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Charles V

(1500 - 1558) [C. Scott Dixon, M. Greengrass, www.leedstrinity.ac.uk/histcourse/reformat/biograph.htm]

Duke of Burgundy; king of Spain (1516 - 56)

Holy Roman Emperor (1520 - 56); abdicated the Spanish throne in favour of son Phillip II of Spain and the imperial throne in favour of brother Ferdinand

Charles V had promised to marry Princess Mary, daughter of Henry VIII, but bowed to objections in Spain that the marriage of her parents had been irregular. He married Isabella of Portugal instead. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Henry VIII, encouraged by Cardinal Wolsey, began to question the validity of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. He sought the advice of universities and learned men, but needed the assent of the pope and the emperor to a divorce. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

After the Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII attempted to improve relations with other monarchs by sending ambassadors. Sir Thomas Wyatt was sent to Emperor Charles V. 1570, p. 1218; 1576, p. 1043; 1583, p. 1070.

The emperor and other princes requested Henry VIII to attend the council to be held at Mantua or to send delegates. Henry again refused, sending a protestation. 1570, pp. 1293-94; 1576, pp. 1106-08; 1583, pp. 1132-33.

Francois I of France and Emperor Charles V retained Robert Granceter, a condemned traitor, and refused to hand him over to Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

Charles V requested of Edward VI that his cousin Mary Tudor be allowed to have the mass said in her house. The request was denied. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

 
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João III (the Pious)

(1502 - 1557)

King of Portugal (1521 - 57)

William Gardiner was living in Lisbon at the time of the celebration of the marriage between João Manuel, son of the king of Portugal, and Joan of Spain. 1563, p. 876; 1570, p. 1542; 1576, p. 1314; 1583, p. 1364.

At the time of the marriage, Gardiner attended a mass and was distressed at the people's reaction to the sacrament. He settled his accounts and renounced the world. The next Sunday during mass, he grabbed the host out of the cardinal's hand and trod it under foot. He was wounded, but the king cried out and saved him. 1563, pp. 876-77; 1570, pp. 1542-43; 1576, p. 1315; 1583, p. 1365.

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Gardiner was brought before the king and examined. He was tortured, his hands were cut off and he was burnt. 1563, pp. 877-78; 1570, pp. 1543-44; 1576, pp. 1315-16; 1583, pp. 1366-67.

 
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João Manuel of Portugal

(1537 - 1554)

Son of King João III of Portugal; married Joan of Spain in 1552; his posthumous son became King Sebastian I

William Gardiner was living in Lisbon at the time of the celebration of the marriage between João Manuel of Portugal and Joan of Spain. 1563, p. 876; 1570, p. 1542; 1576, p. 1314; 1583, p. 1364.

 
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Joan of Spain

(1535 - 1573)

Daughter of Emperor Charles V; married João Manuel of Portugal in 1552; mother of King Sebastian I of Portugal; regent in Spain while brother Philip II was in England

William Gardiner was living in Lisbon at the time of the celebration of the marriage between João Manuel of Portugal and Joan of Spain. 1563, p. 876; 1570, p. 1542; 1576, p. 1314; 1583, p. 1364.

 
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Mr Paget

Merchant of Bristol

William Gardiner was apprenticed to Paget, and when he was about 26 years old, Paget sent him to Spain. 1563, p. 875; 1570, p. 1542; 1576, p. 1314; 1583, p. 1364.

 
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William Gardiner

(d. 1552)

Merchant of Bristol. Martyred in Lisbon

William Gardiner was apprenticed to Paget, and when he was about 26 years old, Paget sent him to Spain. The ship stopped at Lisbon, and Gardiner remained there, learning the language and carrying out business on behalf of his master. 1563, p. 875; 1570, p. 1542; 1576, p. 1314; 1583, p. 1364.

At the time of the marriage of João Manuel of Portugal and Joan of Spain, Gardiner attended a mass and was distressed at the people's reaction to the sacrament. He settled his accounts and renounced the world. The next Sunday during mass, he grabbed the host out of the cardinal's hand and trod it under foot. He was wounded, but the king cried out and saved him. 1563, pp. 876-77; 1570, pp. 1542-43; 1576, p. 1315; 1583, p. 1365.

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Gardiner was brought before the king and examined. He was tortured, his hands were cut off and he was burnt. 1563, pp. 877-78; 1570, pp. 1543-44; 1576, pp. 1315-16; 1583, pp. 1366-67.

 
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Bristol
Bristoll, Brystoll, Bristow, Bristowe
NGR: ST 590 730

A city and county of itself, between the counties of Gloucester and Somerset. 34 miles south-west by south from Gloucester, 12 miles north-west from Bath. Bristol is the seat of a diocese, established in 1542. The city comprises the parishes of All Saints, St. Augustine, Christ Church, St. Owen, St. John Baptist, St. Leonard, St. Mary le Port, St. Mary Redcliffe, St. Michael, St. Nicholas, St. Peter, St. Werburgh, St. Stephen and St. Thomas. Also the Temple parish, and parts of St. James, St. Paul, St. Philip and St. Jacob. All are within the peculiar jurisdiction of the bishop. Christ Church, St. John Baptist, St. Mary le Port, St. Michael, St. Peter, St. Stephen and St. Werburgh are discharged rectories. St. Leonard, St. Mary Redcliffe, St. Nicholas, The Temple, St. Philip and St. Jacob are discharged vicarages. St. James and St. Thomas are perpetual curacies, the latter annexed to the vicarage of Bedminster, Archdeaconry of Bath, Diocese of Bath and Wells.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Lisbon

[Lisbone; Lishborne]

Portugal

Coordinates: 38° 42' 0" N, 9° 11' 0" W

1388 [1364]

K. Edw. 6. The story of William Gardiner Martyr suffring in Portingale.

MarginaliaAnno 1552.wretched flocke so miserably scattered and dispersed, beseeching him also of his goodnes to preserue your worship. At London the third of Nouember.

Heere followeth the history no lesse lamentable then notable of William Gardiner Englishman, suffering most constantly in Portyngale for the testimony of Gods truth.

MarginaliaThe story of W. Gardiner, most cruelly martyred at Lisborne in Portugale.COmming now to the yeare next following 1552 

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William Gardiner

This account of William Gardiner's spectacular act of sacrilege was first printed in the Rerum (pp. 203-8). A faithful translation of it was printed in the first edition of the A&M and reprinted, without significant change, in all subsequent editions. The most surprising thing about this account, however, is not Gardiner's extraordinary actions, but the accuracy of Foxe's account of them. A comparison of Foxe's narrative with the records of the Portuguese Inquisition records of the case, show that Foxe's narrative of Gardiner's crime and punishment, despite occasional errors, was accurate in even small details. [The records of the case are printed in I. da Rosa Pereira, 'O Descato na Capela Real em 1552 e o processo do calvinista inglês peranto Ordinário de Lisboa', Anais da Academia Portuguesa da Historia 29 (1984), pp. 597-623. English translations of some of these documents are available in Thomas S. Freeman and Marcelo J. Borges, '"A grave and heinous incident against our holy Catholic Faith": Two Accounts of William Gardiner's Desecration of the Portuguese Royal Chapel in 1552', Historical Research 69 (1996), pp. 2-17]. Needless to say, Foxe did not have access to these records. Rather, the accuracy of Foxe's account was clearly due to an informant who was not only present at the event, but knew Gardiner well. Foxe identifies this informant as one Pendigrace. The fact that Foxe was able to obtain this account from a person with whom he had no known association and whilst he was in exile, speaks volumes about the network of associates that supplied Foxe with information for his work, both during Mary's reign and afterwards. Yet it should also be remembered that, for all of its accuracy, Foxe's account of Gardiner provides one of the rare examples of his inventing a speech and claiming that it actually took place.

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Gardiner's case clearly caught Foxe's imagination, at least partly because of his constancy during excruciating torments. One of the rare woodcuts in the Acts and Monuments depicts Gardiner being raised and lowered into the fire (Rerum, p. 209). And Foxe wrote a poem - only printed in the Rerum - eulogizing Gardiner's fortitude and villifying his tormenters. In the A&M, Foxe made the reasons for his admiration clear. Gardiner's constancy and willingness to suffer for the Gospel made him a model for Christians to follow, if not in dying for Christ, than in living the Christian life.

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Thomas S. Freeman

. wee will somewhat step aside and borow a little leaue, coasting the Seas into Portingale amongst the Popish marchauntes there, whither a certaine countrymā of ours doth call me, named William Gardiner, a man verely in my iudgement, not only to be compared with the most principall & chiefe Martirs of these our daies, 
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This is an astonishing claim and another indication of Foxe's admiration for Gardiner and his conviction that Gardiner was a model for all Christians.

but also such one, as the auncient Churches in the time of the first persecutions, can not shew a more famous: whether we do behold the force of his faith, his firme and stedfast constantnes, the inuincible strength of his spirit, or the cruell and horrible tormentes: the report only and hearing whereof, were enough to put any man in horror or feare. Yet notwythstanding so farre it was of that the same did discourage him, that it may be doubted whether the payne of his body, or the courage of his mind were the greater: when as in deede both appeared to be very great.

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MarginaliaW. Gardiner, comparable with the Martyrs in the primitiue church.Wherfore, if any prayse or dignity amongst men, (as reason is) be due vnto the Martirs of Christ for their valiant actes, this one man amongst many, seemeth worthy to bee numbred and also to be celebrate in the Church with Ignatius, Laurentius, Ciriatius, Grescentius, 

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I.e., Cyriac and Crescentius. These along with Ignatius, Laurence and Gordian, were martyrs of the early Church. Foxe is developing his belief that Gardiner was fully the equal of the martyrs of the early Church.

and Gordianus. And if the Church of Christ do receiue so great and manifolde benifits by these martirs, with whose bloud it is watred, by whose ashes it is enlarged, by whose constancie it is confirmed, by whose testimonie it is witnessed, and finally through whose agonies and victories the truth of the Gospell doth gloriously triumph: MarginaliaWhat duety is to be geuē of Christiās to the blessed Martyrs past.let not vs then thinke it any great matter, to requite them with our duety againe, by committing them vnto memory, MarginaliaThe memory of Christes Martyrs not to be forgotten.as a perpetuall token of our good will towards them. Albeit, they themselues receiue no glory at our hands, and much lesse challenge the same: but referre it wholy vnto the Lord Christ, frō whom it came whatsoeuer great or notable thing there was in them. 
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Foxe is careful here to remind his readers that the saints were not intercessors between God and man.

Notwithstanding, for so much as Christ himselfe is glorified in his Saints, we cā not shew our selues thankefull vnto him, except we also shew our selues dutifull vnto those, by whome his glory doth increase.

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MarginaliaHow it came to passe that the primitiue Church had yearely commemorations of Martyrs.Heereupon I thinke it came to passe, that the aunciente Christians in the time of the first persecutiōs, thought good to celebrate yearely commemorations of the Martirdome of those holy men, not so much to honour thē, MarginaliaSuperstitiō in honouring Martyrs.as to glorifie God in his souldiours, vnto whom all glory & praise doth worthely belong: and moreouer, that we being instructed by their example, might bee the more prompt and ready in the policies of those warres, to stand more stoutly in battaile against our aduersaries, and learne the more easily to contemne and despise thys worlde. MarginaliaWhat profite cōmeth by memory of Martyrs to vs. For in considering the ende and death of these men, who will greatly long or luste after this life, which is so many wayes miserable, through so many afflictions dolorous, through so many casualties ruinous, wherin consisteth so litte constancie & lesse safety, being neuer free from some hard calamitie one or other? 

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This is the beginning of a long discourse by Foxe on how William Gardiner's constancy provided a model for Christians to follow in their daily lives, not in seeking martyrdom, but in resisting temptation and renouncing the pleasures of the flesh.

What good mā would haue this world in reputatiō, wherin he seeth so many good men so cruelly oppressed, & wherin no man can liue in quietnes, except he be wicked? MarginaliaThe world geueth quietnes to the wicked especially. Wherfore I do not a little merueile, that in this great slaughter of good mē with so many spectacles and examples of cruell tormēt, Christians do yet liue as it were drowned in þe foolish desires of this world, seeing dayly before their eyes so many holy and innocent men yeeld vp their spirits vnder the handes of such tormentors, to lye in filthy prisons, in bondes, darkenes, and teares, & in the end to be consumed with fire. MarginaliaGood men most afflicted in this world.We see so many Prophets of God, euen Christ himself the sonne of God, to be so cruelly and many waies afflicted in this world, tormoiled, scourged and crucified: & yet we laugh, drinke, and giue our selues vnto all losenes of life, and all lasciuiousnes. For honour & great possessions we contend: we build: we study & labour by al meanes to make our selues rich. Vnto whome it doth not suffice þt we with safety and freedome from their afflictions, racks, wheeles, scourges, yrons read hote, gredirōs, fleshhookes, mallets, and other kyndes of tormentes, may serue our Christ in peace and quiet: but being herewith not content, will giue ouer our selues to all kinde of wickednes, to be led away at the will and pleasure of Sathan?

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MarginaliaThe suffrings of Martyrs be lessons to vs to plucke vs from this world.But what do we thinke in so doing? Eyther we must recken those mē to be most miserable in this life, or els our selues to be most vnhappy. But if their blessednes be mostcertaine and sure, then let vs direct the course of our life to the same felicitie. These men haue forsaken this life, which they might haue enioyed. But if we cannot willingly put of this life, yet let vs not be slow to amend and correct the same: and though wee cannot dye with them in like martyrdome, yet let vs mortifie the worldly and prophane affections of þe flesh, which striue agaynst þe spirite & at the least let vs not runne thus headlong into the licētious desires of the world, as we do. MarginaliaThe great difference betweene Christs Martyrs that haue bene, and the lyfe of Christians which now is. As the lyfe of Christen men is nowe, I praye thee, what doe these bondes, prisons, these woundes and scarres, these great fires, and other horrible tormentes of martirs, then vpbrayd vnto vs our slouthful sluggishnes, & worthely make vs ashamed therof? Which Martirs if in their liues they liued so innocently, & in their death continued so constant, what then is to be deemed of vs which suffer nothing for Christ, and will not take vpon vs the small conflict agaynst vices & our owne affections? How would we suffer the cruell looks of tirannes? þe fearfull kindes of torments, or the violent assaultes of the tormenters in any quarrell of godlines, if in peace and quietnes we are & þt with euery small breath or winde of temptation we are blown away frō God, so faynt harted wtout any resistaunce are caryed headlong into all kinde of wickednes & mischiefe? One singeth songes of loue, an other watcheth all the night at dice, some spend their life & tyme day by day in hawking & hūting, some tipple so at tauerns that they come home reeling. Others what soeuer desire of reuenge doth put into their heads, that by and by they seek to put in practise. Some gape after riches: some swell with ambition: some thinke they are borne for no other purpose but for pleasure and pastime. All the world is full of iniury and periury: nay rather it is so rare a thinge paciently to suffer iniuries done vnto vs, that except we haue þe sleight to doe iniury to other, wee thinke our selues scarse men. There is no loue almost nor Charitie among men: neither is there any man that regardeth the good name or fame of this neighbour.

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But amongst al the rest, vnsatiable couetousnes and auarice so raigneth that no man almost is contented wt any tollerable estate of life, either that wil prescribe himself any measure in hauing þt he possesseth: or in proling for þe which he lacketh: neuer quiet, but alwayes toiling, neuer satisfied but alwaies vnsatiable. Whereby it so commeth, that the mindes of Christen men, being occupyed in suche worldly carks & cares, can scarsely find any vacant leisure to think vpon heauenly things: and yet notwithstanding wt these mindes, we will needes seeme Christians. But nowe setting apart these complayntes spent in vayne, we will prosecute our purposed story touching good W. Gardiner.

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MarginaliaThe first bringing vp and trade of W. Gardiner.And first as cōcerning his kinred, he was of an honest stocke, borne at Bristow, a towne of Marchandise on the seacost of England, honestly brought vp and by nature geuen vnto grauitie, of a meane stature of body, of a comelye & pleasant countenance, but in no part so excellent as in þe inward quallities of the mind, which he alwayes from his childhood preserued without spot of reprehension. 

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Gardiner's examinations by the Portuguese confirm that he came from Bristol but also contain a detail that is not in Foxe; Gardiner claimed that he had studied at Oxford (Thomas S. Freeman and Marcello J. Borges, '"A grave and heinous offence against our holy Catholic faith": Two Accounts of William Gardiner's Desecration of the Portuguese Royal Chapel in 1552', HistoricalResearch 69 (1996), pp. 3 and 16).

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Also his handsome and indifferent learning did not a litle commēd & beautifie his other ornamēts. When he grew vnto those yeares at which young men are accustomed to settle theyr minds to some kinde of life, it happened þt he gaue himselfe to the trade of Marchandise, MarginaliaW. Gardiner folowed the trade of marchaundise. vnder þt conduct & guidyng of a certaine marchant of Bristow, called M. Paget, by whō he was at the last (being of the age of xxvi. yeares, or therabout,) sent into Spayne, and by chaunce the ship ariuing at Lishborne (which is the chiefe Citie of Portugale) he taryed there about his Marchandise, where at the last he hauing gotten vnderstanding of the language and being accustomed to their maners, became a profitable seruāt both vnto his maister & others, in such things as pertayned vn to the trade of that vocation. Whereunto he did so applye himselfe that neuerthelesse he in that popish country reseruing still the religion of his owne country of England, euer kept himself sound and vndefiled from the Portugals superstition. MarginaliaThe Godly disposed minde of W. Gardiner. There were also besides him diuers other good men in þe same Cittie. Neither did he lacke good books or the conference of good and honest men, vnto whome he would oftentimes bewayle his imbecilitie and weakenes that he was neither sufficiently touched wt the hatred of his sinnes, neither yet inflamed with the loue of godlines.

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MarginaliaA solemne mariage betweene the king of Portugals sonne and the Spanish kinges daughter in Portugale.Whilest hee was there abiding, it happened that there should be a solemne maryage, celebrate þe first day of September in the yeare abouesayd, betweene two Princes: to say, the sonne of the king of Portugale, & the Spanishe K. his daughter 

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This was the marriage of the Portuguese Infante João, son of João III, to Juana, a daughter of Charles V, on 1 September 1552.

. The mariage daye being come, there was great resort of the Nobility and Estates. There lacked no Bishops with Miters, nor Cardinals with their hats, to set out this royall wedding. To be short they wēt forward to the wedding with great Pompe, where a great con-

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