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Nicholas Ridley

(c. 1502 - 1555) [ODNB]

Protestant martyr; BA Cambridge 1522, MA 1525, BTh 1537, DTh 1541; master of Pembroke (1540 - 53)

Bishop of Rochester (1547 - 53); bishop of London (1550 - 03) [licence to hold both]

When Nicholas Ridley visited Princess Mary at Hunsdon, she recalled the sermon he preached at the marriage of Elizabeth and Anthony Browne in the presence of King Henry. Ridley offered to preach before her, but she refused. 1570, pp. 1565-66; 1576, pp. 1335-36; 1583, p. 1396.

Charles V requested of Edward VI that his cousin Mary Tudor be allowed to have the mass said in her house. The request was denied, in spite of the strong urgings of Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Stephen Gardiner wrote to Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley while imprisoned in the Fleet. 1563, pp. 732-54; 1570, p. 1522; 1576, p. 1297; 1583, pp. 1340, 1348-50.

Gardiner was released out of the Fleet by a general pardon, but was placed under house arrest for failure to conform. Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Smith and William Cecil were sent to him. He was called before the council. 1563, p. 755; 1570, pp. 1525-26; 1576, p. 1301; 1583, p. 1351.

Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Sir John Cheke, William May and Thomas Wendy, king's visitors, attended the disputation at Cambridge in 1549. Ridley took part in the disputation and made the determination. 1570, pp. 1555-57; 1576, pp. 1326-28; 1583, pp. 1376-88.

Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, Nicholas Ridley, bishop of Rochester, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May, dean of St Paul's, were commissioned to examine Edmund Bonner. 1563, p. 697; 1570, p. 1504; 1576, p. 1275; 1583, p. 1312.

Bonner was summoned to appear before the commissioners. He behaved haughtily, ridiculing his accusers and the commissioners, and spoke in favour of the mass. He appeared first on 10 September 1549 before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre and William May. Sir Thomas Smith was absent. 1563, pp. 698-99; 1570, pp. 1504-06; 1576, pp. 1275-77; 1583, pp. 1312-14.

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Bonner appeared for the second time on 13 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May and was further examined. 1563, pp. 699-704; 1570, pp. 1506-08; 1576, pp. 1277-79; 1583, pp. 1314-17.

Bonner appeared for the third time on 16 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir Thomas Smith and William May to answer the articles put to him at the previous session. John Hooper and William Latymer also appeared in order to purge themselves against the slanders of Bonner. 1563, pp. 704-709; 1570, pp. 1508-11; 1576, pp. 1279-80; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

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Bonner appeared before the commissioners for the fourth time on 18 September, at which session new articles were drawn up and new witnesses received. 1563, pp. 704-710; 1570, pp. 1508-12; 1576, pp. 1279-81; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

Bonner appeared for the fifth time before the commissioners on 20 September. During an interval, he instructed Gilbert Bourne, his chaplain, Robert Warnington, his commissary, and Robert Johnson, his registrar, to tell the mayor and aldermen of London to avoid reformed preachers. Bonner made his first appellation to the king. As a result of his behaviour during the proceedings, he was committed to the Marshalsea. 1563, pp. 713-717; 1570, pp. 1513-16; 1576, pp. 1282-85; 1583, pp. 1324-26.

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Bonner appeared for the sixth time before the commissioners on 23 September, when he presented a general recusation against all the commissioners and a second appellation to the king. A letter was read from Bonner to the mayor of London, Henry Amcottes, and aldermen. 1563, pp. 717-18; 1570, p. 1516; 1576, p. 1285; 1583, pp. 1326-27.

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Bonner' seventh appearance before the commissioners took place on 1 October. He presented a declaration, an appellation and a supplication to the king. The commissioners pronounced their sentence definitive. Bonner was imprisoned and deprived of his office. 1563, pp. 718-26; 1570, pp. 1516-19; 1576, pp. 1285-88; 1583, pp. 1327-30.

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Ridley replaced Bonner as bishop of London in 1550. He received a letter from the king and privy council directing him to remove and destroy all altars within the churches of his diocese and install communion tables. He carried out a visitation to ensure that churches were conforming to the directive and broke down the wall next to the altar in St Paul's. 1563, pp. 727-28; 1570, pp. 1519-21; 1576, pp. 1288-89; 1583, pp. 1331-32.

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When Sir William Herbert and Sir William Petre went to Stephen Gardiner in the Tower with new articles, they took with them a canon and a civil lawyer: Nicholas Ridley and Richard Goodrich. 1563, p. 768; 1570, p. 1534; 1576, p. 1307; 1583, p. 1357.

After Gardiner's sequestration, Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Henry Holbeach, Sir William Petre, Sir James Hales, Griffith Leyson, John Oliver and John Gosnold were commissioned to examine him. 1563, p. 776; 1570, p. 1535; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1358.

 
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Sir Thomas Smith

(1513 - 1577) [ODNB; Bindoff]

Scholar, diplomat, political theorist

BA Cambridge 1530; MA 1532; LLD, DCL 1542; regius professor of civil law (1540 - c. 1543); clerk to the privy council 1547; MP Marlborough 1547; MP Grampound 1553; MP Liverpool 1559; MP Essex 1571, 1572

Secretary of state (1548 - 49, 1572 - 77); privy councillor (1571 - 77); lord privy seal 1573

Stephen Gardiner was released out of the Fleet by a general pardon, but was placed under house arrest for failure to conform. Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Smith and William Cecil were sent to him. He was called before the council. 1563, p. 755; 1570, pp. 1525-26; 1576, p. 1301; 1583, p. 1351.

Sir Thomas Smith, Richard Whalley and Thomas Fisher were imprisoned with Edward Seymour in the Tower. 1570, p. 1548; 1576, p. 1320; 1583, p. 1370.

Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, Nicholas Ridley, bishop of Rochester, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May, dean of St Paul's, were commissioned to examine Edmund Bonner. 1563, p. 697; 1570, p. 1504; 1576, p. 1275; 1583, p. 1312.

Bonner was summoned to appear before the commissioners. He behaved haughtily, ridiculing his accusers and the commissioners, and spoke in favour of the mass. He appeared first on 10 September 1549 before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre and William May. Sir Thomas Smith was absent. 1563, pp. 698-99; 1570, pp. 1504-06; 1576, pp. 1275-77; 1583, pp. 1312-14.

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Bonner appeared for the second time on 13 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May and was further examined. 1563, pp. 699-704; 1570, pp. 1506-08; 1576, pp. 1277-79; 1583, pp. 1314-17.

Bonner appeared for the third time on 16 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir Thomas Smith and William May to answer the articles put to him at the previous session. John Hooper and William Latymer also appeared in order to purge themselves against the slanders of Bonner. 1563, pp. 704-709; 1570, pp. 1508-11; 1576, pp. 1279-80; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

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At Bonner's fourth appearance before the commissioners, he complained that Sir Thomas Smith had acted independently and had told the actuary what to write. 1563, pp. 709-10; 1570, p. 1511; 1576, p. 1281; 1583, p. 1322.

Bonner appeared for the fifth time before the commissioners on 20 September. He presented a written recusation of Sir Thomas Smith's judgement against him, which Smith answered. Bonner made his first appellation to the king. As a result of his behaviour during the proceedings, especially towards Sir Thomas Smith, Bonner was committed to the Marshalsea. 1563, pp. 713-717; 1570, pp. 1513-16; 1576, pp. 1282-85; 1583, pp. 1324-26.

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Bonner appeared for the sixth time before the commissioners on 23 September, when he presented a general recusation against all the commissioners and a second appellation to the king. A letter was read from Bonner to the mayor of London, Henry Amcottes, and aldermen. 1563, pp. 717-18; 1570, p. 1516; 1576, p. 1285; 1583, pp. 1326-27.

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Sir Thomas Smith was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, pp. 808, 827-28.

 
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William May

(c. 1505 - 1560) [ODNB]

BCL 1526 Cambridge; DCL 1531; president of Queens' College (c. 1540 - 1554, 1559 - death)

Dean of St Paul's (1546 - 54, 1559 - 60); archbishop-elect of York 1560

William May was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

John Marbeck's fourth examination was conducted by John Capon, John Skip, Thomas Goodrich, Robert Oking and William May. 1570, pp. 1393-94; 1576, pp. 1188-89; 1583, pp. 1216-17.

Bonner continued to hold private masses in St Paul's, and the king's council ordered these to be stopped. Bonner then wrote to the dean and chapter to that effect. 1563, p. 693; 1570, pp. 1492-93; 1576, p. 1265; 1583, p. 1302.

Another letter was sent by the king and council to Bonner, rebuking him and urging him to use the Book of Common Prayer. Bonner again wrote to the dean and chapter. 1563, pp. 693-94; 1570, p. 1494; 1576, p. 1266; 1583, p. 1303.

Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Sir John Cheke, William May and Thomas Wendy, king's visitors, attended the disputation at Cambridge in 1549. 1570, p. 1555; 1576, p. 1326; 1583, p. 1376.

Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, Nicholas Ridley, bishop of Rochester, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May, dean of St Paul's, were commissioned to examine Edmund Bonner. 1563, p. 697; 1570, p. 1504; 1576, p. 1275; 1583, p. 1312.

Bonner was summoned to appear before the commissioners. He behaved haughtily, ridiculing his accusers and the commissioners, and spoke in favour of the mass. He appeared first on 10 September 1549 before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre and William May. Sir Thomas Smith was absent. 1563, pp. 698-99; 1570, pp. 1504-06; 1576, pp. 1275-77; 1583, pp. 1312-14.

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Bonner appeared for the second time on 13 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May and was further examined. 1563, pp. 699-704; 1570, pp. 1506-08; 1576, pp. 1277-79; 1583, pp. 1314-17.

Bonner appeared for the third time on 16 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir Thomas Smith and William May to answer the articles put to him at the previous session. John Hooper and William Latymer also appeared in order to purge themselves against the slanders of Bonner. 1563, pp. 704-709; 1570, pp. 1508-11; 1576, pp. 1279-80; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

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Bonner appeared before the commissioners for the fourth time on 18 September, at which session new articles were drawn up and new witnesses received. 1563, pp. 704-710; 1570, pp. 1508-12; 1576, pp. 1279-81; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

Bonner appeared for the fifth time before the commissioners on 20 September. During an interval, he instructed Gilbert Bourne, his chaplain, Robert Warnington, his commissary, and Robert Johnson, his registrar, to tell the mayor and aldermen of London to avoid reformed preachers. Bonner made his first appellation to the king. As a result of his behaviour during the proceedings, he was committed to the Marshalsea. 1563, pp. 713-717; 1570, pp. 1513-16; 1576, pp. 1282-85; 1583, pp. 1324-26.

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Bonner appeared for the sixth time before the commissioners on 23 September, when he presented a general recusation against all the commissioners and a second appellation to the king. A letter was read from Bonner to the mayor of London, Henry Amcottes, and aldermen. 1563, pp. 717-18; 1570, p. 1516; 1576, p. 1285; 1583, pp. 1326-27.

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Lambeth

London

OS grid ref: TQ 305 785

1336 [1312]

K. Edward 6. Boner called before the Commissioners for his sermon. Boners disobedience.

tranquilitie, quietnesse and good gouernaunce of this your Realme, we do most desire, and for þe discharge of our most bounden dueties, to auoyde all the daungers that might ensue of the concealement thereof, we most humbly do denounce and declare the same to your highnes, to the intent that your Maiestie by the aduise aforesayd, may, if it please your highnes, at this our humble denuntiation, call the sayd Byshop to aunswere to the premisses, that which we are ready to auowe and proue, and then your highnes to take further order heerein, as to your Princely wisedome shall seeme most conuenient: whose long life, and most prosperous gouernement, God almighty long continue, for the which we shall pray during our liues.

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MarginaliaCommissiō directed downe by the King against Boner.The Kings Maiestie hauing thus by the information of these two credible persons, perfect intelligence of the cōtemptuous & peruerse negligence of this Bishop, in not accomplishing his highnes commaundement geuē him by Iniunction thought it most necessary with all conuenient speede (for the auoiding of father inconueniences) to loke more seuerely vnto the due punishment of such dangerous rebellious obstinacie, and therfore by the aduise of the Lord Protectour, and the rest of his honorable Counsaile, MarginaliaCommissioners appointed.immediatly he directed forth his commission vnder his broad Seale, vnto the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishop of Rochester, and to other graue and trusty personages and Counsellers, appointing & authorising all thē, or certain of them, by vertue of the same, to call before them, as well the Bishop of London, as also the foresaid denouncers, & vpō due examination & proofe of þe premisses, or any other matter otherwise to be obiected, farther to proceed against him summarely & de plano, according to law and Iustice, either to suspension, excōmunicatiō, committing to prison, or depriuation (if the qualitie of the offence so required) or otherwise to vse any other censure Ecclesiasticall, which for the better hearing and determining of that cause, myghte to their wisedomes seeme more pertinent, as appeareth more amply by the tenour of the Commission heere ensuing.

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The copie of the Kings Commission sent downe vpon the denunciation aforesayd, for the examination of Boner Byshop of London.

MarginaliaThe Copye of the Kings Commission for Bonners examination.EDward the sixt, &c. To the most reuerent father in God Thomas Archbyshop of Canterbury, Metropolitane and Primate of all England, the right reuerend father in God Nicholas Byshop of Rochester, our trusty and right welbeloued Counsellers Syr William Peter, and Syr Thomas Smith Knightes, our two principall Secretaries, and William Maye Doctour of the Law Ciuile and Deane of Paules, greeting. It is come to our knowledge, that where we by the aduise of our most entirely beloued Vncle Edward Duke of Somerset, gouernour of our person, and Protectour of all our Realmes, dominions and subiects, and the rest of our priuy Counsayle, did giue to the right reuerend father in God Edmund Byshop of London, vpon certayne complaynts before made vnto vs and other great considerations, certayne Iniunctions to be folowed, done, and executed, and in a Sermon appointed to him to preach by vs with certaine articles, and for the more sure knowledge, keeping, and obseruing, did exhibite the same in writing vnto him by the hands of our sayd Vncle, in the fulfilling of our Counsell: all this notwithstanding the said Bishop hath in contempt of vs (as it may appeare) ouerslipped and not obserued certeine of the said things so by vs enioyned, and other so peruersely and negligently done that the things minded of vs to reformation & for a good quiet of our subiects and our whole realme, be conuerted by the wilfull negligence or peruersitie of him, to a great occasion of sclaunder, tumult and grudge amongst our people, as it hath bene denounced to vs in writing by certeine honest and discrete persons & otherwise called. The which things if they be so, we tendring the wealth, quietnes, good order and gouernement of our people, haue not thought conuenient to be let past vnpunished and vnreformed, and therefore by the aduise aforesayd, haue appointed you fiue, foure, or three, vppon whose fidelities, wisedomes, dexterities and circumspections, we haue full confidence, to call before you, as well the denouncers of the sayd faultes, as also the sayd Byshop, and with due examinations and processe, according to the law and Iustice, to heare the said matter and all other matters of what kind, nature, or condition so euer they shall be, that shall be obiected against the said Byshop, summarely [& de plano,] or otherwise as to your discretions shall be thought most meete, with full power and authoritie to suspend, excommunicate, commit to prison, or depriue the said Bishop, if the offence shal so appeare to merite, or to vse any other censure Ecclesiasticall, which for the better hearing and determining of the cause, shall be requisite and apperteine, any lawe, statute, or acte to the contrary notwithstanding. In witnes wherof, we haue caused these our letters to be made patentes.

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Witnes our selfe at Westminster the viij. of Septem-
ber, in the third yeare of our reigne.

MarginaliaThe Commission deliuered.This commission being sealed with the kinges broad seale, was by his highnes Counsaile forthwith deliuered at the Court vnto the archb. of Caunterbury, and the rest of the Commissioners mentioned in þe same, being there al together present. Who vpon the receipt therof determined by vertue of the same, to sit at the archbishoppes house at Lambeth the Wednesday then next ensuing. Which was þe tenth day of that present month of September, and therefore appoynted the Bishop of London to be sommoned to appeare before them as at that time and place. The maner of whose behauiour at his appearaunce, because it both declareth the froward nature and stubborne condition of the person, and also what estimatiō and authoritie he thought the commissioners to be of, I thought not vnmeete fyrst, before I enter into the processe, somewhat to note and describe vnto you.

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MarginaliaThe stubborne behauiour of Boner before the Commissioners.At his first entry into the place within the Archbishops house at Lambeth, where the Archbishop and other of the Commissioners sate, he passed forth directly by them wyth his cap vpon his head (making as though hee sawe them not) vntil one plucking him by the sleeue, willed him to do reuerence vnto the Commissioners. Wherat he laughingly turned himselfe, & spake vnto the archb. on this wyse: what my Lord, are you here? By my trouthe I sawe you not. No sayde the Archbishop, you woulde not see. Well (quoth he) you sent for me: haue you anye thinge to say to me? Yea sayd the Commissioners, we haue here authority from the kinges highnes to call you to accompte for your Sermon you made lately at Pauls crosse, for that you did not there publishe vnto the people the article whiche you were commaunded then to preach vpon. At which words the bish. either for that he did not greatly delite to heare of this matter, or els because he would make his friends beleue that hee was called to accompt onely for his opinion in religion (as afterwardes in the sequell of this processe it more playnly appeareth) began to turne his talke vnto other matters, and saide vnto the archbishop. In good fayth my Lord, I would one thing were had in more reuerence, then it is? What is it sayd the Archbishop? MarginaliaBoner speaketh for the Masse.The blessed masse, quoth he. You haue written very well of the sacrament: I merueile you doe no more honour it? The Archbishop of Cant. therwith perceiuing his subtiltie: and seing his grosse blindnes to commend that which was vtterly contrary to his opinion, sayd vnto him agayne: MarginaliaThe Archbishop.If you thinke it wel, it is because you vnderstand it not. The other then adding vnto his former grosse ignorauncce an obstinate impudencie, aunswered: MarginaliaBoner.I thinke I vnderstand it better then you that wrote it. Vnto which woordes the Archbishop replyed: truely MarginaliaThe Archbishop.I wil easily make a childe that is but ten yeares old vnderstand therein as much as you: but what is this to the matter?

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MarginaliaAnno 1549.Moreouer at what time as they began to enter the Iudicial prosecuting of theyr commission, and had called forth the denouncers to propound such matter as they hadde to obiect agaynst him, MarginaliaBoner falleth to scorning and taunting of his denouncers.he hearing them speake, fel to scorning and taunting of them, saying to the one, that he spake lyke a Goose, and to the other, that he spake like a Woodcocke, vtterly denying theyr accusations to be true. Wherupon þe Archbishop (seeing his peeuish malice agaynst the denoūcers) asked him if he would not beleeue them, whether hee woulde credite the people there present, and therewithall (because many of them were also at the Bishops Sermon at Paules) he stode vpp and read the article of the kinges authoritie during his young age, saying vnto them, howe say you my maysters, did my Lord of London preach thys Article? Whereunto they aunswered no, no. At which wordes the Bishop turning himselfe about, deryding sayd: MarginaliaBoners iudgement of the people.wil you beleue this fond people?

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MarginaliaBoner full of his pretenses, Dawes, Woodcockes, Fooles, and such lyke.Besides this, at al his appearings he vsed many irreuerent, vncomely, obstinate and froward wordes and behauiours towards the Commissioners and others (in defacing their authoritie with the termes of pretensed Commissioners, pretensed witnesses and vniust vnlawfull and pretensed proceedinges, with recusation of some, and terming others Dawes, Woodcockes, fooles, and such lyke) which I wil here omitte, for they doe more manifestly appeare in the sequele of the story in the tyme and place, as they happened: Adding yet this much by the way, that although suche stoutnes of hart and will (if it had bene in a cause true and rightfull) might haue perchaunce seemed in some mens iudgement to be somewhat sufferable: yet to say the truth, in what cause so euer it be, being immoderate as this shall appeare, it beseemed no wise man, and therefore much lesse one of his calling. MarginaliaBoners demeanour not tolerable for his calling though meete for his byrth.For if his cause had bene good, why did he not take the wrong paciently and meekly, as the true Canon law of the Gospell doth teach hym? If it were (as it was in deede) naught and wrong, wherto serued so bolde sturdy stoutnesse, but to shewe the impu-

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