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Ælfthryth (Ælfrida, Etheldritha, Ælfflaeda)

(fl. 794) [ODNB sub Æthelberht]

Daughter of Offa of Mercia; betrothed to Æthelberht of East Anglia

Æthelberht was murdered by Offa when he came to marry Ælfthryth. 1570, pp. 151, 154, 173; 1576, pp. 113, 115, 131; 1583, pp. 112, 114, 129.

 
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Ælfwald of East Anglia

(d. 749) [ODNB sub Kings of the East Angles]

King of the East Angles (713? - 719)

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Æthelberht of the East Angles (St Aethelberht)

(779/80 - 794) [ODNB]

King of the East Angles (794)

Son of Æthelred, king of the East Angles. Murdered by Offa of Mercia

Æthelberht came to Offa's court to marry his daughter. Offa had him murdered due to the counsel of his wife. 1570, pp. 151, 154; 1576, pp. 113, 115; 1583, pp. 112, 114.

Cynethryth, Offa's queen, suspected that Æthelberht was coming to Offa's court, under pretence of marrying their daughter, to murder him and the Mercians. 1570, p. 173; 1576, p. 131; 1583, p. 129.

Offa had Æthelberht brought in on his own and then had him beheaded. 1570, p. 173, 1576, p. 131, 1583, p. 129.

 
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Æthelhere of the East Angles

(d. 655) [ODNB sub Kings of the East Angles]

King of the East Angles (654? - 55)

Æthelhere was killed. 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Æthelthryth (St Etheldreda, Audrey)

(d. 679) [ODNB]

Queen of Northumbria (670 - before 678); abbess of Ely (673 - 679)

Daughter of Anna, king of East Anglia; married Tondberht, then Ecgfrith, king of Northumbria in 670. Friend of Cuthbert and Wilfred; consecrated nun in 672; founded double monastery at Ely in 673; divorced by 678.

Etheldreda refused her husband Ecgfrith sexual relations, lived abstemiously and obtained his permission to become a nun. 1570, p. 150; 1576, p. 112; 1583, p. 111.

 
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Æthelwald of the East Angles

(d. 664?) [ODNB sub Kings of the East Angles]

King of the East Angles (655 - 664?)

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Aethelburh

(fl. C7) [ODNB sub Anna]

Daughter of King Anna of the East Angles; abbess of the Frankish monastery at Faremoutiers-en-Brie

She is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Aldwulf of the East Angles

(d. 713) [ODNB sub Kings of the East Angles]

King of the East Angles (664 - 713)

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Anna of the East Angles

(d. 654?) [ODNB]

King of the East Angles; came to power after Penda of Mercia invaded and killed Ecgric; killed during an invasion by Penda

Anna was the father of three holy daughters: Æthelthryth, Seaxburh and Æthelburh. 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Arthur

(supp. fl. in or before C6) [ODNB]

Legendary warrior and supposed king of Britain

Arthur's reign gave peace to the Britons and to his successors. 1570, p. 153; 1576, p. 114; 1583, p. 113.

 
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Aurelius Ambrosius

(fl. C5) [ODNB]

Military leader of Romano-British forces against the Anglo-Saxons

Ambrosia and Uther repeatedly drove the Anglo-Saxons out of Britain. Geoffrey of Monmouth said that he had Hengist beheaded at Conisbrough. 1570, p. 148; 1576, p. 110; 1583, p. 109.

He was said to have killed Vortigern and fought against Aelle, king of the South Saxons. 1570, p. 152; 1576, p. 114; 1583, p. 113.

He was said to have been poisoned by Vortigern's son Pasgen. 1570, p. 153; 1576, p. 114; 1583, p. 113.

 
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Aurelius Conanus

Legendary C6 king of Britons following Constantine III

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 152; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Beonna of the East Angles

(fl. 749 - 794)[ODNB sub Kings of the East Angles]

King of East Angles (749x794) with Hun and Alberht

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Cedd (St Cedd)

(d. 664) [ODNB]

Trained at Lindisfarne; bishop of the East Saxons; missionary to the Middle Angles

Cedd was sent into the kingdom of the East Saxons after the conversion of King Sigeberht Sanctus. 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

Cedd was the second bishop of London, following Mellitus. 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

He was appointed prolocutor at the Synod of Whitby in 664. 1570, p. 165; 1576, p. 124; 1583, p. 123.

When King Oswiu decided in favour of the Roman position on the calculation of the date of Easter, Cedd agreed to accept it. 1570, p. 166; 1576, p. 125; 1583, p. 124.

 
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Cerdic (Carecius) of Wessex

Legendary founding king of Gewisse (Wessex) C6 [ODNB]

During the time of Cerdic, the Britons were driven from their lands. 1570, p. 152; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Constans

(d. 411) [ODNB sub Constantine III]

Son of Constantine III; monk at the time of his father's succession; appointed his father's caesar in 408; led army in Spain; promoted to augustus in 409, but the soldiers rebelled; killed by Gerontius in Vienne

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 147, 152; 1576, pp. 109, 113; 1583, pp. 108, 112.

 
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Constantine III

(d. 411) [ODNB; H. Elton, www.roman-emperors.org]

Proclaimed emperor in Britain (407 - 11) to replace Gratian; ruled Britain, Gaul and Spain; surrendered and executed

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 47; 1576, p. 109; 1583, p. 108.

 
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Cynethryth

(fl. c. 770 - 798) [ODNB]

Wife of King Offa and queen of Mercia; coins were issued in her name

Abbess of Cookham after her son Ecgfrith's death

Cynethryth suspected that Æthelberht, king of the East Angles, was coming to Offa's court, under pretence of marrying their daughter, to murder him and the Mercians. 1570, p. 173; 1576, p. 131; 1583, p. 129.

Cynethryth persuaded her husband to murder Æthelberht when he came to marry their daughter. 1570, pp. 151, 154; 1576, pp. 113, 115; 1583, pp. 112, 114.

She was reported to have died three months after the murder. 1570, p. 173; 1576, p. 131; 1583, p. 129.

 
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Earconwald (St Earconwald, Erkenwald)

(d. 693) [ODNB]

Abbot of Chertsey (c. 664 - 693); founded Barking Abbey

Bishop of the East Saxons (675/6 - 93)

Although Earconwald's legs would no longer allow him to walk or ride a horse, he rode in a litter to be able to preach throughout his diocese. 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Earpwald of East Anglia

(d. 627/8) [ODNB sub Rædwald]

Son of Rædwald; king of the East Angles (616x27 - 627/8)

Earpwald adopted Christianity fully through the efforts of King Eadwine of Northumbria 1570, pp. 151, 163; 1576, pp. 113, 122; 1583, pp. 112, 121.

 
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Ecgric of the East Angles

(d. c. 632) [ODNB sub Anna]

King of the East Angles; killed by Penda of Mercia

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Edmund (St Edmund)

(d. 869) [ODNB]

King of the East Angles (855? - 868); killed in battle by Vikings

Edmund ruled the East Angles under the West Saxons. He was the last of the East Anglian kings. 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

Edmund was warned by Hinguar that he was about to invade Norfolk and offered to allow Edmund to rule under him. Edmund refused to serve under a pagan duke, and would only agree if Hinguar would become a Christian. Hinguar immediately attacked, and Edmund was killed at Bury or at Hellesdon . 1570, p. 154; 1576, p. 115; 1583, pp. 114-15.

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Felix (St Felix)

(d. 647/8) [ODNB]

born Burgundy; bishop of the East Angles (630x31 - 647/8)

Ordained and sent by Honorius, archbishop of Canterbury, to preach; helped King Sigeberht establish a school

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Herbert de Losinga

(d. 1119) [ODNB]

Prior of Fécamp, Normandy; abbot of Ramsey 1087/8

Bishop of Thetford (1091 - 94); moved the see to Norwich, bishop of Norwich (1094 - 1119); built the cathedral at Norwich

Herbert, having moved the see to Norwich, built a monastery there. 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Malgo

Legendary king of the Britons C6 [ODNB sub John Dee]

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 152; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Maurice

(d. 1107) [ODNB]

Royal chaplain; chancellor (1078 - 85)

Bishop of London (1085 - 1107); crowned Henry I

Built a new St Paul's (the Anglo-Saxon one burnt down in 1087)

Foxe concludes that the church of St Paul's built by Maurice and his successor Richard was a replacement for an earlier one, possibly destroyed by Vikings. 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Offa of the East Saxons

(fl. 709) [ODNB sub Kings of the East Saxons]

Son of Sigehere of Essex; exercised authority during the reign of his brothers Sigeheard and Swæfred

Abdicated in 709; went to Rome with Cenred of Mercia

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Rædwald (Redwald) of East Anglia

(d. 616x27) [ODNB]

King of the East Angles (late C6/early C7 - 616x627); convert to Christianity

Rædwald was converted in Kent; later, through the influence of his wife, he combined Christianity with other gods. 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

Eadwine, when he was young, was persecuted by Æthelfrith, king of Northumbria, and fled to Rædwald. Rædwald, through fear of Æthelfrith and bribery, intended to betray Eadwine. His mind was changed by his wife, and he met Æthelfrith in battle, where Æthelfrith was killed. 1570, p. 161; 1576, p. 121; 1583, p. 120.

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Richard de Beaumis

Bishop of London (1108 - 28)

He continued the rebuilding of St Paul's, London, begun under Maurice. 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Sæbbi of the East Saxons

(d. 693/4) [ODNB sub kings of the East Saxons]

Son of King Seaxred of Essex; king of the East Saxons jointly with Sigehere; Christian convert; became monk before death

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Seaxburh (St Sexburga)

(in or before 655 - c. 700) [ODNB]

Eldest daughter of Anna, king of the East Angles

Queen of Kent, consort of King Eorcenberht

Abbess of Ely; succeeded her sister Aethelthryth

She is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Selered of the East Saxons

(d. 746) [ODNB sub Kings of the East Saxons]

King of the East Saxons C8

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Sigeberht I of the East Saxons (Sigeberht Parvus)

(fl. 626) [ODNB sub Kings of the East Saxons]

Pagan; king of the East Saxons (617 - at least 626)

Foxe says Sigeberht was killed by the West Saxon king Cynegils and his son Cwichelm. 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Sigeberht II of the East Saxons (Sigeberht Sanctus)

(fl. c. 653) [ODNB sub Kings of the East Saxons]

Probably son of King Saeward; converted to Christianity, baptised c. 653 by Finán

King of the East Saxons; murdered by kinsmen

Through the persuasions of his friend King Oswiu of Northumbria, Sigeberht was converted and baptised by Finán. 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112. [Foxe mistakenly refers to him as the king of the East Angles and names the king who persuaded him to convert as Wulfhere of Mercia]: 1570, p. 164; 1576, p. 123; 1583, p. 122.

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He was killed because he was too inclined to spare and forgive his enemies. 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Sigeberht of the East Angles

(fl. 630/31 - 654) [ODNB]

King of the East Angles C7; resigned and entered a monastery

Left to lead an army against Penda of Mercia, but refused to bear arms; killed in battle

Sigeberht was brought out of the monastery to fight Penda, but carried only a white stick into battle. 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Sigeheard of the East Saxons

(fl. 693/4) [ODNB sub kings of the East Saxons]

Son of Sigehere of the East Saxons; king of the East Saxons jointly with his brother Swæfred

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Sigehere of the East Saxons

(fl. 663 - 664) [ODNB sub kings of the East Saxons]

Probably son of Sigeberht Sanctus; king of the East Saxons jointly with Saebbi; reverted to paganism after the plague of 664

When Sigehere reverted to paganism, King Wulfhere of the Mercians, his overlord, took steps to restore Christianity. 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Swæfred of the East Saxons

(fl. 693/4) [ODNB sub kings of the East Saxons]

Son of Sigehere of the East Saxons; king of the East Saxons jointly with his brother Sigeheard

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Swithelm of the East Saxons

(d. 663) [ODNB sub Kings of the East Saxons]

Son of Seaxbald; king of the East Saxons; baptized by Cedd in the royal palace

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Swithred of the East Saxons

(fl. c. 746) [ODNB sub Kings of the East Saxons]

King of the East Saxons C8

Swithred's kingdom was conquered by Ecgberht of the West Saxons. 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Tytilus of East Anglia

Possibly C6 king of the East Angles [ODNB sub Rædwald]; father of Rædwald, according to Bede

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Uther Pendragon

(supp. fl. late C5) [ODNB sub Arthur]

Breton king of sub-Roman Britain

He and Aurelius Ambrosius repeatedly drove the Anglo-Saxons out of Britain, but in the end were forced into Wales. He was said to have killed King Eormenric of Kent. 1570, p. 148; 1576, p. 110; 1583, p. 109.

Uther defeated and captured Kings Osca and Octa. They escaped and returned with reinforcements. Uther was too ill to fight, but he had himself taken on his bed into the camp, and his troops were victorious. Soon after, Uther died of poison. 1570, p. 153; 1576, p. 114; 1583, p. 113.

 
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Vorteporius

(fl. c. 540 [ODNB]

King of the Demetae

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 152; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Vortigern

(fl. C5) [ODNB]

Ruler in Britain; reputed to be responsible for inviting the Anglo-Saxons into Britain

Vortigern caused Constans to be murdered, then sent for aid to the Anglo-Saxons and married Rowen, the daughter of Hengist. He was betrayed by the Anglo-Saxons. 1570, p. 148; 1576, p. 109; 1583, p. 108.

Vortigern was justly deposed by the British nobility and replaced with Vortimer. After Vortimer's death, he regained the throne. Through the trickery of Hengist and Rowen, his men were defeated in battle. He was captured and ransomed for all the major cities in the land. He fled into Wales and was killed by Ambrosius Aurelianus. 1570, p. 152; 1576, p. 114; 1583, p. 113.

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Vortimer

C5 legendary son of Vortigern [ODNB sub Vortigern]; said to have fought for a time against the Anglo-Saxons

Vortimer replaced Vortigern after he had been desposed. Vortimer drove the Anglo-Saxons out, but was poisoned at the instigation of Rowen, daughter of Hengist and wife of Vortigern. 1570, pp. 147, 152; 1576, pp. 109, 114; 1583, pp. 108, 113.

 
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Wine

(fl. c. 660 - c. 675) [ODNB]

1st bishop of Winchester (c. 660 - 663/6); purchased the see of the East Saxons, based at London

Wine was guilty of simony. 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Dunwich (now mainly submerged)

Suffolk

OS grid ref: TM 475 705

 
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Elmham (North Elmham)

Norfolk

OS grid ref: TF 985 205

 
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Norwich
NGR: TG 230 070

A city and county of itself, locally in the hundred of Humbleyard, county of Norfolk, of which it is the capital. 108 miles north-east by north from London. The city comprises 33 parishes, and the liberty of the city a further four. Of these 37, three are rectories, 12 are discharged rectories, three are vicarages, one is a discharged vicarage, and 18 are perpetual curacies. St Andrew, St Helen, St James, St Paul and Lakenham are within the peculiar jurisdiction of the Dean and Chapter; the rest are in the Archdeaconry and Diocese of Norwich, of which the city is the seat.

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Further information:

Andrews church (now St Andrews Hall) is at the junction of St Andrews Street and Elm Hill.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Thetford
NGR: TL 870 830

A borough possessing exclusive jurisdiction, locally in the hundred of Shropham, county of Norfolk, but partly in the hundred of Lackford, county of Suffolk. 30 miles south-west from Norwich. The borough comprises the parishes of St Cuthbert, St Peter and St Mary the Less, all in the Archdeaconry and Diocese of Norwich. St Cuthbert's is a discharged rectory with Holy Trinity annexed; St Peters is a discharged rectory with St Nicholas annexed; St Mary the Less is a perpetual curacy.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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135 [112]

Eastangles. Kinges of the East Saxons.
MarginaliaThe kings of the East saxons.Sigebertus paruus.23This Sigebertus Paruus with his brother Sebertus were slayne of Kynegilsus and Swithelinus his brother, by the iust iudgement of God, for they reuolted againe from their Faith, and expelled Mellitus Bishop of London.
Segebertus Bonus, or Sibertus, slaine.This Segebertus Bonus or Sibertus, much resorting to Oswy, king of Northumberland, by his perswasion was brought to Christiā baptisme, baptised of Finianus Bish. to whō also was sent Cedde with other ministers to preache & to baptise in hys countrey. At last he was slaine of his mē about him, vsing to much to spare his enemies, & to forgeue their iniuries that repented. Flor.
Swythelinus.14
Sigherius, sonne of Segebertus Paruus.
Sebbi Sonne of Sewardus, which was made a Monke.
This Sigherius and Sebbi first fell to Idolatry, then through the meanes of Wolferus King of Mercia, were reduced, & at last Sebby becaume a Monke.
Sigehardus, and Suefridus, brethren.8
Offa.5Offa after hee had raigned a while, became a Monke at Rome.
Selredus, or Colredus, slaine.38
Swithredus,

Thys Swithredus was subdued vnto Egbert King of Westsaxons, Albeit London remained vnder the Merciās to the time that they also were subdued to the Westsaxons. This kingdom began. An. 561. and so continued till the time of Egbertus. Some stories say it continued to the time of Edward sonne of Aluredus, about the cōming of the Danes, and contained vnder it the Lordship of Midlesex and London. The Metropolitane sea of this prouince of Essex was London, where the famous Church of S. Paul was builded by Ethelbert king of Kent, and Sigebert king of Essex, whō Ethelbert had lately before turned to Christes faith: wherof the first bishop was Mellitus, the ij. byshop was Cedus, þe third came in by Simonie, whose name was Wine. Malmesb. de vitis Pont. After him was Erkenwaldus, of whom writeth Bede, that he being diseased in hys legges that he could neither go nor ride, yet would be caried about in a litter to preach in his Dioces. &c. Although W. Malmesb. wryting of the Byshoppes of London in his booke De vitis Ponti sayth that Mauritius first the kings Chauncelor, then Byshop there, did first begin this so large and famous building of the Church of S. Paul in London: Which worke after him Richardus his successour did prosecute, bestowing al the rents of his Bishopricke vpon the same, and yet was scarsely seene: yet herein may be answered peraduenture, that the Church builded before by King Ethelbert, and king Sigebert, myght be ouerthrowen by the Danes, and afterward was reedified by these Bishops aboue mentioned.

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Marginalia(561) Eastangles.¶ The kinges of the Eastangles, with the yeares of their raigne.
MarginaliaThe kings of the East angles.Vffa, or Vlfa,30Of thys Vffa the people of Northfolke were then called Vfkyns.
Titulus, or Titila.13
Redwaldus.12Redwaldus first was conuerted in Kent: afterwarde through the wicked perswasion of his wife and other, ioyned Idolatry with Christianitie.
Erpwaldus, or Corpwaldus, slaine.38Notwythstanding his sonne Erpwaldus through the meanes of Edwyn king of Northūberland, was brought to the perfect faith of Christ, & therein faithfully did continue.
Sigebertus, or Sibrect first a mōke slaine.3Thys Sigebert made hym selfe a Monke, and afterwarde brought out to fighte agaynst Penda, wyth a white sticke in hys hande, was slayne in the field.
Egnicus, or Egrcus, slaine.
3
Anna, slaine.3The daughters of Anna were Sexburga, Ethelberta, and Saint Etheldreda.
Adelhere, or Adelredus, slaine.2
Adelwoldus, or Ethelbaldus9
Adulphus.25
Elkwoldus.12
Beorna.26
Ethelredus, slaine.52This Ethelredus for hys holinesse & goldly vertues is counted for a Saint, he innocently comming to Offa kyng of Mercia to marrie wyth Althrid hys Daughter, by the sinister suspicion of Offa, and wicked counsaile of Kineswina his wife, was cruelly put to death in þe house of Offa. For the which cause Offa afterward repenting went to Rome, where he made him selfe a Monke.
Ethelbritus, slaine.5

Kinges of Britaine.

¶ After this sinfull murther of Ethelbert, the kingdome of Eastangles during the time of certaine yeares, was in great trouble and desolation, vnder diuers kings and tyrants, sometime the king of Westsaxe, somtimes of Kent, or of Mercia, hauing dominon ouer them, till the comming of S. Edmund, whych was the last King there ruling vnder the Westsaxons.

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S. Edmund, Martyred.16

¶ After the death of S.Edmund, being slaine of the Infidel Danes, the kingdom remained with the Danes. 50. yeares, till at length Edward King of the Westsaxons, expulsed the Danes, and ioyned it to hys kingdome. It began about the yere of our Lord. 561. and continued neare about 377. yeares. Fabian numbreth but 12. kinges, but in other I finde moe.

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The Metropolitane sea of this prouince of Eastangles, which was first at a towne called Dunmoke, or Dūwich MarginaliaThis Dunwich lyeth vpon the sea side in Suffolke. (which in time past hath bene a famous & populous towne wt a maior & 4. bailifs, & also diuers Parish Churches, & hospitals, whereunto great priuiledges by diuers kings haue bene graunted, whych towne is nowe fallen into ruine and decay, and more then half consumed by the eating in of the Sea, as also greatly impouerished by losse of the Hauen, which heretofore hath flourished wyth diuers tall shippes belonging to the same (the inhabitantes therof being not able of them selues to repaire it wythout the helpe of other good people,) where the first bishop was Felix, a Burgundian, who sate there 14. yeres. After this, vnto the time of Egbert King of Westsaxe, thys prouince was euer ruled by two Bishops, wherof the one had hys sea at Dunmoke, now called Dunwich. The other at Hemaham, where 12. sate, one after an other. From thence it was translated to Thetford, where sate three Bishops. At last by Byshoppe Herbert it was remooued to Norwich, where he erected a Monasterie of Monkes.

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And thus standeth the order and race of the Saxon kinges, raigning together wyth the Britaines in thys Realme. Nowe foloweth the description of the Britayne kings, raigning with the Saxons in like maner.

Although the miserable Britaines thus were beriued of their land, by the cruel subtilty of the Saxons, yet were they not so driuē out or expulsed, but that a certaine kingdom remained amōg them, in some part of the lād, namely about Cornewall, and the partes of Cambria, which is deuided in two partes, Southwales, called Demetia, and Northwales called Venedocia. The sayd Britaines moreouer through the valiant actes of their kings, sometimes raigned also in other countreis, displacing the Saxons, & recouering againe their owne: somtimes more, somtimes lesse, till the time of Carecius, when as the Britaines being deposed by Godmundus, (whose help they themselues sent for out of Irelande, agaynst Carecius theyr wicked King) vtterly lost their land and kingdome: being thence driuen vtterly into Wales and Cornewale, the yere of our Lorde 570. What the order of these kings was, what were theyr actes, their names, and times when they raigned: in this briefe table vnder wrytten is expressed. Wherein first is to be premonished that Constantinus secundus had three childrē, to wit, Constans, whych was made a Monke in Winchester, and after made a king: the seconde was Aurelius Ambrosius: the thirde was Vter Pendragon. This being premised, we wil now enter the description of our Table, beginning with Vortigernus. 

Commentary  *  Close

The introductory text to this table was furnished from Matthew Paris' Flores Historiarum (H. R. Luard, ed. Matthew Paris. Flores Historiarum 3 vols [London: Rolls Series, 1890], 1, p. 280-1). The table of regnal succession could also have derived from that source, from Henry of Huntingdon's Chronicle (T. Arnold, ed. Henry of Huntingdon. Henrici Huntendunensis Historia Anglorum, the History of the English, by Henry, Archdeacon of Huntingdon, from B. C. 55 to A. D. 1154 [London: Rolls Series, 1879], book 8, ch. 10) or from Fabian's Chronicle. On the death of Hengist, Foxe mentions Geoffrey of Monmouth. Elsewhere in book 2, Foxe was inclined to cite this source indirectly (especially through Bale's Catalogus or the English Votaries). Here, however, it seems plausible that Foxe consulted the source directly, despite its controversial nature, perhaps believing that on matters related to King Arthur, it might have retained credibility. He also used the 'Historia Cariana' a manuscript formerly belonging to William Carye - see A. G. Watson, 'Christopher and William Carye, Collectors of Monastic Manuscripts, and John Carye', The Library, 5th series 20 (1965), pp. 135-42. This now-lost manuscript may well be the source for the Gildas reference which he also cites since it does not appear elsewhere. On the reign of King Arthur, Foxe turned to Fabian's Chronicle (R. Fabyan, The Chronicle of Fabian [London, 1559], book 5, ch. 104), picking up from that source his own skepticism about King Arthur's time in France. For the long Latin citation on 'the causes of the destruction of the Britains declared', Foxe declares that he has taken the source 'here out of an olde author, and partly out of Gildas, as I haye found it'. How should we construe this Delphic reference? The citation is to be found, almost word for word, in Geoffrey of Monmouth (ch. 195). So perhaps we should accept that here, as elsewhere in this table, Foxe made direct use of that source. In which case, we must explain his reluctance to admit his direct source as resulting from the doubts raised over its legitimacy by Polydore Vergil. An alternative hypothesis, however, is that Foxe was referring to the now-lost manuscript which had been in the possession of William of Carye, referred to elsewhere as the 'Historia Cariana', and from which Foxe seems to have derived other material that he believed came from Gildas. The hypothesis rests, however, no more than that at this stage.

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¶ A Table declaring the Kings of Britayne, which raigned together with the Saxones, after their comming into this land.
Kings of Britaine whiche here raigned in the time of the Saxones.Vortigernus.Constantinus 3.
Vortimerius.Aurelius.
Vortigernus, againe.Conanus.
Aurelius Ambrosius.Vortiperius.
Vter Pendragon.Malgo.
Arthurus.Carecius.

Here is to be vnderstand that these Britaine kings aboue mentioned, did not so raign here in this land, frō the time of Vortigerne, that they had the full possession and gouernement ouer all the whole realme: but only ouer parcels or partes, such as by force of armes, the could either

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