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Ælla of Deira

(d. in or after 597?) [ODNB]

King of Deira; son of Iffa

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 150, 161; 1576, pp. 111, 121; 1583, pp. 110, 120.

 
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Æthelberht (Edilbert) I of Kent

(d. 616?) [ODNB]

King of Kent. Baptised by Augustine; compiled written law code.

Æthelberht subdued the other Saxon kings, except for the king of Northumbria. 1570, p. 149; 1576, p. 111; 1583, p. 110.

Æthelberht married his wife Bertha on condition, imposed by her parents, that she be allowed to practice her Christian faith. 1570, p. 156; 1576, p. 117; 1583, p. 116.

Augustine met King Æthelbert of Kent and was given permission to live and preach in his kingdom. He and the other missionaries were given a house in Canterbury. The king was converted and built a church and an abbey for Augustine in Canterbury. 1570, 156; 1576, p. 117;1583, p. 116.

Pope Gregory sent a letter to Æthelberht. 1570, 159; 1576, p. 119;1583, p. 118.

Æthelberht was overlord of all the Saxon kings south of the Humber. 1570, p. 161; 1576, p. 121; 1583, p. 120.

Æthelberht, with Sæberht of the East Saxons, built the church of St Paul's in London. They translated the archbishop's see to Canterbury. Æthelberht built other churches in Rochester and Westminster. 1570, pp. 149, 161, 177; 1576, pp. 111, 121, 134; 1583, pp. 110, 120, 133.

He is mentioned in 1563, p. 16.

 
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Æthelburh

(d. 647) [ODNB sub Eadwine]

Kentish princess; 2nd wife of Eadwine, king of Northumbria. Christian; recipient of letters from Pope Boniface V

Æthelburh gave birth to her daughter Eanflæd on the day her husband was seriously wounded. Eadwine promised to convert to Christianity if he was victorious over the West Saxons. In token of this, he had his daughter baptised by Bishop Paulinus. 1570, p. 163; 1576, p. 122; 1583, p. 121.

Æthelburh and Bishop Paulinus converted Eadwine to Christianity. 1570, p. 154; 1576, p. 115; 1583, p. 114.

After the death of King Eadwine, and the conquest by Cadwallon of Gwynedd and Penda of Mercia, the subsequent disorder forced Paulinus to flee into Kent, along with Queen Æthelburh and her daughter Eanflæd. 1570, p. 163; 1576, p. 122; 1583, p. 121.

 
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Æthelfrith of Bernicia

(d. c. 616) [ODNB]

King of Bernicia (592 - 604); king of Northumbria (604 - 616)

Son of Æthelric

Æthelfrith attacked the Britons at Chester. Brochfael, consul of Chester, gathered his forces, supported by the monks of Bangor, to meet the attack. Brochfael and fifty others managed to escape; the rest were killed. 1570, p. 160; 1576, p. 120; 1583, p. 119.

Æthelfrith killed the monks of Bangor who had come to pray for the success of the Britons. 1570, p. 150; 1576, pp. 111-12; 1583, pp. 110-11.

Æthelfrith persecuted the young Eadwine, who fled to Rædwald of the East Angles. Rædwald, through fear of Æthelfrith and bribery, intended to betray Eadwine. His mind was changed by his wife, and he met Æthelfrith in battle, where Æthelfrith was killed. 1570, p. 161; 1576, p. 121; 1583, p. 120.

Æthelfrith was killed in battle by his successor, Eadwine. 1570, pp. 160, 161; 1576, pp. 120, 121; 1583, pp. 119, 120.

 
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Augustine of Canterbury

(d. 604) [ODNB]

Monk; first archbishop of Canterbury; sent as a missionary in 597 to Ethelbert of Kent, bretwalda of England, by Pope Gregory the Great

Gregory I sent Augustine to Britain. 1563, p. 16.

After Augustine and the other missionaries had set out on their journey, they turned back through fear. Gregory sent them back with letters of encouragement and help. 1570, p. 155; 1576, p. 116;1583, p. 115.

Augustine met King Æthelbert of Kent and was given permission to live and preach in his kingdom. He and the other missionaries were given a house in Canterbury. The king was converted and built a church and an abbey for Augustine. 1570, p. 156; 1576, p. 117;1583, p. 116.

Augustine went to France to be consecrated bishop. He sent his colleague Laurence to Rome to report on their progress and to deliver a set of questions to Pope Gregory, to which Gregory sent back answers. 1570, pp. 156-58; 1576, pp. 117-19;1583, pp. 116-18.

Gregory sent more missionaries, along with books, implements and letters and a pallium for Augustine. 1570, p. 158; 1576, p. 119;1583, p. 118.

At the direction of Gregory, Augustine consecrated two bishops, one for London and one for York. He then called the bishops and doctors together in assemblies, where the differences between the rites and customs of the Irish church and that of Rome were noted. 1570, pp. 159-60; 1576, pp. 119-20;1583, pp. 118-19.

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Augustine baptised thousands of converts in the River Swale on Christmas day. He appointed Laurence as his successor at Canterbury. 1570, p. 160; 1576, p. 120;1583, p. 119.

 
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Boniface III

(d. 607) [Kelly]

Legate to Constantinople sent by Gregory the Great; pope (February - November 607). He obtained a decree from Phocas that the bishop of Rome was the head of all churches.

Although his reign was short, Boniface managed to obtain from Phocas an agreement on the preeminence of Rome and its bishop. 1563, p. 9, 1570, p. 161, 1576, p. 121, 1583, p. 120.

 
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Eadwine of Northumbria

(c. 586 - 633) [ODNB]

Son of Aella, king of Deira; prince of Deira

King of Northumbria (616 - 33); converted to Christianity; killed in battle against Penda of Mercia and Cadwallon

Eadwine, when he was young, was persecuted by Æthelfrith, king of Northumbria, and fled to Rædwald of the East Angles. Rædwald, through fear of Æthelfrith and bribery, intended to betray Eadwine. His mind was changed by his wife, and he met Æthelfrith in battle, where Æthelfrith was killed. Eadwine then was made king. 1570, pp. 160-61; 1576, pp. 120-21; 1583, pp. 119-20.

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Æthelfrith was killed in battle by his successor, Eadwine. 1570, p. 160; 1576, p. 120; 1583, p. 119.

Cynegils and Cwichelm of the West Saxons plotted the assassination of Eadwine of Northumbria, but the attempt failed. His servant was killed instead; Eadwine was seriously wounded. He promised to convert to Christianity if he was victorious over the West Saxons. In token of this, he had his daughter, born on the day he was wounded, baptised by Paulinus. Eadwine then attacked the West Saxons and defeated them. 1570, p. 162; 1576, p. 122; 1583, p. 120.

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In spite of his promise, Eadwine was reluctant to convert. 1563, p. 18; 1570, p. 162; 1576, p. 122; 1583, p. 121.

Eadwine was converted and baptised by Paulinus, bishop of London, at York. 1563, p. 18; 1570, pp. 150, 162; 1576, pp. 112, 122; 1583, pp. 111, 120.

Through the efforts of Eadwine, King Earpwald of the East Angles adopted Christianity fully. 1563, p. 18; 1570, pp. 151, 163; 1576, pp. 113, 122; 1583, pp. 112, 121.

Eadwine was killed in battle by Cadwallon and Penda. 1570, p. 162; 1576, p. 122; 1583, p. 121.

 
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Edward the Confessor

(1003x5 - 1066) [ODNB]

King of England (1042 - 66); exiled to Normandy in his youth for 25 years to escape the Danish invasion; returned to displace Harold Harefoot.

Edward rebuilt the church of St Peter at Westminster originally built by King Æthelberht I of Kent. 1570, p. 161, 1576, p. 121, 1583, p. 161.

 
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Geoffrey of Monmouth (Galfridus Monumetensis)

(d. 1154/5) [ODNB]

Historian; bishop of St Asaph (1151 - 54/5); wrote History of the Kings of Britain

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 146, 160, 161; 1576, pp. 108, 120, 121; 1583, pp. 107, 119, 120.

 
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Gerald of Wales

c. 1146 - 1220x23) [ODNB]

Prolific author; ecclesiastic; nephew of David fitz Gerald, bishop of St David's

Studied in the schools of Paris; archdeacon of Brecon; in royal service under Henry II

He is mentioned as a source: 1570, p. 161; 1576, p. 121; 1583, p. 120.

 
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Gregory I (the Great) (St Gregory)

(c. 540 - 604) [Kelly]

Monk; abbot of St Andrew's, Rome. Pope (590 - 604) Wrote Dialogues, Homilies, Pastoral Care, Moralia

Gregory objected to the title 'universal patriarch', assumed by John IV Nesteutes, and refused the title 'universal pope', used in letters from Eulogius, patriarch of Alexandria. 1563, p. 9; 1570, p. 16; 1576, p. 13; 1583, p. 13.

Gregory saw English slave children in the market and remarked on their beauty. He wished to go as a missionary to England, but was not allowed by Pope Pelagius and the Romans. 1570, p. 155; 1576, p. 116;1583, p. 115.

Gregory sent Augustine as a missionary to England. 1563, p. 16.

After Augustine and the other missionaries had set out on their journey, they turned back through fear. Gregory sent them back with letters of encouragement and help. 1570, p. 155; 1576, p. 116;1583, p. 115.

After Augustine had converted King Æthelbert of Kent, Gregory ordered that he be consecrated bishop. Augustine sent his colleague Laurence to Rome to report on their progress and to deliver a set of questions for Gregory, to which he sent back answers. 1570, pp. 156-58; 1576, pp. 117-19;1583, pp. 116-18.

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Gregory sent more missionaries, along with books, implements and letters and pallium for Augustine. He also sent letters to Mellitus and King Æthelberht. 1570, pp. 158-59; 1576, p. 119;1583, p. 118.

Emperor Maurice had granted John IV Nesteutes, patriarch of Constantinople, the title of universal patriarch. John was in conflict with Gregory I over the title. Gregory wrote to Maurice about the matter. 1570, pp. 16, 161; 1576, pp. 13, 121; 1583, pp. 13, 120.

Gregory was the first pope to use the title 'Servus servorum Dei' (servant of the servants of God). 1570, p. 161; 1576, p. 121;1583, p. 120.

Foxe says Gregory I commended Serenus for removing images from churches. 1563, p. 3.

 
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Henry III

(1207 - 1272) [ODNB]

King of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Aquitaine (1216 - 72)

Henry renewed the church of St Peter at Westminster built by King Æthelberht of Kent and rebuilt by Edward the Confessor. He made it into a monastery. 1570, p. 161; 1576, p. 121; 1583, p. 120.

 
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Heraclius

(d. 641) [R. S. Moore www.roman-emperors.org]

Son of the exarch of Carthage; commander of the fleet

With the support of Priscus, seized Constantinople and had Emperor Phocas beheaded

Emperor in the East (610 - 41)

As Phocas had had his predecessor killed, so he was killed by his successor Heraclius. 1570, p. 161; 1576, p. 121; 1583, p. 120.

 
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John IV Nesteutes (Jejunator)

(d. 595) [Gams]

Patriarch of Constantinople (582 - 95); first to take the title of ecumenical patriarch

Emperor Maurice had granted John the title of universal patriarch. John was in conflict with Pope Gregory I over the title. 1570, pp. 16, 161; 1576, pp. 13, 121; 1583, pp. 13, 120.

 
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Justus (St Justus)

(d. 627x31) [ODNB]

Sent in 601 with others to reinforce Augustine's mission; first bishop of Rochester (604 - 24); attended a council of the Frankish church in Paris 614; fled into Francia upon the accession of Eadbald in Kent

Archbishop of Canterbury (624 - 27x31)

Justus accompanied Augustine and was consecrated bishop of Rochester by him. 1563, p. 18; 1570, pp. 158, 161; 1576, pp. 119, 121; 1583, pp. 118, 120.

Justus, as archbishop of Canterbury, consecrated Paulinus bishop of York. 1570, p. 163; 1576, p. 122; 1583, p. 121.

 
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Maurice (Flavius Mauricius Tiberius Augustus)

(d. 602) [W. Baum www.roman-emperors.org]

Cappadocian general; Eastern Roman emperor (582 - 602); he and his five sons were executed

Pope Gregory I was subject to him. 1570, p. 7; 1576, p. 6; 1583; p. 6.

Maurice granted John IV Nesteutes, patriarch of Constantinople, the title of 'universal patriarch'. 1570, p. 16; 1576, p. 13; 1583, p. 13.

He and his sons were killed by his successor, Phocas. 1570, p. 161; 1576, p. 121; 1583, p. 120.

 
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Paulinus (St Paulinus)

(d. 644) [ODNB]

Bishop of York 625 and of Rochester 633; one of the monks sent by Gregory I in 601; worked to convert Eadwine of Northumbria

Eadwine of Northumbria was converted and baptised by Paulinus at York. 1563, p. 18; 1570, pp. 150, 163; 1576, pp. 112, 122; 1583, pp. 111, 121.

Eadwine was reluctant to convert, but Paulinus worked patiently to persuade him. Paulinus baptised many people in the rivers of the realm, and he built a stone church at Lincoln. 1570, p. 163; 1576, p. 122; 1583, p. 121.

Paulinus was the first bishop of York, consecrated by Justus, archbishop of Canterbury. Upon the death of Justus, Paulinus consecrated Honorius as his successor. 1570, p. 163; 1576, p. 122; 1583, p. 121.

After the death of King Eadwine, and the conquest by Cadwallon of Gwynedd and Penda of Mercia, the subsequent disorder forced Paulinus to flee into Kent, along with Queen Æthelburh and her daughter Eanflæd. There Paulinus became bishop of Rochester. 1570, p. 163; 1576, p. 122; 1583, p. 121.

 
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Phocas (Flavius Phocas Augustus)

(d. 610) [Baum,W. www.roman-emperors.org sub Maurice]

Officer in the Roman army; led rebellion against Maurice; killed Maurice and his sons

Eastern Roman emperor (602 - 10); beheaded

Phocas murdered Emperor Maurice and his children. 1570 p. 161; 1576, p. 121; 1583, p. 120.

Pope Gregory I was subject to Phocas. 1570, p. 7; 1576, p. 6; 1583, p. 6.

Because Phocas wanted the favour of the people, Boniface III was able to obtain from him the title of universal bishop. Phocas issued a decree giving Rome and its bishop supremacy over the church. 1563, p. 9; 1570, p. 161; 1576, p. 121; 1583, p. 120.

Phocas in turn was killed by his successor. 1570 p. 161; 1576, p. 121; 1583, p. 120.

 
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Rædwald (Redwald) of East Anglia

(d. 616x27) [ODNB]

King of the East Angles (late C6/early C7 - 616x627); convert to Christianity

Rædwald was converted in Kent; later, through the influence of his wife, he combined Christianity with other gods. 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

Eadwine, when he was young, was persecuted by Æthelfrith, king of Northumbria, and fled to Rædwald. Rædwald, through fear of Æthelfrith and bribery, intended to betray Eadwine. His mind was changed by his wife, and he met Æthelfrith in battle, where Æthelfrith was killed. 1570, p. 161; 1576, p. 121; 1583, p. 120.

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Rægenhere

(d. 616/17) [ODNB sub Rædwald]

Son of Rædwald, king of the East Angles; killed in battle against Æthelfrith of Northumbria

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 162; 1576, p. 122; 1583, p. 120.

 
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Sæberht of the East Saxons

(d. 616/17) [ODNB sub Kings of the East Saxons]

King of the East Saxons; nephew of King Æthelberht of Kent, his overlord

Converted to Christianity by Mellitus in 604

Sæberht was the first of the East Saxon kings to be converted. 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 112; 1583, p. 111.

With Æthelberht of Kent, Sæberht built the church of St Paul's in London. They translated the archbishop's see to Canterbury. 1570, pp. 149, 161, 177; 1576, pp. 111, 121, 134; 1583, pp. 110, 120, 133.

 
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Sabinian

(d. 606) [Kelly]

Apostolic nuncio for Gregory I to Constantinople in 593

Pope (604 - 06)

Sabinian was a malicious detractor of Gregory I and his works. 1570, p. 161; 1576, p. 121; 1583, p. 120.

143 [120]

K. Ethelbert of Kent. K. Edwine his calling.

in the church, the people (as their vsed maner is) went out of the church to talke and iangle: he perceauing that, went out likewise, and sat amongst them: wherat they marueyling to see him do so. My children said he, where the flocke is, there ought the shepherd to be: wherefore either come you in, that I may also come in with you, or els if you tary out, I will likewise tary out together with you, &c.

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MarginaliaThe actes of Gregory the first.As touching the actes and deedes of Gregory aboue mentioned, how he withstood the ambitious pryd of Iohn, Patriarche of Constantinople, which woulde be the vnyuersall Priest, and onely chiefe Byshop of all other: declaring him to be no lesse then the forerunner of Antichrist, that woulde take that name vppon him: howe and wyth what reasons he aunswered againe the letters of the Emperor Mauritius in that behalfe, sufficient relation is made thereof in the first entry and beginning of this booke. This Gregory among manye other thinges induced into the Churche (the specialties whereof hereafter shall followe Christ willing more at large) fyrst beganne and brought in thys title among the Romaine Bishoppes, to be called Seruus seruorum Dei: MarginaliaWhereupon the Romaine Byshops vse in their stile, Seruus seruorū Dei. putting them in remembraunce therby both of their humblenes, and also of their duetie in the Churche of Chryst. Moreouer as concerning his acte for the sole lyfe of Pryestes fyrst begonne, and then broken againe. Also concerning the order of Gregoryes Masse boke, to be receaued in all churches, hereof who so listeth to read more, shall fynde the same in other places hereafter, namelye when wee come to the tyme of Pope Adrian the first.

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MarginaliaSabianus bishop of Rome.After the death of Gregory, aboue mentioned, 

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Pope Sabinian to the dispute over Easter

Foxe's narrative of the earliest Christian Saxon kingdoms only appeared in the 1570 edition for the first time. He attempted to weave together the evidence for God's providential inspiration towards those rulers and their kingdoms under whom Christianity was advanced. Edwin, king of Northumbria, is the cornerstone of his demonstration. Foxe could not ignore the contemporary parallel of his queen, already converted to Christianity, who 'ceased not to styrre and perswade the kyng to Chrisian faith'. In a lengthy aside, Foxe pointed out how she served as a godly goad, reminding Edwin of the connection between the afflictions of his kingdom and his failure to convert: 'for by affliction God vseth commonly to call them whom he wyl saue, or by whom he wil worke saluation vnto other'. Misfortune was an essential component of God's providence - and Foxe included the real dangers which had confronted Queen Elizabeth before her accession: 'How hardely escaped this our Quene now being, [...] by whom yet notwithstanding it hath ploeased God to restore this his Gospel now preached amongest vs?' Foxe's point in these remarks was probably to redirect the reader to a proper consideration of the relationship between God and human affairs, and away from the 'miracles' which so frequently accompanied the conversiaon stories of the early Saxon rulers. His problem was that his sources seemed often so unanimous about them - defying the renaissance techniques of source collation, comparison and analysis through which he was trying to rewrite the history of the coming of Christianity to the British Isles. Of Oswald's miraculous hand, preserved from putrifaction by the benediction of St Aidan, all Foxe's sources were in accord. His comment was one of measured scepticism: 'What the stories say more concernyng this hand of Oswald, I entend not to medle farther then simple, trye and dew probabilitie, will beare me out'. Of the 'miracle' accompanying the conversion of the king of the West Saxons, which recounted Birinus, walking back to France from midway across the Channel in order to recover his stole ('pallula'), Foxe mused: 'if it be a fable, as no doubt it is, I cannot by maruell that so many autors so constantly agree in reporting & affirming the same'. For the miracles of St Oswald, 'what it pleased the people of that tyme to reporte of him, I haue not here to affirme', Foxe preferring to emphasise 'the goodnes and charitie of Oswald toward the people' and prominently citing his sources for that. Throughout the section, Foxe balanced sceptical accounts of the 'miracles' accounted to the early Saxon kings with the more concrete evidence for their foundations in bricks and mortar at York, Westminster, and elsewhere.

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Foxe pursued his energetic comparison and collation of the sources that he used for the construction of his narrative elsewhere in book 2. For the brief evocation of Pope Sabinianus and Boniface III, his source was Bale's Catalogus (pp. 63; 69). For King Ethelbert of Kent, Foxe probably started with Fabian's Chronicle (R. Fabyan, The Chronicle of Fabian [London, 1559], book 5, ch. 120), which alerted him to the fact that there were different opinions on the matter. He seems to have pursued them independently in William of Malmesbury's Gesta Pontificium, Henry of Huntingdon's Chronicle, and possibly Bede's Ecclesiastical History. For King Ethelfride of Northumbria and Edwin's conflict with Ethelbert of Kent and subsequent flight to King Redwald, we should not be too impressed by his glosses referring to Geoffrey of Monmouth and Gerald of Wales. He almost certainly copied this material directly from Fabian. For the reign of Edwin of Northumbria, including the letter sent from Pope Boniface V, Foxe's principal source was once more Fabian's Chronicle (book 5, ch. 130) although he perhaps sought confirmation from Henry of Huntingdon's Chronicle (T. Arnold, ed. Henry of Huntingdon. Henrici Huntendunensis Historia Anglorum, the History of the English, by Henry, Archdeacon of Huntingdon, from B. C. 55 to A. D. 1154 [London: Rolls Series, 1879], book 3, chs. 34-8). For the activities of Archbishop Paulinus after Edwin's death, we have a good example of how we should not take Foxe's glosses on his sources at face value. He mentions Henry of Huntingdon and Matthew Paris' Flores Historiarum. Yet, when we pursue the source for Foxe's confident assertion that Paulinus remained at Rochester for 19 years, it transpires that this comes from neither source, but is to be found only in Ranulph Higden's Polychronicon (J. R. Lumby, ed. Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden monachi Cestrensis: together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century [London: Rolls Series, 1879], book 5, ch. 12). For Foxe's narrative of Oswald as King of Northumbria, Foxe's main source was once more Fabian's Chronicle (book 5, ch. 130), which provided him with the references to Geoffrey of Monmouth and the Polychronicon. Foxe also consulted John Brompton's Chronicle (J. Brompton, 'Chronicon Johannis Brompton Abbatis Jornalensis.' In Historiæ Anglicanæ Scriptores X. [....], ed. by Roger Twysden [London, 1652], cols 784-8) and William of Malmesbury's Gesta Regum for this section (J. S. Brewer, and C. T. Martin, 'William of Malmesbury: Gesta Regum.' In Reigistrum Malmesburiense. The Registor of Malmesbury Abbey, ed. by J.S. Brewer and C.T. Martin [London: Rolls Series, 1869-1880], book 1, ch. 49). Foxe cites some Latin directly from Brompton's Chronicle in his description of Berinus in England. On the death of Oswald, Foxe directly copied some of the material from Fabian's Chronicle (book 5, ch. 134); and for the character of Oswine and his murder, Foxe turned to Henry Huntingdon's Chronicle (book 9, chs. 14-17). For the final brief references in this section to Oswy, King of Northumbria and Bede, once again, Foxe turned mainly to Fabian's Chronicle (book 5, ch, 134) though it is possible that he had directly consulted Bede's Ecclesiastical History (book 4, ch. 18).

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Matthew Phillpott and Mark Greengrass
University of Sheffield

first came Sabinianus, who as he was a malicious detractor of Gregory & of his works, so he continued not long, scarse the space of two yeares. MarginaliaBonifacius 3. Byshop of Rome.After whom succeded next Bonifacius the 3. which albeit he reigned but one yeare, yet in þt one yeare he did more hurt then Gregory, with so great labours, and in so many yeres could do good before: for that which Gregorye kept out, he brought in, obtaining of Phocas the wicked Emperour for him and his successours after him, that the sea of Rome aboue al other churches should haue the preeminence: and that the Bishop of Rome should be the vniuersall head, through all Churches of Christ in Christēdome: alleadging for him this friuolous reason, that S Peter had and left to his successours in Rome the keyes of byndyng and loosing, &c. And thus began first Rome to take an head aboue all other Churches, by the meanes of Boniface the 3. who as he lacked no boldnes nor ambitiō to seeke it, so neither lacked he an Emperour fit and meete to gyue such a gift. MarginaliaHow Rome began first to take an head aboue other churches. Phocus traitor and murderer of hys Emperour. Thys Emperours name was Phocas a man of such wickednes and ambitiō most like to his owne Bishop Boniface, that to aspire to the Empire, he murthered his owne maister and Emperour Mauritius, & his children. Thus Phocas coming vp to be Emperour, after this detestable vilanie done: thinking to establish his Empire with friendship and fauour of his people, & especially with the byshop of Rome: quickly condescended to al hys petitions, & so graunted him (as it is sayd) to be that he would, the vniuersall and heade Bishop ouer all Christen Churches. But as bloud commonly requireth bloud againe, so it came to passe on the said Phocas. MarginaliaBloud reuenged with bloud. For as he had cruellye slayne the Lorde and Emperour, Mauritius, before, so he in lyke maner (of Heraclius the Emperour succeedyng hym) had his hands and feete cut of, & so was cast into the Sea. And this wicked Phocas which gaue the first supremacy to Rome, lost his owne. But Rome would not so soone loose his supremacy once giuen, as þe gyuer lost his life: for euer since frō that day it hath holden, defended, and maintained the same still, and yet doth to this present day, by al force & policy possible. And thus much concerning Boniface, whō, by the words of Gregory, we may well call the runner before Antichryst. For as Gregory brought into their stile Seruus seruorum Dei, so this Boniface brought into their heades, first Volumus ac mandamus: Statuimus ac præcipimus. That is. We will and commaunde, we enioyne and charg you. &c. MarginaliaVolumus ac mandamus: Statuimus ac præcipimus brought in by Boniface the third.

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Mention was made a little before of Ethelbert kyng of Kent, and also of Ethelfride kyng of Northsaxone or Northumbria. This Ethelbert hauing vnder his subiection al the other Saxon kinges, vnto Humber, after he had fyrst receaued himselfe, and caused to be receaued of other, the Christian faith by the preaching of Austen, MarginaliaFabian cap. 120. being cōfirmed afterward in the same faith, amōg other costly dedes, with the helpe of Sigebert kyng of Essex his nephew, then reigning vnder him, began the foundation of Paules Church within the Citie of London, & ordained it for the Bishops sea of Londō. MarginaliaEthelbert and Sigebert builders of Paules Church. For the Archbishops sea which before tyme had bene at Londou, was by Austen and this Ethelbert at the praier of the Citizens of Dorobernia translated to thesaid Citie Malmesberiēsis Lib. de pontific. MarginaliaThe Archebishops sea translated from London to Dorobernia. Malmeseriensis. lib. de pontifi. H. Huntington. lib. 3. Wherfore such authors as say that Paules was builded by Sigebert, say not amisse: which Sigebert was þe king of Essex, in which prouince standeth the Citie of London. This Ethelbert also founded the Church of Saint Andrewe in the Citie of Do. rubres in Kent, nowe called Rochester, of one Rot, distaunt from Dorobernia, 24. miles. Of this citie, Iustus was bishop ordained before by Austen. Moreouer the forenamed Ethelbert, styrred vp a dweller or Citizen of London to make a Chappell or church of Saint Peter in the west end of Lōdon, then called Thorny, nowe the towne of Westminster, which Church or Chappell was after by Edward the confessour inlarged or newe builded: MarginaliaThis Edward was the third of that name before the Conquest. lastly of Henry the 3. it was newly agayne reedified and made as it is nowe a large Monasterye. &c. MarginaliaThe Monastery of Westminster. After these Christian and worthye actes this Ethelbert when he had reigned the course of lvj. yeares chaunged thys mortall life about the yeare of our Lorde 616. whome some stories say to be slaine in a fyghte betweene him and Ethelfride king of Northsaxons. MarginaliaAn. 616.

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In the meane time the foresaid Ethelfride king of Northumberland, after the cruell murther of the Monkes of Bangor, escaped not long vnpaied his hire, for after he had raigned. 24. yeares he was slaine in the fielde of Edwine, who succeded in Northumberland after him. MarginaliaBloud reuenged with bloud.

This Edwyne being the sonne not of Ethelfried, )as Galfridus Monumetensis saith) but rather of Alla (as Giraldus Gambrensis, seemeth to witnes more truely) was first a Panim or idolater: afterward by Paulinus was Christened and the first Christened king in Northōberland. MarginaliaEdwine first Christened king in Northūberland. Giraldus Gambrensis. The occasion of which his calling or conuersion, as is in sundry stories, contained was this.

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MarginaliaThe order and maner of the conuersion of Edwine, to the faith fo Christ. The trouble of Edwine.Edwine being yet a Pagane, maryed the daughter of Ethelbert king of kent, called Edelburge a Christian womā, otherwise called Tace. But before this mariage, Edwyne beyng yet young, Ethelfride the king, conceyuing enuy agaynst him: persecuted him so sore, that he was forced to flee to Redwaldus king of Eastangles, as in the table of the kings is expressed. The which Redwaldus what for feare, what with bribes being corrupted of Ethelfride, at length priuily had intēded to haue betrayed Edwyne. But as gods will was, Edwyne hauing warning thereof by a secrete frynde of his, was mooued to flee and to saue himselfe beyng promised also of his friendes to bee safely conueyed awaye, if he would thereto agree. To whome Edwyne said, whether shall I flee which haue so long fleene the handes of myne enymies, through all prouinces of the Realme? And if I must nedes be slayne I had rather that he should doe it, then an other vnworthy person. Thus he remayning by himselfe alone & solitarie, sitting in a great study, there appeared vnto him sodainely, a certaine straunger, to hym vnknowne, and saide, I knowe well the cause of thy thought and heauines. What wouldest thou giue him that should deliuer thee out of this feare, & should recōcile king Redwald to thee againe? I woulde gyue him (saide Edwyne) al that euer I coulde make. And he saide agayne: And what if he make thee a mightier king, then was anye of thy Progenitours? Hee aunswered againe as before. Moreouer, (saith he) and what if hee shewe thee a better kind and way of life, then euer was shewd to any of thine aunceters before thee: wilt thou obey him & doe after his counsell? Yea (said Edwyne) promising most firmely, wyth al his hart so to do. MarginaliaThe maruelous calling of Edwine. Thē he laying his hand vpon his head when (said he) this token hapneth vnto thee: then remember this time of thy tribulation, & the promise which thou hast made, and the word which now I say vnto thee. And with that he uanished out of his sight sodainely. After this so done as Edwyne was sitting alone by him selfe pensiue and sad: his foresaid friend, which moued him before to fle commeth to him, bidding him be of good chere, MarginaliaEdwine miraculously deliuered. for the hart (said he) of king Redwaldus which had before intended thy destruction, was nowe altered through the counsell of the Queene, and is fully bent to keepe his promise wyth you, whatsoeuer shall fall thereupon. To make the story short Redwaldus the King (although Fabian following Henry Huntyngton) saith it was Edwyne) with al conuenient speed assembled an host: MarginaliaW. Malmesburiensis. lib. de. Reg. wherwith he sodainly comming vpon Ethelfride, gaue battaile vnto him aboute the borders of Mercia, where Ethelfryde king of Northumberlande, also with Reyner Redwaldus sonne was slaine in the fielde. By reason wherof Edwyne (his enimies now being destroyed) was quietly placed in the possessiō of Northumberlād. All this while yet Edwyne remained in his old Paganisme, albeit his Queene being (as is aboue declared) king Ethelbertes daughter a Christen woman, MarginaliaThis Queene was Edelburga, daughter to King Ethelbert the Christened King of Kent. with Paulinus the byshop, ceased not to stirre and perswad the king to christian fayth. But he taking counsell with his nobles and counsellers vpon the matter, was hard to be wonne. Then the

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