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Edward Fiennes de Clinton

(1512 - 1585) [ODNB]

1st earl of Lincoln (1572 - 85); military commander; 9th Baron Clinton 1517; governor of Boulogne (1549 - 50); privy councillor under Edward, Mary and Elizabeth; lord high admiral (1550 - 53, 1558 -85); supported Lady Jane Grey; pardoned by Mary

Lord Clinton was a signatory to a letter from the king and privy council to Nicholas Ridley, directing him to remove and destroy all altars within the churches of his diocese and install communion tables. 1563, p. 727; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1288; 1583, p. 1331.

Clinton was a signatory to a letter of commission against Stephen Gardiner. 1563, p. 777.

 
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John Dudley

(1504 - 1553) [ODNB]

Viscount Lisle (1542 - 47); earl of Warwick (1547 - 51), lord great chamberlain

Duke of Northumberland 1551; lord president of the privy council (1550 - 52); led support for Lady Jane Grey; executed

Dudley, Lord Lisle, was one of the questioners at the second examination of Anne Askew in 1546. 1563, p. 683; 1570, p. 1417; 1576, p. 1208; 1583, p. 1237.

He was a signatory to a letter from the council to Nicholas Ridley, directing him to remove and destroy all altars within the churches of his diocese and install communion tables. 1563, p. 727; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1288; 1583, p. 1331.

Dudley was a signatory to a letter of commission against Stephen Gardiner. 1563, p. 777.

Following the taking of the city of Norwich by the Norfolk rebels, John Dudley, earl of Warwick, was sent with an army. The rebels were defeated and their leaders executed. 1570, p. 1500; 1576, p. 1271; 1583, p. 1308.

After Dudley's return from Norfolk, he fell into dispute with Edward Seymour. He and other dissatisfied nobles met together to plan to remove the king from the Lord Protector. 1570, p. 1545; 1576, p. 1317; 1583, p. 1367.

Dudley was one of the signatories to the proclamation against Edward Seymour calling for his removal. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1318; 1583, p. 1368.

He was one of the signatories to the letter to the lord mayor and common council of London from the lords opposing Edward Seymour. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1319; 1583, p. 1369.

Seymour was imprisoned for the second time in 1551 and charged with treason and felony. He was acquitted of treason, but condemned for felony, intending the death of John Dudley, duke of Northumberland, and others. 1570, p. 1549; 1576, p. 1321; 1583, p. 1371.

After Stephen Gardiner had been in the Tower for nearly a year, Sir William Paulet and Sir William Petre, the earl of Warwick and Sir William Herbert delivered the king's letters to him. 1563, pp. 761-62; 1570, pp. 1529-30; 1576, p. 1304; 1583, p. 1354.

Edward Seymour, John Russell, John Dudley and Sir William Petre visited Stephen Gardiner in the Tower at various times to attempt to get him to accept the king's reforms. 1563, pp. 766; 1570, p. 1532; 1576, p. 1306; 1583, p. 1356.

Dudley was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, pp. 822-24

 
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John Russell

(c. 1485 - 1555) [ODNB]

Courtier, diplomat. MP Buckinghamshire 1529; JP Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire, Huntingdonsshire, Northamptonshire 1533; MP Devon, Cornwall, Dorset, Somerset 1539

Henry VIII's controller of the royal household 1536; lord privy seal (1542 - 55); lord high admiral 1540

Baron Russell 1539; earl of Bedford (1550 - 55)

John Russell had been saved from danger while abroad by Thomas Cromwell and later commended him to the king. 1570, p. 1348; 1576, p. 1150; 1583, p. 1179.

John Russell was a signatory to a letter to the king's commissioners relating Bishop Bonner's recantation of his protestation. 1570, p. 1502; 1576, p. 1273; 1583, p. 1310.

John Russell was one of the signatories of the letter of the council addressed to Thomas Cranmer ordering the abolishing of images in all churches in the archdiocese. 1563, p. 692; 1570, p. 1490; 1576, p. 1263; 1583, p. 1300.

He was a signatory to a letter from the council to the bishops, instructing them to administer communion in two kinds. 1570, p. 1491; 1576, p. 1264; 1583, p. 1301.

He was a signatory to a letter of commission against Stephen Gardiner. 1563, p. 777.

Sir John was appointed lieutenant-general of the king's troops in the west at the time of the Western Rising. Although outnumbered, his forces defeated the rebels and captured their leaders. 1570, pp. 1499-1500; 1576, pp. 1271-72; 1583, pp. 1307-08.

George Blage had been condemned to be burnt for heresy. John Russell made suit to the king on Blage's behalf and he was pardoned. 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

John Russell was present at Anne Askew's burning. 1570, p. 1419; 1576, p. 1211; 1583, p. 1240.

He was a signatory to a letter from the king and privy council to Nicholas Ridley, directing him to remove and destroy all altars within the churches of his diocese and install communion tables. 1563, p. 727; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1288; 1583, p. 1331.

Edward Seymour, John Russell, John Dudley and Sir William Petre visited Stephen Gardiner in the Tower at various times to attempt to get him to accept the king's reforms. 1563, pp. 766; 1570, p. 1532; 1576, p. 1306; 1583, p. 1356.

Edward Seymour wrote to John Russell, describing the conspiracy against him and asking him to bring forces to Windsor. John Russell replied, hoping for a reconciliation between the Lord Protector and his adversaries. 1570, pp. 1545-46; 1576, pp. 1317-18; 1583, pp. 1367-68.

Russell was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, pp. 814, 824-25.

John Russell was a witness in 1551 to the sentence against Stephen Gardiner and his appellation. 1563, p. 867.

 
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Nicholas Ridley

(c. 1502 - 1555) [ODNB]

Protestant martyr; BA Cambridge 1522, MA 1525, BTh 1537, DTh 1541; master of Pembroke (1540 - 53)

Bishop of Rochester (1547 - 53); bishop of London (1550 - 03) [licence to hold both]

When Nicholas Ridley visited Princess Mary at Hunsdon, she recalled the sermon he preached at the marriage of Elizabeth and Anthony Browne in the presence of King Henry. Ridley offered to preach before her, but she refused. 1570, pp. 1565-66; 1576, pp. 1335-36; 1583, p. 1396.

Charles V requested of Edward VI that his cousin Mary Tudor be allowed to have the mass said in her house. The request was denied, in spite of the strong urgings of Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Stephen Gardiner wrote to Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley while imprisoned in the Fleet. 1563, pp. 732-54; 1570, p. 1522; 1576, p. 1297; 1583, pp. 1340, 1348-50.

Gardiner was released out of the Fleet by a general pardon, but was placed under house arrest for failure to conform. Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Smith and William Cecil were sent to him. He was called before the council. 1563, p. 755; 1570, pp. 1525-26; 1576, p. 1301; 1583, p. 1351.

Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Sir John Cheke, William May and Thomas Wendy, king's visitors, attended the disputation at Cambridge in 1549. Ridley took part in the disputation and made the determination. 1570, pp. 1555-57; 1576, pp. 1326-28; 1583, pp. 1376-88.

Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, Nicholas Ridley, bishop of Rochester, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May, dean of St Paul's, were commissioned to examine Edmund Bonner. 1563, p. 697; 1570, p. 1504; 1576, p. 1275; 1583, p. 1312.

Bonner was summoned to appear before the commissioners. He behaved haughtily, ridiculing his accusers and the commissioners, and spoke in favour of the mass. He appeared first on 10 September 1549 before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre and William May. Sir Thomas Smith was absent. 1563, pp. 698-99; 1570, pp. 1504-06; 1576, pp. 1275-77; 1583, pp. 1312-14.

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Bonner appeared for the second time on 13 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May and was further examined. 1563, pp. 699-704; 1570, pp. 1506-08; 1576, pp. 1277-79; 1583, pp. 1314-17.

Bonner appeared for the third time on 16 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir Thomas Smith and William May to answer the articles put to him at the previous session. John Hooper and William Latymer also appeared in order to purge themselves against the slanders of Bonner. 1563, pp. 704-709; 1570, pp. 1508-11; 1576, pp. 1279-80; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

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Bonner appeared before the commissioners for the fourth time on 18 September, at which session new articles were drawn up and new witnesses received. 1563, pp. 704-710; 1570, pp. 1508-12; 1576, pp. 1279-81; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

Bonner appeared for the fifth time before the commissioners on 20 September. During an interval, he instructed Gilbert Bourne, his chaplain, Robert Warnington, his commissary, and Robert Johnson, his registrar, to tell the mayor and aldermen of London to avoid reformed preachers. Bonner made his first appellation to the king. As a result of his behaviour during the proceedings, he was committed to the Marshalsea. 1563, pp. 713-717; 1570, pp. 1513-16; 1576, pp. 1282-85; 1583, pp. 1324-26.

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Bonner appeared for the sixth time before the commissioners on 23 September, when he presented a general recusation against all the commissioners and a second appellation to the king. A letter was read from Bonner to the mayor of London, Henry Amcottes, and aldermen. 1563, pp. 717-18; 1570, p. 1516; 1576, p. 1285; 1583, pp. 1326-27.

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Bonner' seventh appearance before the commissioners took place on 1 October. He presented a declaration, an appellation and a supplication to the king. The commissioners pronounced their sentence definitive. Bonner was imprisoned and deprived of his office. 1563, pp. 718-26; 1570, pp. 1516-19; 1576, pp. 1285-88; 1583, pp. 1327-30.

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Ridley replaced Bonner as bishop of London in 1550. He received a letter from the king and privy council directing him to remove and destroy all altars within the churches of his diocese and install communion tables. He carried out a visitation to ensure that churches were conforming to the directive and broke down the wall next to the altar in St Paul's. 1563, pp. 727-28; 1570, pp. 1519-21; 1576, pp. 1288-89; 1583, pp. 1331-32.

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When Sir William Herbert and Sir William Petre went to Stephen Gardiner in the Tower with new articles, they took with them a canon and a civil lawyer: Nicholas Ridley and Richard Goodrich. 1563, p. 768; 1570, p. 1534; 1576, p. 1307; 1583, p. 1357.

After Gardiner's sequestration, Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Henry Holbeach, Sir William Petre, Sir James Hales, Griffith Leyson, John Oliver and John Gosnold were commissioned to examine him. 1563, p. 776; 1570, p. 1535; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1358.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Cranmer

(1489 - 1556) [ODNB]

BA Cambridge 1511; MA 1515; archbishop of Canterbury (1533 - 56); burnt in 1556

Cranmer acknowledged the help he received from John Frith's book attacking the doctrine of Sir Thomas More. 1563, p. 500; 1570, p. 1176; 1576, p. 1006; 1583, p. 1033.

Thomas Cranmer, John Stokesley, Edward Carne, William Benet and the earl of Wiltshire were sent as ambassadors to the pope to dispute the matter of the king's marriage. 1570, p. 1280; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, p. 1121.

Cranmer's separation of the king and Queen Catherine was authorised by parliament. 1570, p. 1197; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1053.

Elizabeth Barton prophesied that if the king divorced Queen Catherine and married Anne Boleyn, he would not reign more than a month thereafter. Through the efforts of Cranmer, Cromwell and Latimer, she was condemned and executed with some of her supporters. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, pp. 1054-55.

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The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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Cranmer was godfather to Princess Elizabeth. 1563, p. 510; 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1054.

Cranmer was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Cranmer attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Cranmer opposed retaining the seven sacraments. He gave an oration to the bishops. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

On the second day of the synod, Thomas Cranmer sent his archdeacon to command Alexander Alesius to cease from disputation. 1570, p. 1353; 1576, p. 1155; 1583, p. 1184.

John Lambert attended a sermon preached by John Taylor at St Peter's in London in 1538. Lambert put ten articles to him questioning transubstantiation. Taylor conferred with Robert Barnes, who persuaded Taylor to put the matter to Archbishop Cranmer. Cranmer called Lambert into open court, where he was made to defend his cause. 1563, pp. 532-33; 1570, pp. 1280-81; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, p. 1121.

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Cranmer disputed with Lambert at his trial before the king. 1563, pp. 534-35; 1570, p. 1282; 1576, pp. 1096-97; 1583, p. 1122.

Thomas Cranmer alone disputed the Six Articles in parliament. 1570, p. 1298; 1576, p. 1110; 1583, p. 1136.

The king sent Thomas Cromwell and the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk to dine with Cranmer to reassure him after his opposition to the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1298; 1576, p. 1111; 1583, p. 1136.

Henry asked for a summary of Cranmer's objections to the Six Articles. Cranmer asked his secretary to write up a copy of his arguments against the Six Articles to give to the king.1570, p. 1355; 1576, p. 1157; 1583, p. 1185.

Adam Damplip was brought before Thomas Cranmer, Stephen Gardiner, Richard Sampson and others and examined. The next day, warned by Cranmer that he was likely to be imprisoned and burnt, he fled to the West Country. 1563, p. 657; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1194; 1583, p. 1224.

Thomas Broke, Ralph Hare, James Cocke and James Barber were sent from Calais with their accusers to England to be examined by Cranmer, Gardiner, Sampson and other bishops. 1563, p. 661; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1195; 1583, p. 1224.

King Henry wrote to Archbishop Cranmer, ordering that idolatrous images be removed from churches. 1563, p. 625; 1570, p. 1385; 1576, p. 1181; 1583, p. 1210.

For a long period, Henry VIII denied his daughter Mary the title of princess. Thomas Cranmer urged a reconciliation. 1570, p. 1565; 1576, p. 1335; 1583, p. 1396.

When Claude d'Annebault, the French ambassador, went to see Henry VIII at Hampton Court, lavish entertainment was laid on for him, but he was recalled before he had received half of it. During the course of the banquet, he had private conversation with the king and Archbishop Cranmer about the reform of religion in the two countries. 1570, p. 1426; 1576, p. 1215; 1583, p. 1245.

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Cranmer had sent letters for Henry VIII to sign relating to reform in the church. Gardiner convinced the king that these reforms would jeopardise a league with the king of France and the emperor, so the letters were never signed. 1570, p. 1426; 1576, p. 1215; 1583, p. 1245.

The young Prince Edward wrote letters in Latin to Thomas Cranmer, his godfather. 1570, p. 1564; 1576, p. 1334; 1583, p. 1395.

Cranmer praised the learning and wisdom of Prince Edward to his tutor, Richard Coxe. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Richard Coxe wrote to Thomas Cranmer, praising the young Prince Edward. 1570, p. 1564; 1576, p. 1334; 1583, p. 1395.

When King Henry was on his deathbed, Anthony Denny asked him if he wished a spiritual adviser, and he asked for Thomas Cranmer. Before Cranmer could arrive, however, the king had lost the power of speech. He clasped Cranmer's hand, and shortly after died. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1290.

After the death of Henry VIII, the duke of Suffolk related to Thomas Cranmer how Stephen Gardiner had nearly been arrested at the time of the execution of Germaine Gardiner. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1290.

Cranmer had great difficulty in getting King Edward to sign Joan Bocher's death warrant. 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Charles V requested of Edward VI that his cousin Mary Tudor be allowed to have the mass said in her house. The request was denied, in spite of the strong urgings of Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Thomas Dobbe was brought before Cranmer, who committed him to the Counter, where he died. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1297.

Edward VI's councillors and Edward Seymour wrote to Thomas Cranmer, directing that candles no longer be carried on Candlemas, nor palms on Palm Sunday, nor should ashes be used on Ash Wednesday. Cranmer immediately wrote to all the other bishops to inform them of the new directive. 1563, pp. 685, 691; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1297.

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The council wrote further to Cranmer ordering the abolishing of images in all churches in the archdiocese. He wrote to Edmund Bonner, directing him to carry out the order in London. 1563, p. 692; 1570, p. 1490; 1576, p. 1263; 1583, p. 1300.

Cranmer, with other learned bishops and learned men, was appointed to draw up a uniform order of common prayer. 1570, p. 1491; 1576, p. 1264; 1583, p. 1301.

Stephen Gardiner wrote to Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley while imprisoned in the Fleet. 1563, pp. 732-54; 1570, p. 1522; 1576, p. 1297; 1583, p. 1340.

Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, Nicholas Ridley, bishop of Rochester, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May, dean of St Paul's, were commissioned to examine Edmund Bonner. 1563, p. 697; 1570, p. 1504; 1576, p. 1275; 1583, p. 1312.

Bonner was summoned to appear before the commissioners. He behaved haughtily, ridiculing his accusers and the commissioners, and spoke in favour of the mass. He appeared first on 10 September 1549 before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre and William May. Sir Thomas Smith was absent. 1563, pp. 698-99; 1570, pp. 1504-06; 1576, pp. 1275-77; 1583, pp. 1312-14.

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Bonner appeared for the second time on 13 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May and was further examined. 1563, pp. 699-704; 1570, pp. 1506-08; 1576, pp. 1277-79; 1583, pp. 1314-17.

Bonner appeared for the third time on 16 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir Thomas Smith and William May to answer the articles put to him at the previous session. John Hooper and William Latymer also appeared in order to purge themselves against the slanders of Bonner. 1563, pp. 704-709; 1570, pp. 1508-11; 1576, pp. 1279-80; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

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Bonner appeared before the commissioners for the fourth time on 18 September, at which session new articles were drawn up and new witnesses received. 1563, pp. 704-710; 1570, pp. 1508-12; 1576, pp. 1279-81; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

Bonner appeared for the fifth time before the commissioners on 20 September. During an interval, he instructed Gilbert Bourne, his chaplain, Robert Warnington, his commissary, and Robert Johnson, his registrar, to tell the mayor and aldermen of London to avoid reformed preachers. Bonner made his first appellation to the king. As a result of his behaviour during the proceedings, he was committed to the Marshalsea. 1563, pp. 713-717; 1570, pp. 1513-16; 1576, pp. 1282-85; 1583, pp. 1324-26.

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Bonner appeared for the sixth time before the commissioners on 23 September, when he presented a general recusation against all the commissioners and a second appellation to the king. A letter was read from Bonner to the mayor of London, Henry Amcottes, and aldermen. 1563, pp. 717-18; 1570, p. 1516; 1576, p. 1285; 1583, pp. 1326-27.

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Bonner' seventh appearance before the commissioners took place on 1 October. He presented a declaration, an appellation and a supplication to the king. The commissioners pronounced their sentence definitive. Bonner was imprisoned and deprived of his office. 1563, pp. 718-26; 1570, pp. 1516-19; 1576, pp. 1285-88; 1583, pp. 1327-30.

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Cranmer was a signatory to a letter from the king and privy council to Nicholas Ridley, directing him to remove and destroy all altars within the churches of his diocese and install communion tables. 1563, p. 727; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1288; 1583, p. 1331.

After Stephen Gardiner's sequestration, Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Henry Holbeach, Sir William Petre, Sir James Hales, Griffith Leyson, John Oliver and John Gosnold were commissioned to examine him. 1563, p. 776; 1570, p. 1535; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1358.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Goodrich

(1494 - 1554) [ODNB]

BA Cambridge 1510; MA 1514; DCL 1520s

Bishop of Ely (1534 - 54); lord chancellor (1552 - 53)

Goodrich was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Goodrich attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Goodrich opposed retaining the seven sacraments. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

John Marbeck's fourth examination was conducted by John Capon, John Skip, Thomas Goodrich, Robert Oking and William May. 1570, pp. 1393-94; 1576, pp. 1188-89; 1583, pp. 1216-17.

Goodrich recommended Richard Coxe to Henry VIII. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

Goodrich was a signatory to a letter from the king and privy council to Nicholas Ridley, directing him to remove and destroy all altars within the churches of his diocese and install communion tables. 1563, p. 727; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1288; 1583, p. 1331.

Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Sir John Cheke, William May and Thomas Wendy, king's visitors, attended the disputation at Cambridge in 1549. 1570, p. 1555; 1576, p. 1326; 1583, p. 1376.

After Edmund Bonner was sentenced to prison and deprived of his bishopric, the king appointed Richard Rich, Henry marquess of Dorset, Thomas Goodrich, Lord Wentworth, Sir Anthony Wingfield, Sir William Herbert, Nicholas Wotton, Edward Montague, Sir John Baker, Judge Hales, John Gosnold, John Oliver and Griffith Leyson to examine his documents. They confirmed the sentence against him. 1563, p. 725; 1570, p. 1519; 1576, pp. 1287-88; 1583, p. 1330.

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After Stephen Gardiner's sequestration, Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Henry Holbeach, Sir William Petre, Sir James Hales, Griffith Leyson, John Oliver and John Gosnold were commissioned to examine him. 1563, p. 776; 1570, p. 1535; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1358.

 
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Thomas Wentworth

(1501 - 1550/1) [ODNB; Bindoff]

1st Baron Wentworth; cousin of Edward Seymour

JP Suffolk (1523 - death); privy councillor 1549; chamberlain, the Household (1550 - death); MP Suffolk 1529; sympathetic to religious reformers

John Kirby and Roger Clarke were arrested at Ipswich in 1546 and brought before Thomas Wentworth and other commissioners. When Kirby was burnt at Ipswich, Wentworth wept. 1563, pp. 654; 1570, pp. 1410-11; 1576, pp. 1202-03; 1583, p. 1232.

After Edmund Bonner was sentenced to prison and deprived of his bishopric, the king appointed Lord Rich, Henry marquess of Dorset, Thomas Goodrich, Lord Wentworth, Sir Anthony Wingfield, Sir William Herbert, Nicholas Wotton, Edward Montague, Sir John Baker, Judge Hales, John Gosnold, John Oliver and Griffith Leyson to examine his documents. They confirmed the sentence against him. 1563, p. 725; 1570, p. 1519; 1576, pp. 1287-88; 1583, p. 1330.

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He was a signatory to a letter from the king and privy council to Nicholas Ridley, directing him to remove and destroy all altars within the churches of his diocese and install communion tables. 1563, p. 727; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1288; 1583, p. 1331.

He was a signatory to a letter of commission against Stephen Gardiner. 1563, p. 777.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Paulet

(1474/5? - 1572) [ODNB; Bindoff]

Lord St John 1539; earl of Wiltshire 1550; marquess of Winchester 1551

Sheriff of Hampshire 1511, 1518, 1522; JP Hampshire (1514 - death), Wiltshire (1523 - death), Somerset (1531 - death), all counties (1547 - death); lord great master (1545 - 50); privy councillor 1542; lord president of the council (1545 - 50); lord treasurer (1550 - death)

William Paulet sent a letter to Princess Mary via Lord Hussey, her chamberlain, informing her she was to move her household and omitting her title. 1570, p. 1565; 1576, p. 1335; 1583, p. 1395.

Paulet was one of those appointed commissioner for Calais in 1540. 1563, p. 664; 1570, p. 1404; 1576, p. 1197; 1583, p. 1226.

William Paulet was a signatory to a letter to the king's commissioners relating Bishop Bonner's recantation of his protestation. 1570, p. 1502; 1576, p. 1273; 1583, p. 1310.

William Paulet was a signatory to a letter from the privy council to the bishops, instructing them to administer communion in two kinds. 1570, p. 1491; 1576, p. 1264; 1583, p. 1301.

He was a signatory to a letter from the council to Edmund Bonner, instructing that he cease to allow private masses in St Paul's. 1563, pp. 692-93; 1570, p. 1493; 1576, p. 1265; 1583, p. 1302.

He was a signatory to a letter from the council to Nicholas Ridley, directing him to remove and destroy all altars within the churches of his diocese and install communion tables. 1563, p. 727; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1288; 1583, p. 1331.

Paulet was one of the signatories to the proclamation against Edward Seymour calling for his removal. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1318; 1583, p. 1368.

He was one of the signatories to the letter to the lord mayor and common council of London from the lords opposing Edward Seymour. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1319; 1583, p. 1369.

After Gardiner had been in the Tower for nearly a year, Sir William Paulet and Sir William Petre visited and urged him to admit his fault. Paulet, Petre, the earl of Warwick and Sir William Herbert delivered the king's letters to him. 1563, pp. 761-62; 1570, pp. 1529-30; 1576, p. 1304; 1583, p. 1354.

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Paulet was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, p. 813

1355 [1331]

King Edw 6. The kinges letter to Ridley. The taking downe of aulters with reasons proouing the same.

wythin their Diocesse, MarginaliaBookes of Latine seruice called in. Anno 1549.to bring in and deliuer vp all Antiphoners, Missales, Grailes, Processionals, Manuals, Legendes, Pies, Portuases, Iournals, and Ordinals after the vse of Sarum, Lincolne, Yorke, Bangor, Herforde, or any other priuate vse, and all other bookes of seruice, the hauing wherof might be any let to þe seruice now set foorth in English, charging alfo and commaunding all suche as should be found stubborne or disobedient in this behalf, to be committed vnto warde.

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And because the Kinge moreouer was aduertised that there was a slacknes and a frowardnes among the people refusing to pay towarde the finding of breade and wine for the holy Communion, by reason wherof the Communion in many places was omitted, the Bishops in like manner had geuen in charge to prouide for redresse therof, & to punish them which should refuse so to do. MarginaliaCommon bread vsed in the holy Communion.Wherby it may appeare to vs now, that no wafer cakes but common bread, was then by the kinges appoyntment ordinarily receiued and vsed in Churches. This was about the latter ende of December. An. 1549.

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Taking downe of aultares,and setting vp of the table in steede thereof.

MarginaliaTaking down of Altars.FVrthermore, in the yeare nexte following. 1550. other letters likewise were sent out for the taking downe of altars in churches, and setting vp the table in steade of the same, vnto Nicholas Ridley, who being Bishop of Rochester before, was then made Bishop of London, in Boners place, the copie and contentes of the kings letters are these, as followeth.

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The kings letters to Nicholas Ridley Bishop of London. &c. 
Commentary  *  Close

The Council letter instructing the removal of Altars is not in the Privy Council Register. It must have been in the Letter Book (now lost) to which Foxe was given privileged access. The order to call in and destroy all Latin service books (1576, 1583) was a proclamation issued on 25 December 1549, and printed in P.L.Hughes and J.F. Larkin, Tudor Royal Proclamations, I, p.485. Hughes and Larkin printed it from Edward Cardwell, Documentary Annals of the Reformed Church (1844), I, p.85. The 'reasons why the Lordes boorde should rather be after the forme of a table…' may be Foxe's own compilation. It does not correspond to any other document found.

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3

MarginaliaThe kings letter to Nicholas Ridley then B. of London.RIght reuerende father in God, right trustie and well beloued, we greete you wel. And where it is come to our knowledge, that being the altars within the more part of the churches of this realme, already vpon good and godly considerations takē down, there doth yet remaine altares standing in diuers other churches, by occasion whereof muche variaunce and contention ariseth amongest sundry of our subiectes, whiche if good foresight were not had, might perchaunce engender great hurt and inconuenience: we lette you wit, that minding to haue all occasion of contention taken away, which many times groweth by those & such like diuersities, and considering that amongste other thinges belonging to our royal office and cure, we do accompt the greatest to be, to maintaine the common quiet of oure Realme wee haue thought good by the aduice of our Counsaile to require you, and neuertheles especial to charge and commaund you, for the auoiding of all matters of further contention & strife about the standing or taking away of the said altares, to geue substantiall order throughout all your diocesse, MarginaliaAltars taken downe and destroyed.that with all diligence all the altars in euery churche or chappell, as well in places exempted, as not exempted within your saide diocesse be taken downe, and in the stead of them a table to be set vp in some conuenient parte of the chancel within euery suche churche or chappel, to serue for the ministratiō of the blessed cōmuniō. MarginaliaConsiderations to perswade the people.And to the intēt the same may be done without the offēce of such our louing subiects, as be not yet so wel perswaded in that behalfe as we would wish, we sende vnto you heerewith, certaine considerations gathered and collected that make for the purpose, the whiche and such others as you shall thinke meete to be set foorth to perswade the weake to embrace our proceedings in this parte, we pray you cause to be declared to the people by some discrete preachers in such places as you shal thinke meete, before the taking downe of the said altars: so as both the weake consciences of other may be instructed and satisfied as muche as may be, and this our pleasure the more quietly executed. For the better doing whereof, wee require you to open the foresaid considerations in that our cathedrall church in your own person, if you conueniently may, or otherwise by your Chancelour, or some other graue preacher, both there, & in such other market townes and moste notable places of your diocesse, as you may thinke most requisite. Geuen vnder our Signet, at our Pallace of Westminster, the 24. daye of Nouember, the 4 yeare of our raigne.

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Edward Somerset.
Thomas Cranmer.
William Wiltsher.
Iohn Warwike.
Iohn Bedford.
William North.
Edward Clinton.
H. Wentworth.
Thomas Ely.
Reasons why the Lordes boorde should rather be after the forme of a table, then of an aultare.
The first reason.

FIrst, the forme of a table shall more moue þe simple from the superstitious opinions of the Popish Masse, vnto MarginaliaConsiderations and reasons, why the table were more conuenient in the Church then the Altar.the right vse of the Lordes supper. For the vse of an altare is to make sacrifice vpon it: the vse of a table is to serue for men to eate vpon. Nowe when we come vnto the Lordes boorde, what do we come for? To sacrifice Christe agayne, and to crucifie hym againe? or to feede vppon hym that was once onely crucified, and offered vp for vs? If wee come to feede vppon him, spiritually to eate his body, and spiritually to drinke his bloud, which is the true vse of the Lordes supper, then no man can denie, but the forme of a table is more meete for the Lordes boorde, then the forme of an aultare.

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The second reason.

MarginaliaThe second reason.Item, where as it is sayde, the booke of common prayer maketh mention of an aultar, wherfore it is not lawfull to abolish that which that booke alloweth: to this is thus answeared: MarginaliaAunswere to certayne cauilers, which, take holde of the terme of Altar in the kinges booke.The booke of common prayer calleth the thing whereupon the Lordes supper is ministred, indifferently a Table, an Aultar, or the Lordes boord, without prescription of any forme thereof, either of a Table, or of an Aultare. So that whether the Lordes boorde haue the fourme of an Aultar, or of a table, the booke of common prayer calleth it both an Aultar and a Table. For as it calleth an Altar whereuppon the Lordes Supper is ministred, a table, and the Lordes boord, so it calleth the table where the holye Communion is distributed with laudes and thankes geuing vnto the Lorde, an Aultar, for that, that there is offered the same sacrifice of praise and thankes geuinge. MarginaliaThe table how it may be called Altar and in what respect. And thus it appeareth, that heere is nothing neither sayde nor meant contrary to the booke of common praier.

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The third reason.

Marginalia

The third reason.

This reason for taking away the superstitious opinion serueth also as well for the abolishing of other thinges moe beside Altars. &c.

Thirdlye, the Popishe opinion of Masse, was that it might not be celebrated but vppon an aultar, or at the least vpon a superaltare, to supply the fault of the altare, which must haue hadde hys printes and charectes, or else it was thought that the thing was not lawfully done. But thys superstitious opinion is more holden in the mindes of the simple and ignorant by the forme of an aultar, then of a table: wherfore it is more meete for the abolishment of thys superstitious opinion, to haue the Lordes boorde after the forme of a table, then of an altar.

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The fourth reason. The name of an altar how it is deriued, and what it signifieth.

Marginalia

The fourth reason.

The name of an altar how it is deriued, and what it signifieth.

Fourthly, the forme of an aultar was ordained for the Sacrifices of the Lawe, and therfore the aultar in Greeke is called xxx. Quasi Sacrificij locus. But nowe bothe the lawe and the Sacrifices thereof doe cease: Wherefore the fourme of the aultare vsed in the Lawe, ought to cease wythall.

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The fift reason.

Marginalia

The fifte reason.

Christ vsed a table and not an Altar.

Fiftly, Christe did institute the Sacrament of his bodye and bloud at his laste Supper at a Table, and not at an Aultare, as it appeareth manifestly by the three Euangelistes. And Saint Paule calleth the comming to the holy Communion, the comminge vnto the Lordes Supper. MarginaliaThe Altar neuer vsed among the Apostles.And also it is not read, that any of the Apostles or the Primitiue Church did euer vse any altare in the ministration of the holy Communion.

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Wherefore, seeing the forme of a Table is more agreeable with Christes institution, and with the vsage of the Apostles and of the Primitiue Churche, then the forme of an Aultar, therefore the forme of a Table is rather to be vsed, then the forme of an Aultare in the administration of the holy Communion.

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The sixt reason.

MarginaliaThe six reason.Finally, it is said in the preface of the booke of common prayer, that if any doubt doe arise in the vse and practising of the same booke, to appease all suche diuersitie, the matter shall be referred vnto the Bishop of the dioces, who by his discretion shall take order for the quieting and appeasinge of the same, so that the same order be not contrarye vnto any thing contained in that booke.

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After these letters and reasones receyued, the forenamed Nicholas Ridley Byshop of London, consequently vppon the same did hold his visitation, wherein amongst other his Iuiunctions, the sayde Bishoppe exhorted those Churches in his Diocesse, where the Aultars then did remaine, to confourme them selues vnto those other Churches whych had taken them downe, and had sette vp in the steade of the multitude of their Aultares, one decent Table in euery Church.

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Vppon the occasion whereof there arose a greate diuersitie aboute the fourme of the Lordes boorde, some vsing it after the fourme of a Table, and some of an aultare.

Wherein
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