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Richard Rich

(1496/7 - 1567) [ODNB; Bindoff]

Solicitor-general (1533 - 36); JP Essex, Hertfordshire (1528 - death); privy councillor (1540 - 58); MP Colchester 1529, MP Essex 1536, 1539, 1542, 1545; speaker of the House of Commons 1536

Lord chancellor (1547 - 51); 1st Baron Rich 1547

Richard Rich and Edmund Bonner attempted to persuade Anne Askew to change her views after her condemnation. Rich then sent her to the Tower. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1418; 1576, p. 1209; 1583, p. 1238.

Rich and Sir John Baker went to Anne Askew in the Tower and tried to get her to incriminate others. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1418; 1576, p. 1209; 1583, p. 1238.

Sir Anthony Knyvet had his jailer rack Anne Askew. When Knyvet refused to have the racking continued, Richard Rich and Thomas Wriothesley racked her themselves. She refused to give any information, but was released by Knyvet. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1418; 1576, p. 1209; 1583, p. 1239.

Richard Rich was a signatory to a letter from the council to the bishops, instructing them to administer communion in two kinds. 1570, p. 1491; 1576, p. 1264; 1583, p. 1301.

He was a signatory to a letter from the council to Edmund Bonner, instructing that he cease to allow private masses in St Paul's. 1563, pp. 692-93; 1570, p. 1493; 1576, p. 1265; 1583, p. 1302.

Lord Rich spoke to the assembled justices of the peace, urging them to work assiduously to keep order in the realm and especially to further the king's religious reforms. 1570, p. 1493; 1576, p. 1265; 1583, p. 1302.

Lord Rich was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, pp. 821-22.

Lord Rich was one of the signatories to the proclamation against Edward Seymour calling for his removal. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1318; 1583, p. 1368.

After Edmund Bonner was sentenced to prison and deprived of his bishopric, the king appointed Lord Rich, Henry marquess of Dorset, Thomas Goodrich, Lord Wentworth, Sir Anthony Wingfield, Sir William Herbert, Nicholas Wotton, Edward Montague, Sir John Baker, Judge Hales, John Gosnold, John Oliver and Griffith Leyson to examine his documents. They confirmed the sentence against him. 1563, p. 725; 1570, p. 1519; 1576, pp. 1287-88; 1583, p. 1330.

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The king sent Richard Lord Rich, Sir Anthony Wingfield and Sir William Petre to his sister, Lady Mary, to ensure she and her household complied with the new laws on religion. 1576, pp. 1296-97; 1583, pp. 1338-39.

 
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Sir Anthony Wingfield

(ante 1488 - 1552) [ODNB; Bindoff]

Soldier, administrator. MP Suffolk 1529, 1539, 1542, 1547; MP Horsham 1545; JP Suffolk (1510 - death); sheriff Norfolk and Suffolk (1515 - 16); privy councillor (1539 - death)

Vice-chamberlain (1539 - 50); captain of the guard 1539; comptroller of the royal household (1550 - 52)

Sir Anthony Wingfield attended the examination of John Marbeck. When Marbeck was returned to the Marshalsea, Wingfield ordered that he be treated kindly and that his money be protected. 1570, p. 1390; 1576, p. 1186; 1583, p. 1214.

Wingfield was one of the signatories of the letter of the council addressed to Thomas Cranmer ordering the abolishing of images in all churches in the archdiocese. 1563, p. 692; 1570, p. 1490; 1576, p. 1263; 1583, p. 1300.

He was a signatory to a letter from the council to the bishops, instructing them to administer communion in two kinds. 1570, p. 1491; 1576, p. 1264; 1583, p. 1301.

Stephen Gardiner preached a sermon contrary to the king's injunctions. He was arrested and taken to the Tower by Sir Anthony Wingfield and Sir Ralph Sadler; Sadler and William Hunnings were instructed to seal off doors to his house. He was transferred to the Fleet. 1563, pp. 728, 760; 1570, pp. 1521, 1529; 1576, pp. 1297, 1304; 1583, pp. 1340, 1353-54.

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Anthony Wingfield was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, pp. 804-5

After Edmund Bonner was sentenced to prison and deprived of his bishopric, the king appointed Lord Rich, Henry marquess of Dorset, Thomas Goodrich, Lord Wentworth, Sir Anthony Wingfield, Sir William Herbert, Nicholas Wotton, Edward Montague, Sir John Baker, Judge Hales, John Gosnold, John Oliver and Griffith Leyson to examine his documents. They confirmed the sentence against him. 1563, p. 725; 1570, p. 1519; 1576, pp. 1287-88; 1583, p. 1330.

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The king sent Richard Lord Rich, Sir Anthony Wingfield and Sir William Petre to his sister, Lady Mary, to ensure she and her household complied with the new laws on religion. 1576, pp. 1296-97; 1583, pp. 1338-39.

 
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Sir William Petre

(1505/6 - 1572) [ODNB]

Administrator; BCL Oxford 1526, BCanL 1526, DCL 1533

Privy councillor 1544; principal secretary to Edward VI

William Petre was a signatory to a letter to the king's commissioners relating Bishop Bonner's recantation of his protestation. 1570, p. 1502; 1576, p. 1273; 1583, p. 1310.

William Petre was a signatory to a letter from the council to the bishops, instructing them to administer communion in two kinds. 1570, p. 1491; 1576, p. 1264; 1583, p. 1301.

Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, Nicholas Ridley, bishop of Rochester, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May, dean of St Paul's, were commissioned to examine Edmund Bonner. 1563, p. 697; 1570, p. 1504; 1576, p. 1275; 1583, p. 1312.

Bonner was summoned to appear before the commissioners. He behaved haughtily, ridiculing his accusers and the commissioners, and spoke in favour of the mass. He appeared first on 10 September 1549 before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre and William May. Sir Thomas Smith was absent. 1563, pp. 698-99; 1570, pp. 1504-06; 1576, pp. 1275-77; 1583, pp. 1312-14.

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Bonner appeared for the second time on 13 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May and was further examined. 1563, pp. 699-704; 1570, pp. 1506-08; 1576, pp. 1277-79; 1583, pp. 1314-17.

The king sent Richard Lord Rich, Sir Anthony Wingfield and Sir William Petre to his sister, Lady Mary, to ensure she and her household complied with the new laws on religion. 1576, pp. 1296-97; 1583, pp. 1338-39.

Edward Seymour sent William Petre with a message to the lords opposing him, who kept Petre with them awaiting a reply. 1570, p. 1546; 1576, p. 1318; 1583, p. 1368.

William Petre was one of the signatories to the proclamation against Edward Seymour calling for his removal. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1318; 1583, p. 1368.

He was one of the signatories to the letter to the lord mayor and common council of London from the lords opposing Edward Seymour. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1319; 1583, p. 1369.

Edward Seymour, John Russell, John Dudley and Sir William Petre visited Stephen Gardiner in the Tower at various times to attempt to get him to accept the king's reforms. 1563, pp. 766; 1570, p. 1532; 1576, p. 1306; 1583, p. 1356.

After Gardiner had been in the Tower for nearly a year, Sir William Paulet and Sir William Petre visited and urged him to admit his fault. Paulet, Petre, the earl of Warwick and Sir William Herbert delivered the king's letters to him. 1563, pp. 761-62; 1570, pp. 1529-30; 1576, p. 1304; 1583, p. 1354.

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When Sir William Herbert and Sir William Petre went to Stephen Gardiner in the Tower with new articles, they took with them a canon and a civil lawyer: Nicholas Ridley and Richard Goodrich. 1563, p. 768; 1570, p. 1534; 1576, p. 1307; 1583, p. 1357.

After Gardiner's sequestration, Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Henry Holbeach, Sir William Petre, Sir James Hales, Griffith Leyson, John Oliver and John Gosnold were commissioned to examine him. 1563, p. 776; 1570, p. 1535; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1358.

 
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Beaulieu Palace

[Beauliene; Beaulien]

Boreham, Chelmsford, Essex

OS grid ref: TL 755 095

 
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Windsor
NGR: SU 967 768

A borough, market town and parish having separate jurisdiction, locally in the hundred of Ripplesmere, county of Berkshire. 20 mile east by north from Reading, 22.5 miles west by south from London. The castle, built by Henry I, occupies more than 12 acres of ground, comprising upper, lower and middle wards. A principal royal residence in Tudor times. The living [of the town] is a discharged vicarage in the Archdeaconry of Berkshire, Diocese of Salisbury.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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1362 [1338]

K. Edw 6. Letters of the king to the Lady Mary. Her letters agayne to the king.

MarginaliaAnno 1550.haue my Chaplayne D. Mallet discharged of his imprisonmente) your gentle message in generall wordes, for the whyche I geue you my hartye thankes: yet haue I no knowledge whether you will set him at liberty or no: But I thinke that your waighty affayres at that time, was the let and cause ye did not write. For else I doubt not you would haue aunswered me. Wherefore not being satisfied, and vnderstandyng yee would gladly pleasure mee, I thought good eftsoones to desire you, that my sayde Chaplayne may haue his libertye, wherein I assure you, yee shall much gratifie me, beeing not a little troubled, that he is so long in prison, without iust cause, seeyng the matter of hys imprisonmente is discharged by the promise made to the Emperours Maiestie, as in my late letter I declared vnto you. Wherefore my Lordes, I pray you let me haue knowledge by this bearer how ye will vse me in this matter, wherein if ye do pleasure me accordingly, then shall it well appeare that ye regard the foresayd promise, and I wil not forget your gentlenes therein (God willing) but requite it to my power. And thus with my harty commendations to you all, I bid you all farewell. From Beaulien the 21. of Iune.

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Your assured friend to my power Mary.

¶ The Counsaile to the Lady Mary, the 24. of Iune. 1551.

AFter our humble cōmendatiōs to your grace, we haue receiued your graces letter of the 21. heereof, wherin is receaued the same request that in your former letters hath bene made for the release of Doctor Mallet, and therein also your grace seemeth to haue looked for the same answer of your former letter, þe which indeed partly was omitted (as your grace cōiectureth) by the reason of þe Kings Maiesties affaires: wherwith we be throughly occupied, partly for that we had no other thing to answere, then you had heeretofore heard in the same matter. And therefore where your grace desireth a resolute answere, we assure the same we be right sory for þe matter, & that it should be your graces chaunce to moue it, as we cannot, with our duties to þe Kings Maiestie, accomplishe your desire. So necessary a thing it is to see the lawes of the Realme executed indifferently in all manner of persons, and in these cases of contempt of the Ecclesiasticall orders of this Church of England, the same may not without þe great displeasure of God the slaunder of þe state be neglected, and therfore your grace may please to vnderstand we haue not only punished your Chaplein, but all such others whom we find in like case to haue disobeyed the lawes of the Kings maiestie. And touching the excuse your grace oftentimes vseth, of a promise made, we assure your grace, none of vs al, nor any other of the Counsell as your grace hath bene certified, hath euer bene priuie to any such promise, otherwise then hath bene written. And in that matter your grace had plaine answer both by vs of the kings maiesties Counsell, at your being last in his Maiesties presence, and therein also your grace might perceiue his Maiesties determination, whereunto we beseech your grace not only to incline your selfe, but also to iudge well of vs that do addict our selues to doe our dueties. And so also shall we be ready to do with all oure harts, our due reuerence towarde your grace, whose preseruation we commend to almighty God with our praier.

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The copie of the Lady Maryes letter to the Kings Maiestie.

MY duetie most humbly remembred vnto your Maiesty, it may please the same to be aduertised, that I haue receyued by my seruauntes, your most honourable letters, the contentes whereof do not a little trouble me, and so muche the more, for that any of my sayd seruants should moue or attempt me in matters touching my soule, which I thinke the meanest subiect within your highnes Realme, could euill beare at their seruauntes handes, hauing for my part vtterly refused heeretofore to talke with them in such matters, and of all other persons least regarded them therein, to whome I haue declared what I thinke, as shee which trusted that your Maiestie woulde haue suffered mee your poore sister and beadewomā to haue vsed the accustomed masse, which the King your father & mine with all his predecessours did euermore vse, wherein also I haue ben brought vp frō my youth. And therevnto my conscience doth not only bind me, which by no meanes will suffer me to thinke one thing and do another, but also the promise made to the Emperour by your Maiesties counsaile, was an assurance to me, that in so doing I should not offend the lawes, although they seeme nowe to qualifie and denye the thing. And at my last wayting vpon your Maiesty, I was to bolde to declare my mind and conscience to the same, and desired your highnes, rather then you should constraine me to leaue Masse, to take my life: wherunto your maiesty made me a very gētle answer. And now I most humbly beseech your highnes to geue me leaue to write what I thinke touching your Maiesties letters. In deede,they be signed with your owne hand, and neuertheles in mine opiniō not your maiesties in effect, because it is wel knowē (as heretofore I haue declared in the presēce of your highnesse) that although, our Lorde be praysed, your Maiestie hath farre more knowledge, and greater giftes then others of your yeres, yet it is not possible that your highnes can at these yeares be a iudge in matters of religion: and therefore I take it that the matter in your letters proceedeth from such as doe with those thinges to take place, which be most agreeable to themselues by whose doinges your maiesty not offended, I entend not to rule my conscience. And thus without molesting your Highnes any further, I humbly beseech the same, euē for Gods sake to beare with me, as you haue done, and not to thinke that by my doinges or example anye inconuenience might growe to your maiestie or your Realme, for I vse it not after such sorte putting no doubt but in time to come, whether I liue or dye, your maiestie shall perceaue that mine intent is grounded vpon a true loue towardes you, whose royall estate I beseeche almighty God long to continue, which is and shall be my dayly praier according to my duety. And after pardon craued of your maiesty for these rude and bold letters, if neyther at my humble suite, nor for the regard of the promise made to the Emperour, your Highnesse will suffer and beare with mee, as you haue done till your Maiestye may be a iudge herein your selfe, and rightly vnderstand theyr proceedinges, (of whiche your goodnesse yet I despayre not) otherwise, rather then to offend God and my conscience, I offer my body at your wil, and death shall be more welcome then life with a troubled conscience, most humbly beseeching your Maiestye to pardon my slownes in aunswering your letters. For mine olde disease woulde not suffer me to write any sooner. And thus I praye almighty God to keep your Maiesty in all vertue and honor with good health and long life to his pleasure. From my poore house at Copped hall. the xix. of Aug.

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Your Maiesties most humble sister, Mary.

¶ A Copy of the kinges maiesties letters to the sayde Lady Mary.

RIight deare and right intirely beloued sister, we greete you well, and let you knowe that it greeueth vs muche to perceiue no amendment in you, of that which we for Gods cause, your soules health, our conscience, and the common tranquillity of our Realme, haue so long desired, assuring you that our sufferance hath muche more demonstration of naturall loue, then contentation of our conscience and foresight of our safety. Wherfore although you geue vs occasion as much almost as in you is to diminish our naturall loue: yet be we loth to feele it decay, and meane not to be so carelesse of you as we be prouoked.

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And therefore meaning your weale, and therwith ioyning a care not to be found giltie in our conscience to God, hauyng cause to require forgeuenes that we haue so long for respect of loue towards you omitted our bounden duety, we send at this present our right trusty and right welbeloued counsaylor the Lord R. or Chauncelour of England, and our trustye and right welbeloued Counsaylers, Sir A. W. Knight, Comptroler of our housholde and Sir W. P. Knight, one of our principall Secretaries in message to you, touching the order of your house, wylling you to geue them firme credite in those thinges they shall say to you from vs, and doe there in our name. Yeauen vnder our signet at our Castle of Winsor, the 24. of August, in the first yeare of our Raigne.

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A copy of the kinges Maiesties instructions, geuen to the said L. C. sir A. W. and sir W. P. Knightes, &c. 24. August. 1551.

FIrst, you the sayd Lorde Chauncellor and your Colleagues shall make your immediate repayre to the sayd Lady Mary geuing to her his maiesties hartye commendations, and shewe the cause of your comming to be as followeth

Although his maiesty hath long time, as well by his maiestyes owne mouth and writing, as by his counsayle trauayled that the sayd Lady being his sister, and a principall subiect and member of his Realme, should both be in deede and also shew her selfe conformable to the lawes and ordinaunces of the realme, in the profession and rites of Religion, vsing all the gētle meanes of exhortation and aduise that could be deuised, to the intent the reformation of the faulte might willingly come of her selfe, as the expectation and desire of his maiesty, and all good wise men was: yet notwithstanding his maiestie seeth that hetherto no maner of amendment hath followed, but by the continuance of the errour and manifest breach of his lawes, no small perill consequently may happe to the state of hys Realme, especially the sufferaunce of such a fault being directly to the dishonor of God and the great offence of his Maiesties conscience, and all other good men: and therefore of late,

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euen
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