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Augustine Bernhere

When Hugh Latimer was committed to the Tower on 13 September 1553, 'his servant Austen' was allowed to attend him (1583, p. 1410) ('one Anstey, his servant' in APC IV, p. 346).

 
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Hugh Weston

(1505? - 1558)

Dean of Westminster (1553 - 1556). Archdeacon of Colchester (1554 - 1558). Dean of Windsor (1556 - 1557) [Fasti]. Prolocutor of the Lower House [Diarmaid MacCulloch, Thomas Cranmer: A Life (Yale, 1996), pp. 563-68].

Hugh Weston was appointed Prolocutor of the 1553 Convocation, over which he presided and during which he disputed with Philpot and Aylmer (1563, pp. 906-16; 1570, pp. 1571-78; 1576, pp. 1340-47; and 1583, p. 1410-17).

According to a story related to Sir Thomas White (and printed by Foxe), Sir Thomas Wyatt declared from the scaffold that Elizabeth and Edward Courtenay were innocent of any involvement in his treason. Weston, who was on the scaffold, cried out to the crowd that Wyatt had confessed otherwise before the Privy Council. Allegedly White, on hearing a report of the incident, denounced Weston as a knave (1570, p. 1587; 1576, p. 1355; and 1583, p. 1425).

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Weston was prolocutor (technically Weston was prolocutor of the lower house of convocation) and head of a delegation sent to dispute with Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer (see MacColloch, Cranmer, p. 563) at the Oxford Disputations (1563, pp. 932 and 936; 1570, p. 1591; 1576, p. 1358; 1583, p. 1428).

He received the doctors sent from Cambridge to the disputation (1563, p. 936; 1570, p. 1592; 1576, p. 1358; 1583, p. 1429).

He presided over the Oxford disputations of 1554 (1563, pp. 936-85; 1570, pp. 1592-1627; 1576, pp. 1358-88; 1583, pp. 1429-59).

[NB: A brief account of the entire disputations, which mentions Weston throughout, is given on 1563, pp. 933-35; part of this brief account listing the disputants with Ridley was reprinted in 1570, p. 1606; 1576, p. 1371; and 1583, p. 1441).

Weston presided over John Harpsfield's disputation for his D.D. on 19 April 1554. Weston debated with both Cranmer and Harpsfield (1563, pp. 986-91; 1570, pp. 1627-32; 1576, pp. 1389-92; 1583, pp. 1459-63).

Weston presided over the commissioners at the condemnation of Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer on 20 April 1554 (1563, pp. 935-36; 1570, pp. 1632-33; 1576, p. 1393; 1583, pp. 1463-64).

Weston received a letter from Ridley of 23 April 1554, protesting that he had broken his promise to allow Ridley to examine a copy of the record of his disputation and also protesting the conduct of the disputation and demanding that Weston show Ridley's written answers to the propositions disputed to the Upper House of Convocation. Weston refused to deliver the letter and also a letter of protest which Cranmer had written to the Privy Council over the Disputations (Ridley's letter - included as part of Ridley's account of the disputation - is printed in 1563, p. 977, but Cranmer's letter and Weston's refusal to deliver the letters are not in this edition (see 1570, p. 1633; 1576, pp. 1393-94; 1583, p. 1464).

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Weston received Mary at Westminster Abbey for her coronation on 1 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

He preached at Paul's Cross on 20 October 1553, exhorting his auditors to pray for souls in purgatory, denouncing the communion table as an oyster board and denouncing Cranmer's recent catechism (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1466).

He attended the execution of Henry Grey, Duke of Suffolk, (according to Foxe) against the Duke's wishes. Also (according to Foxe) Weston was heckled by the crowd (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, pp. 1467-68).

He participated, together with Gilbert Bourne and Frances Mallet, in an effort to persuade Walter Mantell to recant (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1398; 1583, p. 1468).

When Sir Thomas Wyatt at his execution cleared Elizabeth and the Earl of Devon of involvement in his rebellion, Weston declared that this contradicted what Wyatt had earlier told the Privy Council. Wyatt retorted that what he said now was true (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

A prayer Weston made for the safe delivery of a child by Queen Mary is printed in 1563, p. 1015 (Latin and English versions); 1570, p. 1653; 1576, p. 1410; 1583, pp. 1480-81 (English only).

Foxe calls Weston a man whom 'all good and godly men worthily despise' and prints Laurence Saunders' account of Weston's attempting to persuade Nicholas Grimald and Saunders to recant. 1563, pp. 1041-42; 1570, p. 1667; 1576, p. 1422; 1583, p. 1496.

Weston was reported by Hooper to have obtained a commission in May 1554 to establish a disputation, despite its illegality. 1570, p. 1687; 1576, p. 1440; 1583, p. 1513.

On 21 March 1555 Bradford talked with Dr Weston, after being told of Weston's intention to visit via the earl of Derby's servant (when master Collier, Warden of Manchester had come to dinner at the Counter). 1576, p.1536. Bradford and Westo spoke to each other in the presence of Master Collier, the earl of Derby's servant, the subdean of Westminster, the keeper (Master Clayden), and others. 1570, 1799-80, 1576, pp.1536-7, 1583, pp.1619-20.

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On 25 February, at about 5pm, Master Weston visited Bradford and asked to speak with him in private. When the two men were alone, Weston thanked Bradford for his writings to him and then produced the work that Bradford had sent him. It was entitled, 'Certayne reasons againste Transubstantiation gathered by John Bradforde, and geuen to Doctour weston and others'. 1563, p. 1212. They discussed transubstantiation. 1563, pp. 1211-12, 1570, pp. 1801-2. [In 1570 this meeting is dated as the afternoon of 28 March].

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On 25 February (1563) or 28 March (1570 onwards) Weston told John Bradford of Grimald's recantation. 1563, p. 1212, 1570, p. 1801, 1576, p. 1538., 1583, p. 1621.

Bradford's reasons against transubstantiation were given to Weston and others. 1563, pp. 1211-12, 1570, pp. 1800-1, 1576, pp. 1537-38, 1583, pp. 1620-21.

On 5 April, at 2pm, Weston went to visit Bradford in the Counter. Weston had not visited him earlier due to ill health and also because he had been busy withstanding monks from entering Westminster. He also thought that Pendleton would be coming to see him. Weston told Bradford that the pope was dead and that Weston had petitioned the queen and so thought that death would not come to Bradford soon. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, pp. 1538-39, 1583, pp. 1621-22.

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As Weston left Bradford on 5 April, he set for Master Weale. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

After Weston left Bradford on 5 April, the keeper, Master Claydon, and Steven Bech came to Bradford and spoke unkindly to Bradford even though they had hitherto appeared to be friendly to him. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, pp. 1538-39, 1583, pp. 1621-22.

Weston was one of the audience at the re-examination of Ridley and Latimer and interjected a question. 1563, p. 1363; 1570, p. 1926, 1576, p. 1652, 1583, p. 1761.

Philpot's eleventh examination, on St Andrew's day, was before Durham, Chichester, Bath, Bonner, the prolocutor, Christopherson, Chadsey, Morgan of Oxford, Hussey of the Arches, Weston, John Harpsfield, Cosin, and Johnson. 1563, pp. 1425-34, 1570, pp. 1986-92, 1576, pp. 1710-15, 1583, pp. 1817-22.

Cranmer was condemned by Weston and others of the university. He was committed to the mayors and sherriffs of Oxford. 1570, p. 2047, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

Hugh Weston displeased Pole for being willing to give up his deanery.

Weston was caught committing adultery and appealed to Rome for clemency.

He died after Queen Mary. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2102.

 
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James Haddon

Dean of Exeter and chaplain to the Duke of Suffolk

James Haddon was one of six clerics - the others were Walter Phillips, Richard Cheyney, John Philpot, John Aylmer and Thomas Young - who argued against the Real Presence in the Eucharist (1563, pp. 906 and 912; 1570, pp. 1571 and 1576; 1576, pp. 1340 and 1344; 1583, pp. 1410 and 1414-15).

 
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John Aylmer

(d. 1594)

Archdeacon of Stow, later archdeacon of Lincoln and bishop of London (1577 - 1594) (DNB).

Aylmer is commended as Lady Jane Grey's tutor and a learned man in 1563, p. 901; 1570, p. 1567; 1576, p 1336; and 1583, p. 1406.

Aylmer was one of six clerics - the others were Walter Phillips, James Haddon, John Philpot, Richard Cheyney and Thomas Young - who argued against the Real Presence in the 1553 convocation (1563, pp. 906-7, 912 and 914; 1570, pp. 1571-72 and 1575-76 [recte 1577]; 1576, pp 1340-41 and 1344-45; 1583, pp. 1410-11 and 1414 and 1416; also see Rerum, pp. 215, 217, 224-25 and 228. Cf. John Philpot, The trew report of the dysputacyon had and begonne in the convocacyon hous at London the xviii daye of Octobre MDLIII. [Emden, 1554]. (STC 19890 sigs A3r - A4r, B1r-v, C8r-v, D1r and D7v))

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John Aylmer was a participant in the Westminster disputation of 1559. 1563, p. 1717, 1583, p. 2119.

[Also referred to as 'Aelmer', 'Ælmar', 'Elmar', 'Elmer']

 
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John Harley

(d. 1558)

Bishop of Hereford (DNB)

Edwardian bishop of Hereford. Harley walked out of the mass which was celebrated at the commencement of the 1553 parliament. He was deprived of his bishopric because he was married (1563, p. 905; 1570, p. 1571; 1576, p. 1339; and 1583, p. 1410).

He was discharged from parliament and convocation in 1553 (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1466).

[Also referred to as 'Bishop of Hartford']

 
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John Harpsfield

(1516 - 1578)

Chaplain to Bishop Bonner. Archdeacon of London (1554 - 1559); dean of Norwich (1558 - 1559). Brother of Nicholas Harpsfield. [DNB; Fasti]

Harpsfield preached a sermon at the commencement of the 1553 convocation (1570, p. 1571; 1576, p. 1340; and 1583, p. 1410).

He sparred with Philpot in the debates at the 1553 convocation. (See 1563, pp. 909, 912 and 914-15; 1570, pp. 1573-74 and 1576-78; 1576, pp. 1342 and 1345-46 and 1583, pp. 1412 and 1416-17).

He was one of the catholic disputants at the Oxford disputations of 1554; he debated with Cranmer and Ridley (1563, pp. 932-34, 938, 955, 967-69 and 978; 1570, pp. 1591-93 and 1605-6; 1576, pp. 1358-59 and 1370-71; 1583, pp. 1428, 1430 and 1440-41).

Harpsfield disputed on the eucharist for his D.D. on 19 April 1554; Cranmer disputed with him (1563, pp. 986-91; 1570, pp. 1627-32; 1576, pp. 1389-92; 1583, pp. 1459-63).

He gave a Latin oration in St Paul's before King Philip (1570, p. 1643; 1576, p. 1402; 1583, p. 1473).

He witnessed Bonner's burning Tomkins' hand with a candle, and he urged Bonner to cease the torture (1570, pp. 1710-11; 1576, p. 1460; 1583, p.1534).

Together with William Chedsey and John Feckenham, Harpsfield attempted to persuade John Hooper to recant after his condemnation on 29 January 1555. The attempt was unsuccessful but it caused false rumors of Hooper's recantation to spread (1563, p. 1057; 1570, p. 1680; 1576, p. 1434; 1583, p. 1507).

Harpsfield witnessed the degradation of John Rogers and John Hooper on 4 February 1555 (1563, p. 1058; 1570, p. 1681; 1576, p. 1435; 1583, p. 1508).

He was one of those who presided over the examination of Thomas Tomkins on 9 February 1555 (1570, p. 1712; 1576, p. 1461; 1583, p. 1535).

Harpsfield was one of those who examined Thomas Causton and Thomas Higbed on 18 February 1555 (1563, p. 1104). Bonner ordered him to deliver a rebuttal to the confession of faith of Thomas Causton and Thomas Higbed (1563, p. 1107; 1570, p. 1719; 1576, p. 1468; 1583, p. 1541).

He conversed with Thomas Hawkes in June 1554, arguing the necessity of infant baptism. 1563, pp. 1151-52;1570, pp. 1760-61; 1576, p. 1551 [recte 1503]; 1583, pp. 1587-88

He escorted Thomas Hawkes to the Gatehouse at Westminster on 1 July 1554. 1563, p. 1156; 1570, p. 1765;1576, p. 1765; 1583, p. 1590

John Harpsfield conferred with the bishop of Durham about John Bradford. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1787, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

On 16 February 1555 John Harpsfield and two others went to see Bradford in prison, to defend the line of bishops in the catholic church. Bradford refuted the argument. 1563, pp. 1202-03, 1570, pp. 1792-93, 1576, pp. 1530-31, 1583, pp. 1614-15.

Smith was examined by Bonner and Harpsfield, among others, met with Harwood in the garden, and was re-examined. Smith was then left in the garden until Harwood was examined, after which Smith was examined again. 1563, pp. 1252-55, 1570, pp. 1870-72, 1576, pp. 1601-03, 1583, pp. 1691-92.

Robert Smith was examined by John Dee, Harpsfield and Bonner on eucharistic doctrine. 1563, p. 1252, 1570, p. 1870, 1576, p. 1601, 1583, p. 1691.

Philpot's fourth examination was in John Harpsfield's house before Bonner, Bath, Worcester and Gloucester. 1563, pp. 1393-98, 1570, pp. 1965-68, 1576, pp. 1692-95, 1583, pp. 1799-1803.

[In a letter that was never delivered] Green told Philpot of his presentment on 17 November before Bonner and two bishops, Master Dean, Roper, Welch, John Harpsfield, and two or three others. Dr Dale, Master George Mordant and Master Dee were also there. 1563, p. 1460, 1570, p. 2023, 1576, p. 1744, 1583, p. 1852.

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Philpot's eighth examination was before Bonner, John Harpsfield, St David's, Mordant and others. 1563, pp. 1419-20, 1570, pp. 1982-83, 1576, pp. 1705-06, 1583, p. 1814.

During Philpot's ninth examination, Bonner called for John Harpsfield, who attended the session to examine Philpot, and Chadsey, who had however left for Westminster. 1563, pp. 1420-24, 1570, pp. 1983-85, 1576, pp. 1707-09, 1583, pp. 1815-16.

Philpot's eleventh examination, on St Andrew's day, was before Durham, Chichester, Bath, Bonner, the prolocutor, Christopherson, Chadsey, Morgan of Oxford, Hussey of the Arches, Weston, John Harpsfield, Cosin, and Johnson. 1563, pp. 1425-34, 1570, pp. 1986-92, 1576, pp. 1710-15, 1583, pp. 1817-22.

Later on the day of his thirteenth examination, Philpot spoke with John Harpsfield, Bonner and Chadsey. 1570, pp. 1996-97, 1576, p. 1719, 1583, pp. 1823-24.

John Harpsfield urged Thomas Whittle to recant and composed a bill of submission for Whittle to sign. 1563, pp. 1454-55, 1570, p. 2017, 1576, p. 1737, 1583, pp. 1845-46.

John Harpsfield wrote a letter to Bonner about Whittle's suscription. It mentioned one of Penbroke's men who wanted license to erect a school. Harpsfield hoped for Penbroke's sake that it be requested, and he and M Johnson (Register) were working to that effect. 1563, pp. 1455-56, 1570, pp. 2017-18, 1576, p. 1738, 1583, pp. 1846-47. [In all editions after 1563, the heading incorrectly gives the author of the letter as Nicholas Harpsfield.]

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Robert Farrer talked with Laurence Sheriff in the Rose tavern and suggested to Sheriff that Elizabeth had been involved in Wyatt's rebellion. Sheriff complained to Bonner about Farrer before Mordaunt, Sir John Baker, Darbyshire, Story, Harpsfield, and others. 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1988, 1583, p. 2097.

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Bonner sent Thomas Hinshaw before John Harpsfield and Henry Cole. 1563, p. 1690, 1570, p. 2242, 1576, p. 1937, 1583, p. 2043.

Bonner attended evensong with John Harpsfield prior to causing several boys to be beaten in 1558. 1563, p. 1692, 1570, p. 2264, 1576, p. 1955, 1583, p. 2061.

Bonner and Harpsfield laughed at and mocked Edward Benet for his beliefs. 1576, p. 1968 [incorrectly numbered 1632], 1583, p. 2075.

Harpsfield was committed to the Fleet after the death of Mary. 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2102.

 
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John Philpot

(1516 - 1555)

Archdeacon of Winchester and martyr. [DNB]

Foxe records Philpot's formative years and character. 1563, p. 1388, 1570, p. 1961, 1576, p. 1688 , 1583, p. 1795.

Philpot was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71).

Philpot was also one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking them for an opportunity to defend, in public debate, the Edwardian religious reforms (1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483).

Philpot's account of the debate over transubstantiation was reprinted by Foxe [cf. John Philpot, The trew report of the dysputacyon had and begonne in the convocacyon hows at London the XXVIII daye of Octobre MDLIIII (Emden, 1554). STC 19890, with 1563, pp. 906-16; 1570, pp. 1571-78; 1576, pp. 1340-47; 1583, pp. 1410-17). In Philpot's version of events, he plays the lead role among the six clerics - the others were Walter Phillips, James Haddon, Richard Cheyney, John Aylmer and Thomas Young - in refuting the catholic arguments.

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John Philpot was made archdeacon of Winchester under Ponet. 1563, p. 1388, 1570, p. 1961, 1576, p. 1688, 1583, p. 1795.

Philpot's first examination was before Cholmley, Roper, Story, and one of the scribes of the Arches at Newgate Hall, 2 October 1555. 1563, pp. 1388-90, 1570, pp. 1961-62, 1576, pp. 1688-89, 1583, pp. 1795-96.

In Philpot's first examination, Story claimed that Philpot was guilty of heresy for speaking against the mass. 1563, pp. 1388-90, 1570, pp. 1961-62, 1576, pp. 1688-89, 1583, pp. 1795-96.

Philpot's second examination was before Cholmley, Roper, Story and Cook and the scribe on 24 October 1555. 1563, pp. 1390-92, 1570, pp. 1962-64, 1576, pp. 1689-91, 1583, pp. 1797-98.

During Philpot's second examination, Story demanded that Philpot be taken to Lollard's Tower, after which he was imprisoned in Bonner's coal house. 1563, pp. 1390-92, 1570, pp. 1962-64, 1576, pp. 1689-91, 1583, pp. 1797-98.

Bonner sent Johnson the registrar to speak to Philpot when he was imprisoned in the coal house. 1563, p. 1392, 1570, p. 1964, 1576, p. 1689, 1583, p. 1798.

Thomas Whittle was imprisoned in the coal house with Philpot. Bonner was so violent with Whittle's beard that he plucked much of it away and made his face black and blue. 1563, p. 1392, 1570, p. 1964, 1576, p. 1689, 1583, p. 1798.

Philpot met with Bonner the second night of his imprisonment in the coal house (his third examination). 1563, pp. 1392-93, 1570, pp. 1964-65, 1576, pp. 1691-92, 1583, pp. 1798-99.

Philpot spoke briefly with Cosin, Bonner's chaplain, before returning to his imprisonment in Bonner's coal house. 1563, p. 1393, 1570, p. 1965, 1576, p. 1692, 1583, p. 1799.

Philpot's fourth examination was in John Harpsfield's house before Bonner, Bath, Worcester and Gloucester. 1563, pp. 1393-98, 1570, pp. 1965-68, 1576, pp. 1692-95, 1583, pp. 1799-1803.

During Philpot's fourth examination, John Harpsfield brought a book by Irenaeus to Philpot's examiners, who then discussed the Roman church with Philpot. 1563, pp. 1393-98, 1570, pp. 1965-68, 1576, pp. 1692-95, 1583, pp. 1799-1803.

Philpot's fifth examination was before Bonner, Rochester, Coventry, St Asaph, as well as Story, Curtop, Saverson, Pendleton and others. 1563, pp. 1398-1405, 1570, pp. 1968-72, 1576, pp. 1695-98, 1583, pp. 1803-05.

During his fifth examination, Philpot asked his examiners which of them could answer Calvin's Institutions, to which Saverson replied that the Genevan church had fragmented and that Calvin had fled. 1563, pp. 1398-1405, 1570, pp. 1968-72, 1576, pp. 1695-98, 1583, pp. 1803-05.

Philpot's sixth examination was before the lord chamberlain to Queen Mary, Ferrars, Lord Rich, Lord St John, Lord Windsor, Lord Shandoys, Sir John Bridges, Chadsey and Bonner. 1563, pp. 1405-12, 1570, pp. 1972-78, 1576, pp. 1698-1702, 1583, pp. 1805-10.

During his sixth examination, Philpot stated that Joan of Kent was a heretic. 1563, pp. 1405-12, 1570, pp. 1972-78, 1576, pp. 1698-1702, 1583, pp. 1805-10.

Philpot stated that Cheyney and Rochester could testify to what he had said under his examination. 1563, pp. 1405-12, 1570, pp. 1972-78, 1576, pp. 1698-1702, 1583, pp. 1805-10.

Chamberlain was present during Philpot's sixth examination and questioned him on the real presence. 1563, pp. 1405-1412, 1570, pp. 1972-78, 1576, pp. 1698-1702, 1583, pp. 1805-10.

Philpot's seventh examination on 19 November 1555 was before Bonner, Rochester, chancellor of Lichfield, Chadsey and John Dee. 1563, pp. 1412-16, 1570, pp. 1978-80, 1576, pp. 1702-05, 1583, pp. 1810-12.

In Philpot's seventh examination, John Dee is referred to as Master Dee in 1563 and 1570 and then as Doctor Dee in 1576 and 1583. 1563, pp. 1412-16, 1570, pp. 1978-80, 1576, pp. 1702-05, 1583, pp. 1810-12.

Johnson the registrar was present during Philpot's seventh examination. 1563, pp. 1412-16, 1570, pp. 1978-80, 1576, pp. 1702-05, 1583, pp. 1810-12.

Three private conferences took place between Philpot and Bonner. (The first involved his keeper; the second, his fellow prisoners and his keeper; and the third only Bonner and Philpot.) 1563, pp. 1416-19, 1570, pp. 1980-82, 1576, pp. 1706-07, 1583, pp. 1812-14.

Philpot's eighth examination was before Bonner, John Harpsfield, St David's, Mordant and others. 1563, pp. 1419-20, 1570, pp. 1982-83, 1576, pp. 1705-06, 1583, p. 1814.

Johnson the registrar was present at Philpot's eighth examination. 1563, pp. 1412-16, 1570, pp. 1978-80, 1576, pp. 1705-06, 1583, pp. 1810-12.

Philpot's ninth examintion was before Bonner and his chaplains, including Cosin. 1563, pp. 1420-24, 1570, pp. 1983-85, 1576, pp. 1707-09, 1583, pp. 1815-16.

During Philpot's ninth examination, Bonner called for John Harpsfield, who attended the session to examine Philpot, and Chadsey, who had, however, left for Westminster. 1563, pp. 1420-24, 1570, pp. 1983-85, 1576, pp. 1707-09, 1583, pp. 1815-16.

Philpot's tenth examination was before Bonner, Johnson and others. 1563, pp. 1424-25, 1570, pp. 1985-86, 1576, pp. 1709-10, 1583, pp. 1816-17.

Philpot's eleventh examination, on St Andrew's day, was before Durham, Chichester, Bath, Bonner, the prolocutor, Christopherson, Chadsey, Morgan of Oxford, Hussey of the Arches, Weston, John Harpsfield, Cosin, and Johnson. 1563, pp. 1425-34, 1570, pp. 1986-92, 1576, pp. 1710-15, 1583, pp. 1817-22.

In Philpot's eleventh examination, John Dee is referred to as a 'great conjurer' in 1563 and 1570. The reference is removed in 1576 and 1583. 1563, pp. 1425-34, 1570, pp. 1986-92, 1576, pp. 1710-15, 1583, pp. 1817-22.

The bishop of Coventry and Lichfield spoke with Philpot about the nature of the true church. 1563, p. 1444, 1583, p. 1818.

Philpot's twelfth examination on 4 December 1555 was before Bonner, Worcester and Bangor. 1563, pp. 1434-37, 1570, pp. 1992-96, 1576, pp. 1715-17, 1583, pp. 1822-24.

One of Bonner's chaplains (probably Cosin) was present during Philpot's twelfth examination. 1563, pp. 1434-37, 1570, pp. 1992-96, 1576, pp. 1715-17, 1583, pp. 1822-24.

During Philpot's twelfth examination, Worcester told Philpot that Durham and Chichester would be coming to speak with him. 1563, pp. 1434-37, 1570, pp. 1992-96, 1576, pp. 1715-17, 1583, pp. 1822-24.

Philpot spoke with Worcester, Wright and Chadsey later the same day as his twelfth examination. 1570, pp. 1993-94, 1576, pp. 1717, 1583, p. 1823-24.

Philpot's thirteenth examination was before York, Chichester and others. 1570, p. 1996, 1576, pp. 1717-19, 1583, p. 1824-26.

Later on the day of his thirteenth examination, Philpot spoke with John Harpsfield, Bonner and Chadsey. 1570, pp. 1996-97, 1576, p. 1719, 1583, pp. 1823-24.

The judgement of Philpot took place in the consistory court of St Paul's on 13 and 14 of December, at which Bonner and others were present. 1570, p. 1997, 1576, p. 1719, 1583, p. 1826.

The last examination of Philpot was on 16 December 1555 before the bishops of London, Bath, Worcester and Lichfield.. 1563, p. 1441, 1570, pp. 1997-98, 1576, p. 1719, 1583, p. 1827.

Foxe includes Bonner's exhortation to Philpot. 1563, p. 1443, 1570, p. 1998, 1576, p. 1710, 1583, pp. 1827-28.

A letter was exhibited by Bonner, concerning the handling of Bartlett Green. 1563, pp. 1444-45, 1570, p. 1999, 1576, p. 1721-22, 1583, p. 1828.

In the letter exhibited by Bonner about Bartlett Green, reference is made to John Dee and Feckenham. 1563, pp. 1444-45, 1570, p. 1999, 1576, pp. 1721-22, 1583, p. 1828.

Philpot was mentioned in letter sent by John Bradford to Lady Fane. 1570, p. 1824, 1576, p. 1560, 1583, p. 1642.

Lady Fane wrote a letter to Bonner. 1563, p. 1445, 1570, p. 1999, 1576, p. 1724, 1583, pp. 1828-29.

John Hooper sent Philpot and his fellow prisoners, Robert Ferrar, John Bradford and Rowland Taylor, a letter dated 6 May 1554 discussing a proposed disputation in Cambridge in which they would represent the protestants. 1570, p. 1687; 1576, p. 1440; 1583, p. 1513.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Philpot and his fellow prisoners, John Bradford, Robert Ferrar and Rowland Taylor. 1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500.

In a letter William Tyms wrote to 'God's faithful servants', he named his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench as Robert Ferrar, Rowland Taylor, John Philpot, John Bradford and five other Sussex men. 1570, p. 2082, 1576, p. 1795, 1583, p. 1902.

Green wrote a letter to John Philpot which was not delivered. According to Foxe it was either not delivered because Philpot died or because the jailor prevented its delivery. 1563, pp. 1459-60, 1570, p. 2023, 1576, p. 1744, 1583, pp. 1852-53.

Stokesley said a Latin prayer before the condemnation of Philpot. 1570, p. 2000, 1576, p. 1997, 1583, pp. 1827, 1829.

Philpot had a talk with his keeper, Alexander, during which Philpot refused to recant. 1570, pp. 2000-01, 1576, p. 1997, 1583, p. 1829.

The mayor (Macham) heard of the treatment of Philpot in prison and ordered Philpot's irons to be removed. 1563, p. 1443, 1570, p. 2001, 1576, p. 1998, 1583, p. 1830.

Wittrence, the steward of the house, carried the manacled Philpot. 1570, p. 2001, 1576, p. 1998, 1583, p. 1830.

Foxe records Philpot's behaviour prior to his death, when the sheriffs came to collect him. 1563, p. 1447, 1570, pp. 2000-01, 1576, p. 1722-23, 1583, p. 1830.

A prayer was said by Philpot at the stake. He was burned on 18 December 1555. 1563, pp. 1448-49, 1570, p. 2002, 1576, p. 1724, 1583, pp. 1830-31.

Letters. 1563, pp. 1444-50, 1570, pp. 2002-14,1576, pp. 1721-35, 1583, pp. 1829-43.

Philpot wrote a letter to John Careless. 1563, pp. 1535-38.

Careless replied to the letter from John Philpot. 1563, pp. 1536-37, 1570, pp. 2103-04,1576, pp. 1814-15, 1583, p. 1921.

Whittle sent a letter to John Careless in prison, in which he says he has heard reports of Philpot's stoutness in going to his death and asking for a copy of Philpot's nine examinations for a friend. 1570, p. 1457, 1570, pp. 2018-19, 1576, pp. 1739-40, 1583, pp. 1847-48.

[Also referred to as 'Fylpot'.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Taylor

Registrar of Gloucester.

Foxe received testimony of Thomas Dowry's death from John Taylor. 1583, p. 1911.

[Alias Barker.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Wymmesley

(d. 1556) (DNB)

Archdeacon of London (1543 - 1544); Archdeacon of Middlesex (1554 - 1556)

John Wymmesley gave an oration at the beginning of the 1553 Convocation (1570, p. 1571; 1576, p. 1340; and 1583, p. 1410).

Foxe calls him 'Wimbisley', 'Wimsley', 'Wymbisley', 'Wymbysley', or 'Wymsley'

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Richard Cheyney

(1513 - 1579)

Archdeacon of Hereford (1552 - 1557). Bishop of Gloucester (1562 - 1579). [DNB]

Richard Cheyney was one of six clerics - the others were Walter Phillips, James Haddon, John Philpot, John Aylmer and Thomas Young - who refused to subscribe to the articles promulgated in the 1553 convocation (1563, p. 906; 1570, p. 1571; 1576, p 1340; and 1583, p. 1410).

At the convocation, Cheyney argued vigorously against transubstantiation (1563, pp. 907 and 912-14; 1570, pp. 1572 and 1576-76 [recte 1577]; 1576, pp. 1340-41 and pp. 1344-45; 1583, pp. 1411 and 1415-16).

In a marginal note Foxe states that Cheyney was 'M. Cheney the Archdeacon of Hereford now B. of Glocester' (1570, p. 1572; 1576, p 1340; and 1583, p. 1411).

Philpot stated that Cheyney and the dean of Rochester could testify to his writings referred to during his sixth examination. 1563, pp. 1405-12, 1570, pp. 1972-78, 1576, pp. 1698-1702, 1583, pp. 1805-10.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir James Hales

(d. 1554)

Judge of the Common Pleas (1547 - 1553) (DNB); father-in-law of Joyce Hales

Sir James Hales is mentioned as opposing the Act proclaiming Lady Jane Grey as heir to Edward VI and is characterised as both 'favouringe true religion' and 'as upright a Iudge as any was in this realme' (1563, p. 901; 1570, p. 1567; 1576, p. 1336; and 1583, p. 1406).

Hales' exemplary character and piety described (1563, pp. 1113-14).

A brief account of how Hales upheld the statutes passed in Edward's reign against the establishing of altars and the Mass, was imprisoned and attempted suicide (1563, p. 905; 1570, p. 1571; 1576, pp. 1339-40; and 1583, p. 1410; also see 1563, p. 1114).

After Hales had enforced the Edwardian statues in Kent in the summer of 1553, he came to Westminster at the beginning of the legal term in October 1553 to be sworn in as a justice. Lord Chancellor Stephen Gardiner refused to administer the oath to him unless he abjured. Hales refused. He was arrested soon after. While imprisoned, George Day, William Portman and one Foster sought to persuade him to recant (1563, pp. 1114-15; 1570, pp. 1708-9; 1576, p. 1458; 1583, p. 1532).

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A notice that Hales was committed to the Marshalsea appears in 1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

Hales attempted to commit suicide in prison. Afterward, in April 1554, he was released (1563, p. 1115; 1570, p. 1709; 1576, p. 1459; 1583, p. 1533).

Ridley reported, in a letter to Cranmer, written in the aftermath of the Oxford disputations in April 1554, that John Moreman had persuaded Sir James Hales to recant (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1464).

Hales succeeded in killing himself (1563, p. 1115; 1570, p. 1709; 1576, p. 1459; 1583, p. 1533).

Foxe defends Hales' character and suicide (1563, pp. 1116-17; 1570, p. 1709; 1576, p. 1459; 1583, p. 1533).

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Young

(1507 - 1568)

Precentor of St David's Cathedral (1542 - 1554 and 1559); bishop of St David's (1559 - 1561) and archbishop of York (1561 - 1568). Son-in-law of George Constantine (DNB; Fasti).

Thomas Young was one of six clerics - the others were Walter Phillips, James Haddon, John Philpot, Richard Cheyney and John Aylmer - who refused to subscribe to the articles promulgated in the 1553 convocation. Because Young did not take part in the ensuing debates, Philpot did not learn who he was; only identifying him as 'one other'. Foxe, who would not have known who this was either, also never identified him (1563, p. 906; 1570, p. 1571; 1576, p. 1340; and 1583, p. 1410).

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Thomas Young was one of Robert Ferrar's chief opponents in the diocese of St David's. 1563, p. 1084; 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470; 1583, p. 1544.

According to Foxe, Young was motivated to act against Ferrar because the bishop proceeded against him for despoiling the church, for simony, and for laxity. 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470.

Thomas Young accused Ferrar of praemunire. He disputed with Ferrar over the right of patronage to several benefices. 1563, pp. 1084-85; 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470; 1583, p. 1544.

Young was accused by Ferrar of despoiling church property; Young's opposition to Ferrar is detailed. 1563, pp. 1088-93; 1583, pp. 1546-50.

Young was accused by Ferrar of improper procedure in gathering evidence against him. 1563, pp. 1093 and 1095; 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470; 1583, pp. 1550 and 1551-52. He was accused by Ferrar of ignorance of the law and of acting illegally. 1563, pp. 1094-95; 1583, pp. 1551-52.

Ferrar denounced Young in letters to Lord Chancellor Thomas Goodrich. 1563, pp. 1096-98; 1570, pp. 1725-26; 1576, pp. 1472-1480 [recte 1474]; 1583, pp. 1552-53 and 1556. [NB: When these letters were printed in the 1563 edition, only Young's initials were given. His name was printed in subsequent editions].

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Elizabeth replaced Nicholas Heath with Thomas Young as archbishop of York. 1583, p. 2124.

[NB: In the diocese of St David's the precentor ranked second only to the bishop].

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Walter Phillips

(d. 1570)

Dean of Rochester (1541 - 1570)

Walter Phillips was one of six clerics - the others were James Haddon, John Philpot, Richard Cheyney, John Aylmer and Thomas Young - who refused to subscribe to the articles promulgated in the 1553 Convocation. At the Convocation, Phillips spoke out against Transubstantiation (1563, pp. 906 and 908; 1570, pp. 1571 and 1573; 1576, pp. 1340 and 1341-42; 1583, pp. 1410 and 1412).

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In a marginal note, Foxe identified Phillips: 'This man called M. Phillips continued Deane of Rochester all Quene Maryes time and still so remayneth' (1570, p. 1573; 1576, p. 1341; 1583, p. 1412).

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Pye

(d. 1557)

D.D., Archdeacon of Berkshire (1547 - 1557); dean of Chichester (1553 - 1557) (Fasti, Foster )

Pye gave an oration at the beginning of the 1553 convocation (1570, p. 1571; 1576, p. 1340; and 1583, p. 1410).

He objected to Philpot?s arguments against transubstantiation and prevailed upon Hugh Weston, the prolocutor of the 1553 convocation, to silence Philpot (1563, p. 911; 1570, p. 1575; 1576, p. 1344; 1583, p. 1414).

He was appointed as one of the official disputants at the Oxford disputations of 1554 (1563, pp. 932 and 936; 1570, p. 1592; 1576, p. 1358; 1583, p. 1428-29).

Pye was one of the catholic disputants in the Oxford disputations of 1554 (1563, pp. 932, 936, 938, 953, 959, 977, 983 and 985; 1570, pp. 1592-93, 1604, 1608, 1622 and 1626-27; 1576, pp. 1358-59, 1368, 1372, 1383 and 1387-88; 1583, pp. 1429-30, 1439, 1443, 1454 and 1458-59).

[NB: A brief account of the Oxford disputations of 1554, which was only printed in 1563, lists Pye as one of those who disputed with Cranmer (1563, p. 933-34). This account also mentions a ?maister Price?, citing canon law against Cranmer (1563, p. 933) and disputing with Ridley (1563, p. 934). ?Price? may very well be a mistake for Pye.]

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[Also referred to as 'Price' and 'Pie']

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Ankerwyke
NGR: TQ 005 730

An estate in south Buckinghamshire, on the Thames 2 miles north west of Staines.

Lewis, Samuel, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

1434 [1410]

Queene Mary. Queene Maryes Parliament. Iudge Hayles. Disputation in the Conuocation house.

MarginaliaAn.no 1553.tember, and was committed to the Tower close prisoner, hauing his seruant Austen to attend hym. 

Commentary  *  Close

The 'Austen' mentioned in 1583, p. 1410, is Augustine Bernher, Latimer's aide and an important figure in the Marian protestant church.

 
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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix, ref. page 393, line 4 from the bottom

The Council Book says: "At Westminster the xiij. day of September, 1553. This daye Mr. Hugh Lattymer clercke appeared before the lordes, and for his seditious demeanor was comitted to the Towere, there to remaine a close prisoner, havinge attendinge upon him one Austy his servante ... The archbishop of Canterbury appearing this day before the lords, was commaunded to appere the next day before them at afternoon, at the Star Chamber."

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The same day the Archbishop of Caunterbury appearyng before the Counsaile, was commaunded to appeare the next day at after noone before them in the Starre chamber.

The 14. of September, the Archbishop of Caunterbury, accordyng to their former dayes commandement, made his appearaunce before the Lordes in the Starre chamber. Where, they chargyng hym with treason, & spreadyng abroad of sedicious bils, to the disquieting of the estate, they committed hym from thence to the Tower of London, there to remayne till further Iustice and order at the Queenes pleasure. 

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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix, ref. page 394, line 4

The Council Book says: "At the Starre Chamber the xiiij. of September ano. 1553. This presente daye Thomas archbishoppe of Canterburye appeared before the Lordes (as he was the daye before appoynted): after longe and serious debatynge of his Offence by the whole boarde, it was thoughte convenyente that as well for the Treason committed by him againste the Queene's Matie as for the aggravatynge of the same his offence, by spreadinge aboute seditious Billes movinge tumultes to the disquietnes of the presente State, he should be comitted to the Towere, there to remayne and be referred to Justyce or furthere ordered as shall stande with the Queen's pleasure." The Harleian MS. mis-copies the date of this entry "the viij of September," whence it is so printed in the Archæologia, vol. xviii. p. 175.

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The following entries may be added, as interesting: "At Westminster the xvij day of November ano. 1553. A letter to the Livetenante of the Tower willinge him at conveniente tymes, by his discrecyon, to suffer [among others named] Docter Cranmere ... to have the liberty of the walke within the garden of the Towere, upon suggestyon that diverse be and have bene evell at ease in their bodyes for want of Ayre." ... "At St. James's the iij day of May ano. 1554. It was this Daye ordered by the Lordes that the Maiore of Oxeford should bringe in his Byll of Allowances for the charges of Doctor Cranmer, Doctor Ridleye, and Mr. Lattimer, and should have a Warrante for the same, and furthere it was resolved by their Lordshippes that the Judges and the Queenes Highnes Counselle learned should be called together, and theire Opinions demaunded what they thinke in Lawe her highnes may doe touchinge the Causes of the sayde Cranmer, Ridley, and Lattimer, being alredie by both the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge judged to be obstynate Heretiques, which matter is the rather to be consulted upon for that the said Cranmer is allredy attainted." ... "At Hampton Courte the xxv Day of September ano. 1554. A letter to the Mayore and Bailifes of Oxeford to delivere the late Bishoppe of Canterburye, Doctor Ridley, and Latymer, over to the charge of the newe Maiore and Bailifes that shall succede in their rowme."

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The following entry (Coun. Reg. Mary, vol. ii. p. 367) was kindly pointed out to the Editor by Robert Lemon, Esq of the S. P. O.: -

At Grenewiche the Seconde of Februarye 1555.Thapparaunce

The L. ChauncelourMr. Vicechamberlaine
The L. Privie SealeMr. Sec. Bourne
ThErle of PembrokeSr. John Mordaunt
The L. AdmyrallSr Thos. Wharton
The B. of ElyeSr Fraunces Englefield
Mr. ComptrollourSr Edward Walgrave
Mr. of Thorsse

"A letter to the Thresourer, giving him tunderstand that it is resolved here that the late Maiour and Bailefes of Oxforde shall have for the charges due unto them for D. Cranmer, Ridley and Latymer and their servauntes, thre pounde every weke; praieng him to give ordre that they be paide after that rate for somoche as is due unto them."

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The 15. of September, there was a letter sent to M. Horne Deane of Durham, for his appearaunce before thē, and another was sent to hym the 7. of October next after, for his speedie appearance.

The 16. of September, there was letters sent to the Mayors of Douer and Rye, to suffer all French Protestantes to passe out of this Realme, except suche, whose names shall be signified to them by the French Embassadour.

October. 1553. 
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, 394, fn 1

A very interesting narrative of the troubles of Thomas Mountain, parson of Whittington College, which has not found a place in Foxe's volumes, might here be introduced from Strype's "Memorials under Mary I.; chaps. vii. xi.;" and more particularly, respecting his removal to the prison at Cambridge, his release thence, and his subsequent hair-breadth escapes from the hands of bishop Gardiner's familiars; in chapters xxiii. xxiv. - ED.

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MarginaliaOctober 1. Queene Mary crowned.The first day of October, Queene Mary was crowned at Westminster, and the MarginaliaOctober. 10. The Parlament beginneth with a Masse.x. day of the sayd moneth of October then followyng, began the parliament with a solemne Masse of the holy Ghost, after the popish maner, celebrated with great pompe in the pallaice of Westminster. To the which Masse among the other Lordes, accordyng to the maner, should come the bishops, which yet remayned vndeposed, which were the Archb. of Yorke, D. Taylor B. of Lincolne, Iohn Harley B. of Herford. Of the bishops, MarginaliaTwo Bishops withdrew themselues from the sighe of the Masse.D. Taylor, and M. Harley presenting themselues according to their duetie, and taking their place amongest the Lordes, after they saw the Masse begin, not abidyng the sight therof, withdrew themselues from the company: for the which cause the Bishop of Lincolne beyng examined, and protestyng his fayth, was vppon the same commanded to attend: who not long after at Ankerwyke by sickenesse departed. 

Commentary  *  Close

In the 1563 edition (p. 905), Foxe reports that John Taylor, the Bishop of Lincoln, was sent to the Tower after refusing to attend mass at the opening of Parliament. In subsequent editions (1570, p. 1571; 1576, p. 1339 and 1583, p. 1410) Foxe corrected this to say that Taylor was commanded to attend and died soon afterwards at Ankerwicke (in Sir Thomas Smith's house, although Foxe does not say so). This is a good example of the detailed correction of the first edition from well informed oral sources.

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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix, ref. page 394, line 30

Foxe in his first edition only, p. 905, says, that Dr. Taylor "was upon the same committed to the Tower, where not long after by sicknes he departed:" in which statement he no doubt discovered that he was mistaken. (See Richardson's Godwin.)

MarginaliaM. Harley Bishop of Hereford put out of his Bishopricke.M. Harley, because he was maryed, was excluded both from the Parliament, and from hys bishoprike.

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Masse beyng done, the Queene accompanied with the Estates of the Realme, was brought into the Parliament house, there according to the maner, to enter and begin the consultation. MarginaliaStatutes of Premunire and other repealed.At which consultation or Parliament were repealed all statutes made in the tyme of king Henry the 8. for Premunire, & statutes made in K. Edward the sixtes time for administration of common praier & the sacramēts in the English tongue: & further, the attainder of the duke of Northumberland was by this Parliament confirmed. MarginaliaAltars and Masses erected.In this meane while many men were forward in the erecting of aulters & masses in churches. And such as woulde sticke to the lawes made in K. Edwardes tyme, till other should be established: some of them were marked, & some presently apprehended. MarginaliaSyr Iames Hales Knight.Among whom sir Iames Hales, a knight of Kent, and Iustice of the Common place was one, who nothwithstandyng he had ventured hys lyfe in Queene Maries cause, in that he would not subscribe to þe disheriting of her by the kings will, yet for that he did at a quarter Sessions geue charge vpon the statutes made in the tyme of Henry the 8. and Edward the 6. for the supremacie and religion, MarginaliaThe trouble of Iudge Hales.he was imprisoned in the Marshalsey, Counter, and Fleete, MarginaliaA subtile pollecy.and so cruelly handled & put in feare by talke, that the Warden of the Fleete vsed to haue in hys hearyng, of such torments as were in preparyng for heretikes (or for what other cause God knoweth) þt he sought to rid himself out of this life, by wounding himselfe wyth a knife: and afterward was contented to say as they willed him: wherupon he was discharged, but after that hee neuer rested till he had drowned himselfe in a riuer, halfe a myle from his house in Kent. 

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The material on the repeal of the Henrician and Edwardian religious statutes and the story of Judge Hales is taken entirely from Crowley's chronicle (cf. Crowley, Epitome, sig. Ffff2r with 1563, p. 905; 1570, p. 1571; 1576, p. 1339-40; 1583, p. 1410).

Of whom more is to be seen when you come to his story. 
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Foxe would later (in Book 11) repeat the story of Hales at greater length, drawing upon other sources.

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MarginaliaA Conuocation begonne.During the time of this parliament, the Clergie lykewyse after their woonted maner, had a Conuocation, with a disputation also appoynted by the Queenes commaundement, at Paules Churche in London the same tyme, which was about the 18. of October. In the which Conuocation, first M. Iohn Harpesfield Bacheler of Diuinitie, made a sermon ad Clerum, the 16. of October. After the sermon done, it was assigned by the bishops, that they of the Clergye house, for auoyding confusion of woordes should chuse them a Prolocutor. To the which roome and office by common assent, was named Doct. Weston Deane of Westminster, and presented to the Bishops, with an O-

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ration of M. Pie Deane of Chichester, and also of Maister Wymbisley Archdeacon of London. Which D. Weston beyng chosen and brought vnto the bishops, made his gratulatory Oration to the house, with the answer agayne of B. Boner. MarginaliaOrations of M. Pye and M. Wimsley, of Doct. Weston & of B. Boner. in the conuocation house.

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After these things thus sped in the conuocation house, they proceeded next to the Disputation appoynted, as is abouesayd, by the Queenes Commaundement, about the matterof the sacrament. Which disputation continued sixe dayes. Wherein D. Weston was chiefe on the Popes part who behaued himselfe outragiously in tauntyng and checking. In conclusion, such as disputed on the contrary part were driuen some to flee, some to deny, & some to die, thogh to the most mens iudgements that heard the disputation, they had the vpper hand, as here may appeare by þe report of the sayd disputation, the copy whereof we thought here to annexe, as followeth.

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The true report of the disputation had and begun in the Conuocation house at London, the 18 of October. Anno. 1553. 
Commentary  *  Close
Block 6: The Dispute in Convocation: 1553

In the 1570 and subsequent editions, Foxe replaced a short notice about the 1553 Convocation with a more detailed account of its commencement (see textual variant 10 and textual variant 11). The short notice in the 1563 edition was reprinted entirely from Crowley's chronicle (see Crowley, Epitome, sig. Ffff2r). Up to and including the 1563 edition, all the information Foxe had about the Convocation came from Crowley's brief description and, of course, Philpot's account of it; for the 1570 edition he clearly had consulted some records of it.

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There is a complete version of Philpot's account of the 1553 Convocation in Rerum, pp. 215-30. The version in the 1563 edition is a reprinting of John Philpot, The trew report of the dysputacyon had and begonne in the convocacyon hows at London the XVIII daye of Octobre MDLIIII, (Emden, 1554), STC 19890. In fact, in the 1563 edition, Foxe reprinted the title of Philpot's book (including its erroneous date of 1554) as the heading of his account (1563, p. 906). In subsequent editions Foxe corrected the date to 1553. In the 1570 edition, Foxe made both stylistic and substantive changes to Philpot's text; the most important of these will be discussed below. For all practical purposes, this text remained unchanged in succeeding editions.

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In the edition of 1570, Foxe recast the arguments presented in this Convocation into syllogisms. Moreover, on several occasions, Foxe went beyond this to re-word or even change Philpot's arguments.

 
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Cattley/Pratt, VI, 395, fn

1A report of this discussion - intituled "The treu report of the dysputacyon had and begōne in the convocacyō hows at London, etc. Imprinted at Basil by Alexander Edmonds, 1554" - was drawn up by Philpot, archdeacon of Winchester. This was immediately translated by V. Pollanus into Latin, and published under the title - "Vera Expositio Disputationis institutæ mandato D. Mariæ reginæ in Synodo Ecclesiasticâ," (16 mo. Romæ, 1554.) See an English version of Pollanus's Preface in Philpot's "Examinations, &c.," Parker Soc. Ed., page 174; also, Herbert's Typographical Antiquities, vol. iii. page 1574; Strype's Memorials, vol. iv. page 453, London, 1816; also Gerde's Scrinium Antiquarium ad Hist. Reform. Groningæ, 1748, tom. iii. page 163, where a large portion of the Latin Exposition is reprinted.

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Appendix, ref. page 395, note 1 The ensuing Report contains many verbal variations from the text of 1563: the whole has been collated with the Latin, which is printed in the Latin edition of 1559: some of the variations being improvements are left to stand; in other cases the readings of the first Edition are restored, as more faithful to the Latin. A Portion of the Disputation, as between Haddon and Watson, not given by Foxe, will be found in the Harleian MSS. No. 422, fol. 38-40.

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Addenda:Foxe gives this Disputation in Latin in his "Rerum in Ecclesia Gestarum, &c., Basil. 1559," p. 215; and introduces it with the following words: "Eas autem disputationes in Acta diligentissimè collegit Joannes Filpottus, quarum ipse sæpe in suis post examinibus mentionem facit. Quoniamque eædem ab altero Pollano quodam e vernacula nostra in Latinam sunt linguam redditæ, minus ea in re mihi laborandum fuit, nisi quod narrationem ipsam contractius alicubi in compendium redegi, paucisque in locis recognoscenda nonnulla videbantur." In his first English Edition (1563) Foxe reprints Philpot's original; in the subsequent Editions he has broken up the text, and in some places mended the style, introducing, however, several misprints; these are corrected in this Edition, and several expressions of the original restored. Foxe's expression, in supplying the name of the sixth Protestant advocate - "et (nisi fallit memoria) Cantore Menevensi" - seems to imply that he was himself present at the disputation.

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Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
The True Report

Foxe capitalises on Moreman's mistakes in this section, as with the glosses 'Moreman affirmeth that Christ did eate his owne body' and 'Moreman denieth the Sacrament to haue a promise of remission of sinnes annexed vnto it'. Moreman is perhaps meant to be thought of as arrogant as well as stupid, as is suggested by the formulation ('Moremans aunswere to S. Paul'): this formulation is sometimes used in later disputations to describe protestant responses to patristic authors, but never scriptural ones: its use here suggests presumptuousness.

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The term 'shift' is very often used to describe the intellectual moves of the papists ('Moremans shift is ouer throwen' and 'Philpots replication to Moremans shift'; 'Moreman desireth a day to imagine some crafty shift', 'M. Watson for a bare shift putteth the fault in the Printer', 'Watson is driuē to a shamefull shift, to deny the author when he cannot aunswer'). Many of the references in this section can be found in all editions, reflecting the relatively lively state of the 1563 margin for this section. As with later disputations, there are procedural complaints, such as 'Weston woulde know whether they were sufficiently answered, when he and his had answered no argument'; see also, 'D. Weston contrary to his owne wordes' (all editions), 'Pye and westō roūd together' (1563 only). Also highlighted are the threatening and bullying of Philpot, as when he was commanded to be silent and threatened with prison ('Philpot is commaunded to silēce note this geare' and 'Philpot is threatened to prison. A good solutiō for all his arguments')(1563); see also 'Weston is offended. Philpots replycation aunswered by commaunding him to silence' (all editions). Also interesting in this context is the gloss 'Weston rayleth against Philpot, to be a madde man': Weston is guilty of that which he sees in Philpot, as suggested by the term 'rayleth'. An example running counter to trends observed elsewhere is the use of the term 'alleaged' by a protestant ('The wordes of Theodoretus alleaged').

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A great many of the glosses simply point out who is speaking. Perhaps because the text covers the material more briefly than is the case for the Oxford disputations, the glosses do not consider the issues in quite the depth that occurs later, nor do they have as many syllogisms or contentious theological or patristic questions to wrestle with or point out. A gloss highlighting Philpot's intention to use plain English ('Philpot speaketh playne Englysh') was dropped after 1563.

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MarginaliaA disputation of Religion in Paules Church in London the 18. of October.WHere as dyuers and vncertayne rumoures bee spread abroad of the Disputation had in the Conuocation house, to the entent that all men may know the certaintie of all things therein done and sayd, as much as the memory of him that was present, thereat can beare away, hee hath thought good at request, throughly to describe what was sayd therein on both parties of the matters argued and had in question, and of the enteraunce thereof.

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¶ Acte of the first day.

MarginaliaOctober. 18.FIrst vpon Wednesday, beyng the 18. of October, at after noone, M. Weston the Prolocutor certified the house that it was the Queenes pleasure, that the company of the same house beyng learned men, assembled, should debate of matters of Religion, and constitute lawes therof, which her grace and the Parliament would ratifie. MarginaliaD. Weston Prolocutor agaynst the booke of Catechisme set forth in king Edwardes time.And for that (sayd he) there is a booke of late set forth, called the Catechisme 

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix, ref. page 396, line 6

The title of the little volume alluded to is, "Catechismus brevis, Christianæ disciplinæ summam continens, omnibus Ludimagistris auth. Regiâ commendatus: huic Catechismo adjuncti sunt Articuli de quibus in ultima Synodo Londinensi A. D. 1552, &c. &c. 8vo. Lond. 1553." This Catechism is generally considered to be the production of Poynet, bishop of Winchester. Strype, however, says, "It was certainly writ by Alexander Noel, as I find by comparing Noel's Catchism and this together." (Memorials of the Reformation under Edward VI. book ii. chap. 15.) See the matter again referred to in Cranmer's Disputation at Oxford, p. 468 of this volume, and in Ridley's Disputation, p. 487. The following passage of a letter from Sir John Cheke to Bullinger, dated Greenwich, June 7th, 1553 (Zurich Letters, Parker Soc. 1846, No. 71), decides the point of the authorship: "Besides this, he [Edward VI.] has lately recommended to the schools by his authority the Catechism of John Bishop of Winchester, and has published the Articles of the Synod of London." Weston evidently alludes to the latter part of the title-page, respecting the Articles. This book was printed in Latin by Wolfe, and in English by Day, at the same time. Copies "are very rare. They could only be circulated from May 20th to July 6th, of 1553. During the reign of Mary all that fell into the hands of the various commissioners, visitors, and bishops, were burnt. Beloe, in his Anecdotes of Literature, mentions this work (vol. iii. 22), and says of it, ' it is a very rare little book, concerning which Heylin very truly says, that it is so hard to come by, that scarce one scholar in five hundred hath ever heard of it, and hardly one of a thousand has ever seen it.'" (See more in Dr. Lamb's Historical Account of the Thirty-nine Articles, p. 6, Cambridge, 1829.) There are copies of it in the Public Library at Cambridge, and elsewhere; and the Parker Society has reprinted it among the "Documents of Edward VI." Dr. Lamb thinks that the publication of neither part can be said to have had the sanction of Convocation, strictly speaking. Dr. Cardwell ("Acta Synodalia") disputes Dr. Lamb's view, and thinks that the Articles had.

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(which he shewed forth) bearing the name of this honorable Synode, & yet put forth without your consents as I haue learned, beyng a booke very pestiferous, and ful of heresies, and likewyse a booke of Common prayer very abominable (as it pleased hym to terme it) I thought it therfore best, first to beginne with the articles of the Catechisme, concernyng the sacrament of the aultar, to confirm the naturall presence of Christ in the same, and also transubstantiation: Wherfore (sayd he) it shall be lawfull on Friday next ensuyng, for all men freely to speake their conscience in these matters, that all doubts may be remooued and they fully satisfied therein.

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¶ Acte of the second day.

MarginaliaOctober. 20.The Friday commyng, beyng the 20. of October, whē men had thought they should haue entred Disputation of the questions proposed, MarginaliaTwo. billes exhibited in the Conuocation house by the prolocutor.the Prolocutor exhibited two seueral bils vnto the house: the one for the naturall presence of Christ in the sacrament of the aultar, the other concernyng the Catechisme, that it was not of that houses agrement set forth, and that they did not agree therunto: requiryng all them to subscribe to the same, as he hymselfe had done. Wherunto the whole house did immediately assent, except sixe, MarginaliaM Phillips. M. Haddon. M. Philpot. M. Cheyney M. Elmar. and one other refused to subscribe to the billes.which were the Deane of Rochester, the Deane of Exceter, the Archdeacon of Winchester, the Archdeacon of Hertford, the Archdeacon of Stow, and one other. And while the rest were about to subscribe these two articles. MarginaliaThe booke of the Catechisme defended by M. Iohn Philpot.Iohn Philpot stood vp and spake first concernyng the Article of the Catechisme, that he thought they were deceiued in the title of the Catechisme, in that it beareth the tytle of the Synode of London last before this, although many of them which then were present, were neuer made priuye thereof, in settyng it forth, for that this house had granted the authoritie to make ecclesiasticall lawes vnto certayne persons to be appoynted by the kings maiestie, & what so euer ecclesiasticall lawes they or the most part of them dyd set forth, according to a statute in that behalfe prouided, it might be well sayd to bee done in the Synode of London, although such as be of this house now, had no notice therof before the promulgation. And in this poynt he thought the setter foorth therof, nothyng to haue slaundered þe house as they by their subscription went about to perswade the world, since they had our Synodall authoritie vnto them committed, to make such spirituall lawes as they thought conuenient and necessary.

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And moreouer he sayd, as concernyng the article of the naturall presence in the sacramēt, that it was against rea-

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