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Aaron

(d. c. 303?) of Verulamium.

Said to have been martyred with St Alban

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 124, 1576, p. 90, 1583, p. 89.

 
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Alban (St Alban)

(d. c. 303?) [ODNB]

Christian martyr in Roman Britain at Verulamium (St Albans)

Alban was converted by the example of a Christian priest staying at his house. When the soldiers came for the priest, Alban put on the priest's cloak and went in his place. He refused to worship the Roman gods and was whipped and then beheaded. 1570, pp. 123-24; 1576, p. 89; 1583, p. 88.

 
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Augustine of Canterbury

(d. 604) [ODNB]

Monk; first archbishop of Canterbury; sent as a missionary in 597 to Ethelbert of Kent, bretwalda of England, by Pope Gregory the Great

Gregory I sent Augustine to Britain. 1563, p. 16.

After Augustine and the other missionaries had set out on their journey, they turned back through fear. Gregory sent them back with letters of encouragement and help. 1570, p. 155; 1576, p. 116;1583, p. 115.

Augustine met King Æthelbert of Kent and was given permission to live and preach in his kingdom. He and the other missionaries were given a house in Canterbury. The king was converted and built a church and an abbey for Augustine. 1570, p. 156; 1576, p. 117;1583, p. 116.

Augustine went to France to be consecrated bishop. He sent his colleague Laurence to Rome to report on their progress and to deliver a set of questions to Pope Gregory, to which Gregory sent back answers. 1570, pp. 156-58; 1576, pp. 117-19;1583, pp. 116-18.

Gregory sent more missionaries, along with books, implements and letters and a pallium for Augustine. 1570, p. 158; 1576, p. 119;1583, p. 118.

At the direction of Gregory, Augustine consecrated two bishops, one for London and one for York. He then called the bishops and doctors together in assemblies, where the differences between the rites and customs of the Irish church and that of Rome were noted. 1570, pp. 159-60; 1576, pp. 119-20;1583, pp. 118-19.

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Augustine baptised thousands of converts in the River Swale on Christmas day. He appointed Laurence as his successor at Canterbury. 1570, p. 160; 1576, p. 120;1583, p. 119.

 
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Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletian

(236/7 - 316) [R. W. Mathisen www.roman-emperors.org]

Roman emperor (284 - 305), succeeding Carus's son, Numerian, in the east; controlled the whole empire after the death of Carinus, Carus's younger son, in 285. Introduced tetrarchy; enforced imperial cult; abdicated.

Declined an offer to take the throne in 308; died at Split.

Diocletian came to the throne with the support of the troops. 1570, p. 108; 1576, p. 77; 1583, p. 76.

Having accused Aper of killing Numerian, Diocletian killed him with his sword in front of the troops. 1570, p. 109; 1576, p. 78; 1583, p. 77.

Diocletian commanded that he be worshipped as a god. 1570, p. 109; 1576, p. 78; 1583, p. 77.

Diocletian introduced the most severe persecution of the Christians. The persecution began with the destruction of churches and books of scripture. 1570, pp. 39, 109-111; 1576, pp. 31, 78-79; 1583, pp. 31, 77-79.

He went on use threats and imprisonment, and eventually he devised a great variety of tortures and methods of execution. 1570, pp. 112-14; 1576, pp. 80-81; 1583, pp. 79-81.

Diocletian abdicated and, having heard of the edict of Constantine and Licinius granting freedom of worship to Christians, died. 1570, p. 121; 1576, p. 87; 1583, p. 86.

 
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Gregory I (the Great) (St Gregory)

(c. 540 - 604) [Kelly]

Monk; abbot of St Andrew's, Rome. Pope (590 - 604) Wrote Dialogues, Homilies, Pastoral Care, Moralia

Gregory objected to the title 'universal patriarch', assumed by John IV Nesteutes, and refused the title 'universal pope', used in letters from Eulogius, patriarch of Alexandria. 1563, p. 9; 1570, p. 16; 1576, p. 13; 1583, p. 13.

Gregory saw English slave children in the market and remarked on their beauty. He wished to go as a missionary to England, but was not allowed by Pope Pelagius and the Romans. 1570, p. 155; 1576, p. 116;1583, p. 115.

Gregory sent Augustine as a missionary to England. 1563, p. 16.

After Augustine and the other missionaries had set out on their journey, they turned back through fear. Gregory sent them back with letters of encouragement and help. 1570, p. 155; 1576, p. 116;1583, p. 115.

After Augustine had converted King Æthelbert of Kent, Gregory ordered that he be consecrated bishop. Augustine sent his colleague Laurence to Rome to report on their progress and to deliver a set of questions for Gregory, to which he sent back answers. 1570, pp. 156-58; 1576, pp. 117-19;1583, pp. 116-18.

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Gregory sent more missionaries, along with books, implements and letters and pallium for Augustine. He also sent letters to Mellitus and King Æthelberht. 1570, pp. 158-59; 1576, p. 119;1583, p. 118.

Emperor Maurice had granted John IV Nesteutes, patriarch of Constantinople, the title of universal patriarch. John was in conflict with Gregory I over the title. Gregory wrote to Maurice about the matter. 1570, pp. 16, 161; 1576, pp. 13, 121; 1583, pp. 13, 120.

Gregory was the first pope to use the title 'Servus servorum Dei' (servant of the servants of God). 1570, p. 161; 1576, p. 121;1583, p. 120.

Foxe says Gregory I commended Serenus for removing images from churches. 1563, p. 3.

 
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Guanius

King of the Huns who invaded Britain with Melga and was defeated by Gratian Municeps, according to Geoffrey of Monmouth [Pamela Gradon, 'Constantine and the Barbarians: a note on the Old English "Elene"', The Modern Language Review, vol. 42, no. 2, (April, 1947) pp. 170-71]

Having heard that Britain was lacking in men, Guanius and Melga invaded and spoiled churches and murdered women and children. 1570, p. 155; 1576, p. 116; 1583, p. 115.

 
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Gurmund the African

Legendary invader first of Ireland; then, at the invitation of the Saxons, into Britain

Gurmund and the Saxons forced the Britons to flee to Cornwall and Wales. 1570, p. 155; 1576, p. 116; 1583, p. 115.

 
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Julius III

Pope (1550 - 1555)

Born Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte

Received a letter dated 30 November 1554 from King Philip of England announcing the restoration of Catholicism to England (1563, pp. 1011-12; 1570, p. 1650; 1576, pp. 1407-8; 1583, p. 1478).

Received a letter from Cardinal Pole, dated 30 November 1554, announcing the restoration of Catholicism to England (1563, pp. 1012-13 [in Latin, only in this edition]; pp. 1013-14; 1570, pp. 1650-51; 1576, p. 1408; 1583, pp. 1478-79).

Received a message from Parliament asking him to confirm the purchasers of monastic lands and chantry lands in their current ownership (1570, p. 1652; 1576, p. 1409; 1583, p. 4179 [recte 1479]).

Reconciled England to Rome and absolved the English (1563, pp. 1083-84; 1570, p. 1707; 1576, p. 1457;1583, p. 1531).

Issued a bull excommunicating anyone who retained monastic lands or Church property (1570, p. 1729;1576, p. 1477; 1583, pp. 1559-60).

Permitted homosexuality in the papal court (1563, p. 1117; 1570, p. 1730; 1576, p. 1477; 1583, p. 1560).

Proclaimed a jubilee, presided over the Council of Trent and sponsored the shrine of Our Lady ofLoretto (1563, p. 1117; 1570, p. 1730; 1576, p. 1477; 1583, p. 1560).

Foxe relates anecdotes concerning his gluttony (1563, pp. 1117-18; 1570, p. 1730; 1576, p. 1477; 1583,p. 1560).

Stephen Gardiner issued instructions for Julius's funeral in April 1555 (1563, p. 1118; 1570, p. 1730;1576, p. 1477; 1583, p. 1560).

A London woman was imprisoned for refusing to pray for Julius III at his funeral ceremonies (1563, p.1118; 1570, p. 1730; 1576, p. 1477; 1583, p. 1560).

 
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Lucius

(supp. fl. 185) [ODNB]

Supposed king of the Britains during the time of the Roman occupation; said to have been the first native Christian convert c. AD 180

At the request of Lucius, Pope Eleutherius sent two missionaries, Damian and Fugatius, who converted Lucius. 1570, pp. 78, 146; 1576, pp. 53, 108; 1583, pp. 53, 107.

Lucius received a letter from Pope Eleutherius in response to his request for Roman laws. 1570, pp. 8, 146; 1576, pp. 7, 108; 1583, pp. 7, 107.

Lucius was baptised, built churches, died peacefully and was buried in Gloucester. 1570, p. 147; 1576, p. 109; 1583, p. 108.

 
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Melga

King of the Picts who invaded Britain with Guanius and was defeated by Gratian Municeps, according to Geoffrey of Monmouth [Pamela Gradon, 'Constantine and the Barbarians: a note on the Old English "Elene"', The Modern Language Review, vol. 42, no. 2, (April, 1947) pp. 170-71]

Having heard that Britain was lacking in men, Guanius and Melga invaded and spoiled churches and murdered women and children. 1570, p. 155; 1576, p. 116; 1583, p. 115.

 
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Pelagius II

(d. 590) [Kelly]

Pope (579 - 90); died of plague

Pelagius argued against the title of universal bishop or patriarch. 1570, p. 21; 1576, p. 17; 1583, pp. 16, 17.

Pelagius and the Romans would not allow Gregory (later Pope Gregory I) to go himself as a missionary to England. 1570, p. 155; 1576, p. 116; 1583, p. 115.

 
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Ursula (St Ursula)

(fl. mid-C5) [ODNB]

Legendary virgin martyr with 11 virgin companions from Cologne; traditionally of British birth; the 11 virgins came to be expanded to 11,000

All 11,000 virgins, including Ursula, were in various ways destroyed. 1570, p. 148; 1576, p. 109; 1583, p. 108.

 
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Virgilius of Arles (St Virgil of Arles)

(d. 610) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Monk; abbot of Lérins; bishop of Arles (c. 588 - 610)

Pope Gregory I sent a letter to Virgilius, asking him to extend his help to Augustine and the other missionaries on their journey. 1570, p. 155; 1576, p. 116; 1583, p. 115.

 
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Durham
NGR: NZ 274 425

City and capital of the County Palatine of Durham. Seat of the Bishopric. 67 miles west north west from York. The City comprises the parishes of St Giles, St Mary le Bow, St Mary the Less, St Nicholas, St Oswald and St Margaret; all in the Archdeaconry and diocese of Durham. St Giles is a perpetual curacy, St Mary le Bow a rectory not in charge in the patronage of the Archdeacon of northumberland, St Mary the Less a rectory not in charge in the patronage of the Crown, St Nicholas a perpetual curacy, St Oswald a vicarage in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter, and St Margaret a perpetual curacy annexed to the vicarage of St Oswald.

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Lewis, Samuel, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

138 [115]

King Edmund slayne. 4. Persecutions in Brittayne before Austen. Gregory his Epistle.

Some say that the king flying to Thetforde, there pitcht a field with the Danes, but the Danes preuailing, the good king from thence did flie to the Castle of Halesdon aboue mentioned: where he beyng pursued of the Danes was there taken, MarginaliaThe martirdome of K. Edmund in Northfolke. and at length being bounde to a stake, there, of the raging Danes was shot to death. And thus much for the good kings.

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MarginaliaA Questiō, Whether kings which made themselues Monkes did well in so doing or not.Now as concerning those kinges which made them selues Monks (which in number be vij. or viij.) although the example be rare & straung, and much commēded of the chroniclers of that time: yet I cannot rashly assent to their cōmendation, albeit the case therof is no matter of our history. First in altering their estate from kings to monkes, if they did it to finde more ease, and lesse trouble thereby: I see not howe that excuse standeth with the office of a good man, to chaunge his pulike vocation, for respect of priuat commodity. If feare of ieoperdy & daunger did driue them therunto: what praise and commendation they deserue, in so doing let the monkish histories iudge what they lyste: me seemeth so much prayse as they deserue in prouiding their owne safetie, so much they deserue againe to be discōmended in forsaking the common welth. If they did it (as most like it is) for holinesse sake, thinking in that kinde of life to serue and please God better: or to merite more toward their saluaciō then in the estate of a king, therin they were far deceaued: not knowing that the saluation which cōmeth of God, is to be measured & estemed, not by mans merits, or by any perfectiō of life or by differēce of any vocation more of one then another, but only by the free grace of the gospell, which freely iustifieth all them, that faythfully beleeue in Christ Iesu. But here will be saide againe peraduenture, in the solitary life of Monkery, be fewer occasions of euils, then in kings courtes, wherefore that lyfe serueth more to holines, & more is to be preferred then the other. MarginaliaAunswere. Where vocation byndeth to tary there not to flye but to resist the occasions of euill, it is a good mans part.To this I aunswere, to auoid the occasions of euill is good where strength lacketh to resist. But otherwyse, where duety & charge bindeth to tary, there to auoyde the occasiōs of euil, where rather they are to be resisted: rather declareth a weakenes of the man, thē deserueth any praise. As it is truely saide of Tullie: Out of Asia, saith he, to liue, a good life, is no godamercy: but in Asia where so great occasiōs of euils abound, there to liue a good mā that is praiseworthy. With the like reason I may infer[illegible text] if a man be called to be a king, there not to chaunge the vocation for voiding of occasions; but rather to resist occasions, & to keepe his vocation, declareth a good & perfect man. But of these bymatters hetherto sufficient.

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MarginaliaFoure persecutions in Brittany before the comming of Austen into England.These things now thus premised, concerning the order & raigne of kinges, as is aboue prefixed: consequently it remaineth to enter the tractation of such thinges, as in the time and raigne of the foresaide kings happened in the Church: first putting the Reader againe in minde of the former persecutions within the realme, partly before touched in the time of the Britaine kinges, which speciallye were three or foure before the commyng of Austen into Englande.

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MarginaliaThe persecution of Dioclesian about the yeare of our Lord. 210.1. The first was vnder Dioclesian, and that not onely in England, but generally throughout al the Romaine Monarchie, as is aboue specified. In this persecution Albanus, Iulius, Aaron, with a great number moe of other good Christian Britanes, were martyred for Christes name.

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MarginaliaThe persecution of Gnauius and Melga,2. The seconde persecution or destruction of Christian faith, was by the inuading of Gnauius and Melga, whereof, the first was captaine of the Hunnes, the other of þe Pictes. These two tyrauntes, after the cruell slaughter of Vrsula, and other. 11000 noble virgines, hade their rode into Brytaine hearyng the same to be destitute of þe strength of men. At what time they made miserable murder of Christes Saints, spoiling & wasting Churches, without mercy either of women or children, sparing none.

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MarginaliaThe persecution of Hengist in Brittayne.3. The third persecution came by Hengist, and the Saxones: who likewise destroied and wasted the christen congregations within the lande, like raging Wolues fleeyng vpon the sheepe, & spilling the bloud of Christians, til Aurelius Ambrosius came, and restored againe the Churches destroyed.

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MarginaliaThe fourth destruction of Christen faith in Brittayne by Gurmūdus. an 595. This Gurmundus, as some stories record, leauing hys kingdome at home to hys brother sayd he would possesse no kingdome, but which he should win with his sword4. The fourth destruction of Christen faith & Religion was by Gurmundus a Pagan king of the Africanes: who ioyning in league with the Saxons, wrought much greuaunce to the christians of the land. In so much that Theonus Byshop of London, and Thadioceus Bishop of Yorke, with the rest of the people so many as were left, hauing no place wherin to remaine with safety, did flee some to Cornwall, and some to the mountaines of wales about the yere of our Lord 550. and this persecution remained to the time of Ethelberd king of Kent, an. 589.

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In the raigne of this Ethelbert, which was then the 5.king of Kent, the faith of Christ was first receaued of the Saxons or Englishmen, by the meanes of Gregory bishop of Rome, in maner and order as here foloweth, out of old histories collected and recorded.

First then to ioyne the order of our history together: The Christē faith first receiued of king Lucius, endured in Britaine till this time, neare vpon the season of CCCC. yeares and odde: when by Gurmundus Africanus, (as is saide) fyghting wyth the Saxons against the Brytaynes, it was neare extinct in all the land, duryng the space about fortie foure yeares. So that the first springing of Christes Gospell in thys lande, was an. 180. The comming of the Saxons was an. 449. or an. 469. The comming of Austen, was an. 596. From the first entring in of the Saxons to their complet conquest, and the driuing out of the Brytanes (which was aboute the latter time of Gadwalader) were 240. yeares. In summe from Christ to Lucius were, 180. yeares. MarginaliaKing Lucius dyed 428 before the comming of Austen. The continuaunce of the gospel frō Lucius to the entring of the Saxons was 302. yeares. The decay of the same to the entring of Austen, was, 143. yeares which being added together make from Lucius to Austen. 445. from Christ to Austen they make 598. yeares. MarginaliaThe computation of times concerning the continuaunce and decay of Christes Gospell betweene the Brittaynes and the Saxons: In this yeare then. 598. MarginaliaAnno. 598. Austen being sent from Gregory came into England: the occasion wherupon Gregory sent him hether was this.

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In the daies of Pelagius Byshop of Rome, 

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Gregory the Great

The despatch of Augustine by Pope Gregory the Great to England was inevitably a locus classicus for Foxe's martyrology. He had already included the 'copie of the epistle of Gregory, sent to Augustinus into England' into the 1563 edition of his martyrology (1563, pp. 16-7), taking the text from Henry of Huntingdon, book 3, ch. 6. In the 1570 edition, he provided a much fuller and contextualised account, one that would remain unchanged for the succeeding editions in his lifetime. The most obvious source for Foxe on all these matters would, of course, have been Bede's Ecclesiastical History. Yet that is the one source which Foxe (save for one gloss mention) neglects to emphasise throughout this passage. He not only avoids telling us about it; he seems to have gone out of his way not to use it. Most of the letters between Pope Gregory and Augustine were extracted from Henry of Huntingdon's Chronicle, rather than Bede. The lengthy text of the 'questions of Austen Archbishop of Canterbury sent to Gregory' ('Gregory's decrees') looks, at first glance, to have been taken from Bede's Eccleiastical History (book 1, ch. 27). But it might, in reality, have come from a manuscript copy in Parker's collection - that of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, MS 320 pt 3 being a suitable candidate. It is therefore possible that Foxe has used this as the source for his extraction of Augustine's Interrogations rather than the published copy of Bede.. Fabyan's Chronicle, albeit a much later source, is also heavily drawn on by Foxe. We deduce that Foxe's remarkable reticence in respect of using and citing the Venerable Bede as a source must have something to do with Thomas Stapleton's publication of a 'Catholic' edition of Bede's Ecclesiastical History in 1565 (The History of the Church of Englande (Antwerp). Foxe was, of course, accommodating himself to an interpretative tradition on this passage which had been set by Bale - see Allen J. Frantzen, 'Bede and Bawdy Bale: Gregory the Great, Angels, and the "Angli"', in Allen J. Frantzen and John D. Niles (eds), Anglo-Saxonism and the Construction of Social identity (Florida, 1997), pp. 17-39. In reality, however, Foxe was more discreet that Bale on the potentially lascivious dimensions of Gregory's encounter with English children at the market in Rome. The story had appeared in so many chronicle sources - and Foxe's gloss indicates that he had probably collated them. For Augustine's landing in Kent and his meeting with King Ethelbert, Foxe probably drew on Henry of Huntingdon (T. Arnold, ed. Henry of Huntingdon. Henrici Huntendunensis Historia Anglorum, the History of the English, by Henry, Archdeacon of Huntingdon, from B. C. 55 to A. D. 1154 [London: Rolls Series, 1879] book 3, ch. 4, pp. 000-000) or Fabian's Chronicle (R. Fabyan, The Chronicle of Fabian [London, 1559], book 5, ch. 119, pp. 000-000). Interestingly, this is one of the rare places where Foxe betrays an interest in archaeological evidence, referring to the (Roman) ruins at Richborough on the Isle of Thanet 'whereof some part of the ruinous walles is yet to be sene'. All the other letters from Gregory Foxe could have taken from Henry of Huntingdon (book 3, chs 7-9). Foxe did not want openly to cast doubt upon the Augustinian establishment of the episcopal hierarchy in England and Wales, and he liberally referenced Augustine's consecration of the archbishops in London, York and Wales. But he carefully distanced himself from Augustine's miraculous healing of a bling man.. Foxe clearly used Fabian's Chronicle (book 5, ch. 119), but also checked the account in the Polychronicon (book 5, ch, 10), Henry of Huntingdon (book 3, ch.14) and perhaps Bede's Ecclesiastical History (book 2, ch. 2). For the final section on the synod of Bangor, Foxe probably found his basic narrative in Bale's Catalogus (pp. 63-4; 66) and may well have returned to Fabian's Chronicle for confirmation (book 5, ch. 119) as well as (perhaps) Bede's Ecclesiastical History (book 2, ch. 2). Bale's Catalogus seems also to have influenced Foxe's account of the death of Pope Gregory and the issue of the dating of Augustine's death, but he also added evidence from Henry of Huntingdon's Chronicle (book 3, ch. 17), the Polychronicon (book 5, chs 9-10) and (for David, Archbishop of Wales), William of Malmesbury's Gesta Regum (J. S. Brewer, and C. T. Martin, 'William of Malmesbury: Gesta Regum.' In Reigistrum Malmesburiense. The Registor of Malmesbury Abbey, ed. by J.S. Brewer and C.T. Martin (London: Rolls Series, 1869-1880), book 1, ch. 25).

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Matthew Phillpott and Mark Greengrass
University of Sheffield

Gregory chauncyng to see certayne chyldren in the market place of Rome (brought thether to be sould out of England) being faire and beautifull of visage, demaunded out of what coūtrey they were: and vnderstanding they were Heathenish out of England, lamented the case of þe land being so beautifull and Angelicall, so to be subiecte vnder the Prince of darknes. MarginaliaBeda Polychronicon. li. 5. ca. 8. 6. Malesburiensis de regib. Henr. Huntington lib 3. Fabianus, part. 5. cap. 119. Liber bibliothecæ tornalensis. And asking moreouer out of what prouince they were it was aunswered, out of Deyra, a part of Northsaxons: wherof as it is to be thought, that which we now cal Deyrham taketh his name. MarginaliaDeyrham in Northumberland. Then he alluding to the name of Deyra, these people (saith he) are to be deliuered de Dei ira, which is from Gods wrath, Moreouer vnderstanding the kings name of that prouince to be Alle (aboue mentioned) alluding likewise to his name: there (saith he) ought Alleluia to be song to the liuing God. Wherevpon beyng moued and desirous to go and helpe the cōuersion of that country, was not permitted of Pelagius and the Romanes for that time to accomplish his desire. But afterwarde being Bishop himselfe next after Pelagius, he sent thether the foresaide Austen with other preachers neere about to the nūber of xl. But by the waye, howe it happened I cannot saye: As Austen with his company were passing in theyr iourney, such a sodaine feare entred in their harts (that as Antonius saith) they returned all. Other write that Austen was sent backe to Gregory againe, to release them of that viage so daungerous and vncertaine, amongst such a barberous people: whose language neither they knewe, nor whose rudenes they were able to resist. Thē Gregory with pithy perswasions confirming and comforting him, sent him againe with letters both to the Bishop of Arelalensis, MarginaliaEpiscopus Arelalensis. willing him to helpe and aide the said Austen, and his company in all whatsoeuer his neede required. Also other letters he directed by the foresaid Austine, vnto his fellowes, exhorting them to go foreward boldly in the Lords work, as by the tenour of the said Epistle here followyng maye appeare.

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MarginaliaEx Henr. Huntingtonensi li 3. The Epistle of Gregory to them whiche went to preach in England.Gregorius seruus seruorum Dei, seruis Domini nostri. Quia melius fuerat bona non incipere, quam ab ijs quæ cœpta sunt cogitatione retrorsum redire, &c. In Englishe. Gregory the seruaunt of Gods seruaunts, to the seruaunts of the Lord. Forasmuch as it is better not to take good things in hande, then after they be begon, to thinke to reuolt backe from the same againe therefore now you may not nor cannot (deare children) but with all feruent study and labor, must needes go forward in that good busines, which through the helpe of God you haue wel begunne. Neither let the labor of your iourney, nor the slanderous tongues of men appalle you, but that with all instaunce and feruency yee proceede, and accomplish the thing which the Lorde hath ordeyned you to take in hande: knowing that your great trauell shalbe recompensed with rewarde of greater glorye hereafter to come. Therefore as we sende here Austen to you againe, whom also we haue ordeined to be your gouernour, so doe you humblye obey him in all thinges, knowing that it shall be profitable so for your soules, whatsoeuer at his admonition yee shall doe. Almighty God with his grace defend you and graunt me to see in the etermall country the fruite of your labour, that although I can not labour as I woulde wyth you, yet I may be found pertaker of your retribution, for that my will is good to labour in the same felowship with you together. The Lord God keepe you safe, most deare and welbeloued children. MarginaliaThe Bishop of Rome calleth the Emperour his Lord.Dated the x before the Calendes

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