forreine friendes. To whome they were then constrained to flie, especially to the Romains to whō the Britaynes sent this worde or message. Ætio ter Consuli gemitus Britannorum. Repellunt nos Barbari ad mare. Repellit nos mare ad Barbaros. Hinc oriuntur duo funerum genera, quia aut iugulamur, aut submergimur. But the Romains then began to forsake them, whereby they were in nearer danger to be oppressed by Gwanus and Melga, had not Gwetelinus the Archbyshop of London MarginaliaGuetelinus Archb. of London. Ex Chronico. Monumetensi. made ouer to lesser Britayne, and obtayning theyr helpe, had brought Constantinus the kings brother, to rescue his countrey against the infidels. Thys Constantinus was brother to Aldroenus king of litle Britayn, and father to Constans, Aurelius Ambrosius, & Vter, who after raigned kings in Britayne. MarginaliaConstantinus. Constans. Aurelius, Ambrosius. Vter Pendragon.Thus by the meanes of the good Archbyshop and Constantinus, the state of the Religion and Realme of Britayne was in some meane quiet & safetye, during the time of the sayd Constantine and of the good Archbishop. But as the Realme of Britayne almost from the beginning was neuer without ciuill warre, at length came wicked Vortigerne, who cruelly causing Constans his Prince to be murdred, ambitiously inuaded the crowne: who then fearing the other two brethren of Constans, whych were Aurelius & Vter, being then in litle Britayne: did send ouer for the aide of the Saxons being then infidels, MarginaliaThe Saxons sent for to Brittayne. Kyng Constans slayne by Vortigerne. Hengist and Horsus Captaynes of the Saxons. and not onely that: but also maried with an infidell, the daughter of Hengist called Rowen. Whereupon the sayde Vortigerne not long after, by the sayd Hengist and the Saxones was with like trayterie dispossessed of his kingdome, & the people of Britayne driuen out of their countrey, after that the Saxons had slaine of their chiefe Nobles & Barons at one meeting, ioyning together subtiltie with crueltie, to the number of CC.lxxi. some stories say CCCC.lx. MarginaliaA wicked murther of the Saxons. This wicked acte of the Saxones, was done at Almisbury, or at a place called Stonehenge, by the monument of which stones there hanging, it seemeth that the noble Britaynes there were buried.

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This fabulous Storie of the Welshemen, of brynging these stones from Ireland by Merlyn I passe ouer. Some storyes record that they were slaine being bid to a banket, other do say that it was done at a talke or assembly, where the Saxons came with priuie kniues contrary to promise made, with the which kniues they geuing a priuie watchword, in their Saxones speache, neme your sexes) slewe the Britaynes vnarmed: and thus farre concerning the historie of the Britaynes. As this great plague could not come to the Britaynes without Gods permissiō, so Gildas sheweth in hys Chronicle, the cause thereof, wryting thus: Quòd Britones propter auaritiam & rapinā Principum, propter iniquitatem & iniustitiam Iudicum, propter desidiam prædicationis Episcoporum, propter luxuriam & malos mores populi, patriam perdidisse. &c.

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¶ A descrip-
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