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Edmund Bonner

(d. 1569) [ODNB]

Archdeacon of Leicester 1535; bishop of Hereford 1538; bishop of London (1540 - 49, 1553 - 59)

Henry VIII sent injunctions to Bonner regarding the abolishing of images in churches. 1563, pp. 685-86.

Edmund Bonner wrote a preface to Stephen Gardiner's De vera obedientia, in which he expressed agreement with Gardiner's favouring of King Henry's marriage to Anne Boleyn and his position as head of the church. 1570, p. 1206; 1576, p. 1032; 1583, pp. 1059-60.

Stephen Gardiner was a resident ambassador to France in 1538, when Edmund Bonner, through the efforts of Thomas Cromwell, was brought in to replace him. There were great disagreements between the two, since Bonner at the time was in favour of reform. Bonner owed his main preferments to Cromwell. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1088.

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Bonner, when archdeacon of Leicester and ambassador in France, accused Gardiner of papistry. 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, p. 1082.

Bonner sent a declaration to Thomas Cromwell of Stephen Gardiner's evil behaviour. 1570, pp. 1241-44; 1576, pp. 1063-66; 1583, pp. 1090-92.

King Henry wrote to Bonner in France, asking him to assist those printing English bibles in Paris. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1191.

Cromwell was instrumental in getting Edmund Bonner's nomination to the bishopric of London. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1191.

Although Bonner performed his duties well as far as Henry VIII was concerned, he displeased the king of France, who asked for him to be recalled. Henry recalled him, giving him the bishopric of London, and sent Sir John Wallop to replace him. 1570, p. 1245; 1576, p. 1066; 1583, p. 1093.

Henry VIII wrote to Bonner commanding that excess holy days be abolished. 1563, p. 682; 1570, p. 1441; 1576, p. 1229; 1583, p. 1259.

After Anne Askew had been examined by the quest and the mayor of London, she was imprisoned in the Counter and then examined by Bonner. 1563, p. 670; 1570, p. 1414; 1576, p. 1205; 1583, p. 1235.

Bonner witnessed Anne Askew's confession. 1563, p. 673; 1570, p. 1416; 1576, p. 1207; 1583, p. 1237.

Richard Rich and Edmund Bonner attempted to persuade Anne Askew to change her views after her condemnation. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1418; 1576, p. 1209; 1583, p. 1238.

Edward Seymour stood against the bishops of Chichester, Norwich, Lincoln, London and others at the consultation at Windsor in the first year of Edward VI's reign. 1570, p. 1551; 1576, p. 1322; 1583, p. 1372.

Bonner was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Bonner brought Richard Mekins to court, charged with heresy. Although the witnesses against him gave contradictory evidence, the jury were told to allow them. The jury brought an indictment and Mekins was executed. 1563, p. 613; 1570, p. 1376; 1576, p. 1174; 1583, p. 1202.

Edward VI's commissioners attempted to administer an oath to Bishop Bonner and the clergy of St Paul's and gave Bonner a list of injunctions. He made a protestation, which he subsequently repented and recanted. He was pardoned, but committed to the Fleet for a short period. 1570, pp. 1501-02; 1576, pp. 1272-73; 1583, pp. 1309-10.

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Edward VI's councillors and Edward Seymour wrote to Thomas Cranmer, directing that candles no longer be carried on Candlemas, nor palms on Palm Sunday, nor should ashes be used on Ash Wednesday. Cranmer immediately wrote to the other bishops, including Bonner, to inform them of the new directive. Bonner consented to the changes and wrote to Thomas Thirlby to inform him of them. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1297.

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The council wrote further to Cranmer ordering the abolishing of images in all churches in the archdiocese. He wrote to Edmund Bonner, directing him to carry out the order in London, and Bonner in turn wrote to Thomas Thirlby. 1570, p. 1490; 1576, p. 1263; 1583, p. 1300.

Bonner continued to hold private masses in St Paul's, and the king's council ordered these to be stopped. Bonner then wrote to the dean and chapter to that effect. 1563, pp. 692-93; 1570, p. 1492; 1576, p. 1265; 1583, p. 1302.

Another letter was sent by the king and council to Bonner, rebuking him and urging him to use the Book of Common Prayer. Bonner again wrote to the dean and chapter. 1563, pp. 693-94; 1570, p. 1494; 1576, p. 1266; 1583, p. 1303.

Hearing of the death of Thomas Seymour and of the rebellions in the kingdom, Bonner began to slacken his pastoral diligence. 1570, p. 1502; 1576, p. 1273; 1583, p. 13103.

Having knowledge of rebellions stirring in the realm and of slackness in religious reform in the city of London, Edward VI called Edmund Bonner to come before his council. The council ordered him to preach a sermon at Paul's Cross in three weeks' time and provided him with the articles upon which he was to preach. 1563, p. 695; 1570, p. 1495; 1576, p. 1267; 1583, p. 1304.

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John Hooper and William Latymer, in a letter to the king, denounced Bonner for his sermon at St Paul's, which went contrary to the instructions given by the king's commissioners. 1563, pp. 696-97; 1570, p. 1503; 1576, p. 1274; 1583, p. 1311.

Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, Nicholas Ridley, bishop of Rochester, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May, dean of St Paul's, were commissioned to examine Edmund Bonner. 1563, p. 697; 1570, p. 1504; 1576, p. 1275; 1583, p. 1312.

Bonner was summoned to appear before the commissioners. He behaved haughtily, ridiculing his accusers and the commissioners, and spoke in favour of the mass. He appeared first on 10 September 1549 before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre and William May. Sir Thomas Smith was absent. 1563, pp. 698-99; 1570, pp. 1504-06; 1576, pp. 1275-77; 1583, pp. 1312-14.

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Bonner appeared for the second time on 13 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May and was further examined. 1563, pp. 699-704; 1570, pp. 1506-08; 1576, pp. 1277-79; 1583, pp. 1314-17.

Bonner appeared for the third time on 16 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir Thomas Smith and William May to answer the articles put to him at the previous session. John Hooper and William Latymer also appeared in order to purge themselves against the slanders of Bonner. 1563, pp. 704-709; 1570, pp. 1508-11; 1576, pp. 1279-80; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

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The commissioners, finding Bonner's answers to the articles put to him to be unsatisfactory, received witnesses against him: John Cheke, Henry Markham, John Joseph, John Douglas and Richard Chambers. Bonner submitted a set of questions the witnesses were to answer. 1563, p. 707; 1570, p. 1510; 1576, p. 1280; 1583, p. 1320.

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Bonner appeared before the commissioners for the fourth time on 18 September, at which session new articles were drawn up and new witnesses received: Sir John Mason, Sir Thomas Chaloner, William Cecil, Armygell Wade and William Hunnings. 1563, pp. 704-713; 1570, pp. 1508-13; 1576, pp. 1279-82; 1583, pp. 1317-23.

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On the following day, 19 September, Bonner's registrar appeared to report that Bonner was too ill to attend the session. 1563, p. 713; 1570, p. 1513; 1576, p. 1282; 1583, p. 1323.

Bonner appeared for the fifth time before the commissioners on 20 September. During an interval, he instructed Gilbert Bourne, his chaplain, Robert Warnington, his commissary, and Robert Johnson, his registrar, to tell the mayor and aldermen of London to avoid reformed preachers. Bonner made his first appellation to the king. As a result of his behaviour during the proceedings, he was committed to the Marshalsea. 1563, pp. 713-717; 1570, pp. 1513-16; 1576, pp. 1282-85; 1583, pp. 1324-26.

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Bonner appeared for the sixth time before the commissioners on 23 September, when he presented a general recusation against all the commissioners and a second appellation to the king. A letter was read from Bonner to the mayor of London, Henry Amcottes, and aldermen. 1563, pp. 717-18; 1570, p. 1516; 1576, p. 1285; 1583, pp. 1326-27.

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Bonner' seventh appearance before the commissioners took place on 1 October. He presented a declaration, an appellation and a supplication to the king. The commissioners pronounced their sentence definitive. 1563, pp. 718-26; 1570, pp. 1516-19; 1576, pp. 1285-88; 1583, pp. 1327-30.

Bonner was imprisoned in the Marshalsea and deprived of his bishopric under Edward VI and Edward Seymour. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1296.

Bonner remained in prison until the death of Edward VI. 1563, pp. 717-18; 1570, p. 1518; 1576, p. 1287; 1583, p. 1329.

 
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Edward Montague

(1480s - 1557) [ODNB]

JP Northamptonshire 1523; king's sergeant 1537

Chief justuce of the King's Bench 1539; chief justice of the Common Pleas (1545 - 53)

Edward Montague was a signatory to a letter from the council to Edmund Bonner, instructing that he cease to allow private masses in St Paul's. 1563, pp. 692-93; 1570, p. 1493; 1576, p. 1265; 1583, p. 1302.

Edward Montague was one of the signatories to the proclamation against Edward Seymour calling for his removal. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1318; 1583, p. 1368.

After Edmund Bonner was sentenced to prison and deprived of his bishopric, the king appointed Lord Rich, Henry marquess of Dorset, Thomas Goodrich, Lord Wentworth, Sir Anthony Wingfield, Sir William Herbert, Nicholas Wotton, Edward Montague, Sir John Baker, Judge Hales, John Gosnold, John Oliver and Griffith Leyson to examine his documents. They confirmed the sentence against him. 1563, p. 725; 1570, p. 1519; 1576, pp. 1287-88; 1583, p. 1330.

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Edward Seymour

(c. 1500 - 1552) [ODNB]

Soldier; viscount Beauchamp of Hache 1536; earl of Hertford 1537

Lord high admiral 1542; lord great chamberlain 1543

Duke of Somerset 1547; lord protector 1547; lord treasurer 1547; earl marshal 1547; beheaded

Because Edward VI was only young when he came to the throne, his uncle Edward Seymour was assigned as overseer and protector of both the king and the commonwealth. He abolished the Six Articles and brought into the country learned reformers. He replaced some of the unlearned clergy with preachers. 1563, p. 684; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1259; 1583, p. 1296.

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Edward Seymour stood against the bishops of Chichester, Norwich, Lincoln, London and others at the consultation at Windsor in the first year of Edward VI's reign. 1570, p. 1551; 1576, p. 1322; 1583, p. 1372.

Seymour granted a pardon to Thomas Dobbe, but Dobbe died in prison before it could reach him. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1297.

He was a signatory to a letter from the king and privy council to Nicholas Ridley, directing him to remove and destroy all altars within the churches of his diocese and install communion tables. 1563, p. 727; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1288; 1583, p. 1331.

Seymour wrote a reply to a letter of Stephen Gardiner objecting to the destruction of images in Portsmouth. 1563, p. 730-31; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1298; 1583, p. 1331.

Seymour was in regular correspondence with Stephen Gardiner while he was imprisoned in the Fleet. 1563, pp. 730-54; 1570, pp. 1519-25; 1576, pp. 1298-1300; 1583, pp. 1331-50.

Edward Seymour, John Russell, John Dudley and Sir William Petre visited Stephen Gardiner in the Tower at various times to attempt to get him to accept the king's reforms. 1563, p. 766; 1570, p. 1532; 1576, p. 1306; 1583, p. 1356.

After the victorious return of John Dudley, earl of Warwick, from Norfolk, he fell into dispute with Edward Seymour. He and other dissatisfied nobles met together to plan to remove the king from the Lord Protector. John Russell replied, hoping for a reconciliation between the Lord Protector and his adversaries. 1570, pp. 1545-46; 1576, pp. 1317-18; 1583, pp. 1367-68.

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Edward Seymour wrote to John Russell, describing the conspiracy against him and asking him to bring forces to Windsor. 1570, pp. 1545-46; 1576, p. 1317; 1583, p. 1367.

The king sent a letter to the lord mayor of London, Henry Amcottes; the mayor-elect, Sir Rowland Hill; the aldermen and common council, directing that 1000 troops be mustered to defend the Lord Protector. The lords opposing the Lord Protector sent a letter on the same day directing the mayor and council not to obey any instructions coming from him. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1319; 1583, p. 1369.

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The lords opposed to the Lord Protector sent Sir Philip Hoby to put their case to the king. As a result, the Lord Protector was imprisoned in Windsor Castle and then taken to the Tower. Shortly after, he was released. 1570, pp. 1548-49; 1576, p. 1320; 1583, p. 1370.

Seymour was imprisoned again in 1551 and charged with treason and felony. He was acquitted of treason, but condemned for felony, intending the death of John Dudley, duke of Northumberland, and others. On 22 January 1552 he was taken to Tower Hill and beheaded. 1570, pp. 1549-50; 1576, p. 1321; 1583, p. 1371.

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Foxe compares the story of Edward Seymour with that of Humphrey of Lancaster, dealing with his enemy Bishop Beaufort. 1563, pp. 882-84; 1570, p. 1551; 1576, p. 1322; 1583, p. 1372.

Edward Seymour is given as an example of one wrongly accused and judged. 1570, p. 1360; 1576, p. 1161; 1583, p. 1189.

 
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Francis Talbot

(1500 - 1560) [ODNB]

5th earl of Shrewsbury (1538 - 60)

b. Sheffield Castle; privy councillor (1549 - death; lord president of the council in the north (1549 - death)

Francis Talbot was a signatory to a letter from the council to Edmund Bonner, instructing that he cease to allow private masses in St Paul's. 1563, pp. 692-93; 1570, p. 1493; 1576, p. 1265; 1583, p. 1302.

He was one of the signatories to the proclamation against Edward Seymour calling for his removal. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1318; 1583, p. 1368.

 
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Richard Rich

(1496/7 - 1567) [ODNB; Bindoff]

Solicitor-general (1533 - 36); JP Essex, Hertfordshire (1528 - death); privy councillor (1540 - 58); MP Colchester 1529, MP Essex 1536, 1539, 1542, 1545; speaker of the House of Commons 1536

Lord chancellor (1547 - 51); 1st Baron Rich 1547

Richard Rich and Edmund Bonner attempted to persuade Anne Askew to change her views after her condemnation. Rich then sent her to the Tower. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1418; 1576, p. 1209; 1583, p. 1238.

Rich and Sir John Baker went to Anne Askew in the Tower and tried to get her to incriminate others. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1418; 1576, p. 1209; 1583, p. 1238.

Sir Anthony Knyvet had his jailer rack Anne Askew. When Knyvet refused to have the racking continued, Richard Rich and Thomas Wriothesley racked her themselves. She refused to give any information, but was released by Knyvet. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1418; 1576, p. 1209; 1583, p. 1239.

Richard Rich was a signatory to a letter from the council to the bishops, instructing them to administer communion in two kinds. 1570, p. 1491; 1576, p. 1264; 1583, p. 1301.

He was a signatory to a letter from the council to Edmund Bonner, instructing that he cease to allow private masses in St Paul's. 1563, pp. 692-93; 1570, p. 1493; 1576, p. 1265; 1583, p. 1302.

Lord Rich spoke to the assembled justices of the peace, urging them to work assiduously to keep order in the realm and especially to further the king's religious reforms. 1570, p. 1493; 1576, p. 1265; 1583, p. 1302.

Lord Rich was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, pp. 821-22.

Lord Rich was one of the signatories to the proclamation against Edward Seymour calling for his removal. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1318; 1583, p. 1368.

After Edmund Bonner was sentenced to prison and deprived of his bishopric, the king appointed Lord Rich, Henry marquess of Dorset, Thomas Goodrich, Lord Wentworth, Sir Anthony Wingfield, Sir William Herbert, Nicholas Wotton, Edward Montague, Sir John Baker, Judge Hales, John Gosnold, John Oliver and Griffith Leyson to examine his documents. They confirmed the sentence against him. 1563, p. 725; 1570, p. 1519; 1576, pp. 1287-88; 1583, p. 1330.

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The king sent Richard Lord Rich, Sir Anthony Wingfield and Sir William Petre to his sister, Lady Mary, to ensure she and her household complied with the new laws on religion. 1576, pp. 1296-97; 1583, pp. 1338-39.

 
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William Cecil

(1520 - 1598) [ODNB]

1st Baron Burghley. Royal minister; secretary of state (1558 - 71); privy councillor

Stephen Gardiner was released out of the Fleet by a general pardon, but was placed under house arrest for failure to conform. Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Smith and William Cecil were sent to him. He was called before the council. 1563, p. 755; 1570, pp. 1525-26; 1576, p. 1301; 1583, p. 1351.

Cecil delivered to Gardiner the instructions for his sermon. 1563, p. 757; 1570, p. 1527; 1576, p. 1302; 1583, p. 1352.

Cecil was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, pp. 805-6

William Cecil was a signatory to a letter from the council to Edmund Bonner, instructing that he cease to allow private masses in St Paul's. 1563, pp. 692-93; 1570, p. 1493; 1576, p. 1265; 1583, p. 1302.

Bonner appeared before the king's commissioners for the fourth time on 18 September, at which session new articles were drawn up and new witnesses received: Sir John Mason, Sir Thomas Chaloner, William Cecil, Armagil Wade and William Hunnings. 1563, pp. 704-710; 1570, pp. 1508-12; 1576, pp. 1279-81; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

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William May

(c. 1505 - 1560) [ODNB]

BCL 1526 Cambridge; DCL 1531; president of Queens' College (c. 1540 - 1554, 1559 - death)

Dean of St Paul's (1546 - 54, 1559 - 60); archbishop-elect of York 1560

William May was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

John Marbeck's fourth examination was conducted by John Capon, John Skip, Thomas Goodrich, Robert Oking and William May. 1570, pp. 1393-94; 1576, pp. 1188-89; 1583, pp. 1216-17.

Bonner continued to hold private masses in St Paul's, and the king's council ordered these to be stopped. Bonner then wrote to the dean and chapter to that effect. 1563, p. 693; 1570, pp. 1492-93; 1576, p. 1265; 1583, p. 1302.

Another letter was sent by the king and council to Bonner, rebuking him and urging him to use the Book of Common Prayer. Bonner again wrote to the dean and chapter. 1563, pp. 693-94; 1570, p. 1494; 1576, p. 1266; 1583, p. 1303.

Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Sir John Cheke, William May and Thomas Wendy, king's visitors, attended the disputation at Cambridge in 1549. 1570, p. 1555; 1576, p. 1326; 1583, p. 1376.

Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, Nicholas Ridley, bishop of Rochester, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May, dean of St Paul's, were commissioned to examine Edmund Bonner. 1563, p. 697; 1570, p. 1504; 1576, p. 1275; 1583, p. 1312.

Bonner was summoned to appear before the commissioners. He behaved haughtily, ridiculing his accusers and the commissioners, and spoke in favour of the mass. He appeared first on 10 September 1549 before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre and William May. Sir Thomas Smith was absent. 1563, pp. 698-99; 1570, pp. 1504-06; 1576, pp. 1275-77; 1583, pp. 1312-14.

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Bonner appeared for the second time on 13 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May and was further examined. 1563, pp. 699-704; 1570, pp. 1506-08; 1576, pp. 1277-79; 1583, pp. 1314-17.

Bonner appeared for the third time on 16 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir Thomas Smith and William May to answer the articles put to him at the previous session. John Hooper and William Latymer also appeared in order to purge themselves against the slanders of Bonner. 1563, pp. 704-709; 1570, pp. 1508-11; 1576, pp. 1279-80; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

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Bonner appeared before the commissioners for the fourth time on 18 September, at which session new articles were drawn up and new witnesses received. 1563, pp. 704-710; 1570, pp. 1508-12; 1576, pp. 1279-81; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

Bonner appeared for the fifth time before the commissioners on 20 September. During an interval, he instructed Gilbert Bourne, his chaplain, Robert Warnington, his commissary, and Robert Johnson, his registrar, to tell the mayor and aldermen of London to avoid reformed preachers. Bonner made his first appellation to the king. As a result of his behaviour during the proceedings, he was committed to the Marshalsea. 1563, pp. 713-717; 1570, pp. 1513-16; 1576, pp. 1282-85; 1583, pp. 1324-26.

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Bonner appeared for the sixth time before the commissioners on 23 September, when he presented a general recusation against all the commissioners and a second appellation to the king. A letter was read from Bonner to the mayor of London, Henry Amcottes, and aldermen. 1563, pp. 717-18; 1570, p. 1516; 1576, p. 1285; 1583, pp. 1326-27.

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William Paulet

(1474/5? - 1572) [ODNB; Bindoff]

Lord St John 1539; earl of Wiltshire 1550; marquess of Winchester 1551

Sheriff of Hampshire 1511, 1518, 1522; JP Hampshire (1514 - death), Wiltshire (1523 - death), Somerset (1531 - death), all counties (1547 - death); lord great master (1545 - 50); privy councillor 1542; lord president of the council (1545 - 50); lord treasurer (1550 - death)

William Paulet sent a letter to Princess Mary via Lord Hussey, her chamberlain, informing her she was to move her household and omitting her title. 1570, p. 1565; 1576, p. 1335; 1583, p. 1395.

Paulet was one of those appointed commissioner for Calais in 1540. 1563, p. 664; 1570, p. 1404; 1576, p. 1197; 1583, p. 1226.

William Paulet was a signatory to a letter to the king's commissioners relating Bishop Bonner's recantation of his protestation. 1570, p. 1502; 1576, p. 1273; 1583, p. 1310.

William Paulet was a signatory to a letter from the privy council to the bishops, instructing them to administer communion in two kinds. 1570, p. 1491; 1576, p. 1264; 1583, p. 1301.

He was a signatory to a letter from the council to Edmund Bonner, instructing that he cease to allow private masses in St Paul's. 1563, pp. 692-93; 1570, p. 1493; 1576, p. 1265; 1583, p. 1302.

He was a signatory to a letter from the council to Nicholas Ridley, directing him to remove and destroy all altars within the churches of his diocese and install communion tables. 1563, p. 727; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1288; 1583, p. 1331.

Paulet was one of the signatories to the proclamation against Edward Seymour calling for his removal. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1318; 1583, p. 1368.

He was one of the signatories to the letter to the lord mayor and common council of London from the lords opposing Edward Seymour. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1319; 1583, p. 1369.

After Gardiner had been in the Tower for nearly a year, Sir William Paulet and Sir William Petre visited and urged him to admit his fault. Paulet, Petre, the earl of Warwick and Sir William Herbert delivered the king's letters to him. 1563, pp. 761-62; 1570, pp. 1529-30; 1576, p. 1304; 1583, p. 1354.

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Paulet was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, p. 813

 
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Richmond on Thames (Shene; Sheen)

Surrey

OS grid ref: TQ 185 745

1326 [1302]

K. Edward 6. Mariage of Priestes made lawfull.

minions thereof, accordyng to the tenure and effect of the sayd Statute.

MarginaliaLawes and constitutiōs against Priests mariage debarred.Moreouer, in the same Session of the sayd Parliamēt, it was enacted and cstablished by the authoritie thereof: that for as much as great, horrible, and not to be rehearsed inconueniences had from tyme to tyme risen amongst the priests, ministers, and other officers of the clergy through their compelled chastitie, and by such lawes as prohibited them the godly and lawfull vse of mariage: that therefore all and euery law and lawes positiue, canons, constitutions and ordinances theretofore made by the authoritie of man onely, which did prohibite or forbid mariage to any ecclesiasticall or spirituall person or persones, of what estate, condition or degree so euer they were, or by what name or names they were called, which by godes law may lawfully marry, in all and euery article, braunche and sentence concernyng onely the prohibition for the mariage of the persons aforesayd, should be vtterly voyd and of none effect 

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Despite support from the House of Commons and Lower House of Convocation, the House of Lords had succeeded until now in holding up legislation that abrogated the requirement that clerics remain celibate. MacCulloch, Boy King, p. 77.

. And that all maner of forfaitures, paynes, penalties crimes or actions, which were in the sayd lawes conteyned, and of the same dyd follow, concernyng the prohibition for the mariage of the sayd Ecclesiastical persons, shuld be thencefoorth also clearely and vtterly voyde, frustrate, and of none effect. MarginaliaMariage of Priestes set freeBy occasion whereof, it was thenceafter ryght lawfull for any Ecclesiasticall person, not hauyng the gift of chastitie, most godly to liue in the pure and holy estate of matrimony, according to the lawes & worde of God.

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But if the first Iniunctions, statutes, and decrees of the Prince were of many but slenderly regarded, with muche lesse good affection were these (especially the booke of common praier) of diuers stow receiued: yea, and that of some of them, which had alwayes before in outward shew willingly allowed the former doings, as appereth most plainly (amongst others) by Boner the B. of London. MarginaliaEdmund Boner B. of London. Who although by his former letters & other mandates, he seemed hitherto to fauour all the kings proceedings: yet did he at that present (notwithstanding both the first statute for the stablishing of the Communion, and the abolishyng of all priuate masses, and also this Statute of the ratifieng and confirming of the booke of Common prayer) still suffer sūdry idolatrous priuate masses of peculiar names (as the Apostles masse, the Lady masse and such lyke) to be dailye solemnly sung within certaine perticular chappels of hys cathedral church of Paules, cloking them with the names of the apostles communion, and our Ladies communion, not once findyng any fault therewith, vntil such tyme as the Lordes of the Counsaile hauyng intelligence thereof, were fayne by their letters to commaund hym to looke better thereunto. And then beyng therewith somewhat pricked forwards (perhaps by feare) he was content to direct hys letters vnto the Deane and Chapter of his cathedrall church of Paules, thereby requesting them forthwith to take such order therein, as the tenure of the Counsailes sayd letters therwithall sent vnto them, did import. Which both two letters I haue, for the more credite, here followyng inserted.

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¶ A Letter directed from the Kings Counsaile, to Edmund Boner B. of London, for abrogating of priuate Masses, namely, the Apostles Masse, within the church of S. Paule, vsed vnder the name of the Apostles Communion.

MarginaliaAn other letter to Boner for abrogating priuate Masses.AFter harty commendation: Hauing very credible notice that within that your cathedral church, there be as yet the Apostles masse, and our Ladies masse, and other masses of such peculiar name, vnder the defence & nomination of our Ladies communion, and the Apostles communion, MarginaliaThe Apostles Masse put downe in Paules. vsed in priuate chappels and other remote places of the same, and not in the Chauucell, contrary vnto the kings maiesties proceedings, the same beyng for the misuse, displeasing to God, for the place of Paules, in example not tollerable, for the fondnes of the name, a scorne to the reuerence of the communion of the Lords body and bloud: we for the augmentation of gods glory and honour and the consonance of his maiesties lawes, and the auoyding of murmure, haue thought good to will & command you that from henceforth no such masses in this manner be in your church any longer vsed, but that the holy blessed communion according to the acte of Parliament, be ministred at the high aultar of the church, and in no other places of the same, & only at such tyme as your high masses were wont to be vsed, except some number of people desire for their necessary businesse to haue a communion in the mornyng, and yet the same to bee executed in the Chauncell at the high aulter, as it is appoynted in the booke of the publike seruice, without cautele or digression from the common order. And herein you shal not onlye satisfie our expectation of your conformitie in all lawfullthings, but also auoyd the murmure of sundry that be therwith iustly offended. And so we bid your Lordship hartely farewell. From Richmond, the 24. of Iune, an. 1549.

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Your louing friendes

E. Somerset.
W. Saint Iohn.
Ed. Montague.
R. Rich. Chan.
Fra. Shrewsbury.
W. Cecill.
¶ To my right worshipfull friendes, and most louyng good brethren, M. Deane of Paules, with all the Canons, Residentaries, Prebendaries, Subdeanes and Ministers of the same, and euery of them with speede.

MarginaliaBoners letter to the Deane and Chapter of Paules.RIght worshipfull, with most harty commendations. So it is this Wensday the xxvi. of Iune, goyng to dynner, I receaued letters from the kynges Counsell by a Pursiuaunt, and the same I doe send now herewith vnto you, to the intent you may peruse them well, and proceede accordyngly: praying you in case all be not present, yet those that be now resident and supplying the places, may in their absence call the company together of the Church, and make declaratiō hereof vnto them: Thus committyng you to God, right well to fare. Written with speede this xxvi. of Iune, at one of the clocke.

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Your louyng brother Ed. London. 

Commentary  *  Close
Reform in London

Edmund Bonner. He wrote this letter to the Dean and members of the Chapter of St. Paul's Cathedral barely two weeks after the imposition of the Book of Common Prayer on 9 June had triggered the Western Rebellion, in which the populace of Cornwall and Devon rose up in resistance to the new prayer book and ecclesiastical reforms promulgated under Protector Somerset.

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John King

Ouer and besides all this, the Lord Protectour, wyth the residue of the kings priuie and learned Counsel assemblyng together in the Starre chamber about the same mater, that is, for the aduancement and setting forward of the kings so godly proceedings, called before them all the Iustices of peace, where was vttered vnto them by the Lord Rich, then Lord Chauncellour, an eloquent and learned admonition, the tenor whereof ensueth.

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MarginaliaAn exhortation or admonition vnto the Iustices of peace.IT hath bene vsed and accustomed before this tyme to call at certayne tymes the Iustices of peace before the Kings Maiesties Counsaile, to geue vnto them admonition or warnyng, diligently (as is their dutie) to looke to the obseruing of such thyngs as be committed to theyr charges, according to the trust which the Kinges Maiestie hath in them. Howbeit, now at this tyme we call you before vs, not onely of custome, but rather of necessitie. For hearyng daily, and perceiuing of necessitie as we do, the great negligence, and the little heed which is taken and geuen to the obseruyng of the good and wholesome lawes and orders in this realme, wherupon much disorder doth daily ensue, and the kings maiesties proclamations and orders taken by the Counsaile (as we are aduertised) not executed, the people are brought to disobedience, and in a maner all his Maiesties study and ours, in setting a good and most godly stay, to the honour of God, and the quiet of the Realme,is spent in vayne, and come to nothing, The which as we haue great hope and trust, not to be altogether so, yet so much as it is, and so much as it lacketh of keepyng the Realme in a most godly order and stay, we must needes impute and lay the fault thereof in you which are the Iustices of peace in euery Shiere, to whom we are woont to direct our writinges, and to whose trust and charge, the Kings Maiestie hath committed the execution of all hys Proclamations, of hys actes of Parliament, and of hys lawes.

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MarginaliaIustices slacke in furthering of Religion.We are informed that many of you art so negligent and so slacke herein, that it doth appeare you do look rather, as it were, through your fingers, then diligently see to the execution of the sayd lawes and Proclamations. For if you would, according to your duties, to your othe, to the trust which the kinges Maiesty hath in you, geue your diligēce and care toward the execution of the same most godly Statutes and Iniunctions, there should no disobedience, nor disorder, nor euill rule be begon or arise in any part of the realme, but it should by and by be repressed, kept downe, & reformed. But it is feared, aud the thing it selfe geueth occasion therto, that diuers of you do not onely not set forth, but rather hinder so much as lyeth in you, the Kings maiesties procedinges, and are content that there should arise some disobedience, and that mē should repine against godly orders set forth by his maiesty: you do so slackly looke to the execution of the same: So that in some shyres which be further off, it may appeare that the people haue neuer heard of diuers of his maiestyes proclamations, or if they haue heard, you are content to wincke at it & to neglect it, so that it is all one as though it were neuer commaunded. But if you do consider and remember your dueties first to almighty God, and then to the Kings maiestie, the wealth of the whole realme, the safegard of your owne selues: you must needes see that except such orders as the kings Ma-

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iestie
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