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Edward Crome

(d. 1562)

Rector of St Mary, Aldermary, London. [DNB]

Edward Crome was sent to the Fleet on 13 January 1554 by the privy council for preaching without a licence (1583, p. 1418; APC IV, p.384).

Another notice that Crome was committed to the Fleet on 13 January 1554 (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1396; and 1583, p. 1467).

Ridley reported to Cranmer, in a letter written in the aftermath of the Oxford disputations in April 1554, that Crome, Rogers and Bradford would be taken to Cambridge for a disputation on similar lines to that held in Oxford (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; and 1583, p. 1464).

Crome was a signatory to the letter of 8 May 1554 protesting the proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71.

Ridley praised the piety, integrity and constancy of 'D.C.' in a letter he wrote to Hooper, probably in 1554. 1563, pp. 1051-52; 1570, p. 1677; 1576, p. 1404; 1583, pp. 1504-5. [NB: Only the initials 'D.C.' are given in Foxe's version of the letter, but the name 'Doctor Crome' is given in the version of the letter printed in Letters of the Martyrs, p. 46.]

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Crome was brought before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Overy's on 30 January 1555. He asked for two months to consider whether he would or would not recant and this was granted to him (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483). [Taken from BL Harley MS 421, fols. 43r and 45r].

A copy of one of Crome's recantations was given to George Marsh in an attempt to persuade Marsh to recant. 1570, p. 1733; 1576, p. 1480; 1583, p. 1563.

Bradford was asked by Heath and Day to read a book that had done Dr Crome good. 1563, p. 1208, 1570, p. 1797, 1576, 1524, 1583, p. 1617.

A letter from Ridley and his fellow prisoners to Bradford and his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench in 1554 stated that Ridley longed to hear of Father Crome, Doctor Sandys, Masters Saunders, Veron, Beacon and Rogers. 1563, p. 1294, 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1624, 1583, p. 1724.

Foxe refers to Edward Crome's first recantation. 1563, p. 1682, 1570, p. 2260, 1576, p. 1951, 1583, p. 2058.

Master Tracy secretly took a letter to William Plane and asked him to take it to Crome. Someone read the letter while Plane was out of the house and believed Plane to be the author of its defamatory contents. Plane was sent to the Tower. 1583, p. 2128.

[Also referred to as 'D. C.']

 
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Francis Hastings

(1514? - 1561)

2nd earl of Huntingdon (DNB)

Francis Hastings supported Northumberland against Mary; he was arrested at Cambridge together with Northumberland (1563, p. 902; 1570, p. 1569; 1576, p. 1338; 1583, p. 1407).

He was committed to the Tower with Northumberland (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

He was released from the Tower on 10 October 1553 (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1466).

Francis Hastings was sent to apprehend the duke of Suffolk who had fled into Warwickshire. Hastings reached Coventry before Suffolk and thwarted Suffolk?s rising. Suffolk was betrayed by a servant and captured (1563, p. 916; 1570, p. 1579; 1576, p. 1347; 1583, p. 1418).

Francis Hastings was sent to Leicestershire in late January 1554 to apprehend Henry Grey, the duke of Suffolk; he proclaimed Suffolk a traitor (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

 
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Henry Grey

(d. 1554)

Marquis of Dorset (1517 - 1554); duke of Suffolk (1551 - 1554). Father of Lady Jane Grey. [DNB)]

Although it was originally intended that Henry Grey should take the field against Mary in 1553, it was later decided that he should have custody of the Tower, where his daughter Jane Grey and her husband Guildford Dudley were staying (1563, p. 901; 1570, p. 1568; 1576, p. 1337; and 1583, p. 1407).

He was committed to the Tower on 28 July 1553; released on 31 July 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

Suffolk fled into Warwickshire and Leicestershire 'to gather a power'. The earl of Huntingdon was sent into Warwickshire to stop the duke. Huntingdon reached Coventry before the duke and thwarted him. Suffolk was betrayed by a servant and taken to London (1563, p. 916; 1570, p. 1579; 1576, pp. 1347-48; 1583, p. 1418).

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At the end of January 1554, Suffolk, together with his brother John, went into Leicestershire. Frances Hastings, the earl of Huntingdon, was ordered to bring him back to London; Hastings proclaimed the duke a traitor (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

Henry was apprehended together with his brother John (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1467).

On 17 February he was arraigned and condemned to die (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1467).

He was beheaded on Tower Hill (1563, p. 923; 1570, p. 1585; 1576, p. 1352; and 1583, p. 1423).

The dukes of Northumberland and Suffolk were executed for their support of Lady Jane Grey. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472], 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

Foxe presents a detailed account of Suffolk's fortitude and affirmation of his protestantism at his execution (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, pp. 1467-68).

 
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James Tuberville

(d. 1570?)

Bishop of Exeter (1555 - 1559) (DNB)

James Tuberville is mentioned under the name 'Troublefield' on 1570, p. 1579; 1576, p. 1347; 1583, p. 1418).

Also referred to as 'Trublefield'

 
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Peter Martyr Vermigli

(1500 - 1562) [DNB; Hillerbrand, Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation]

About 5 September 1553 Peter Martyr arrived in London from Oxford (where he had been held under arrest) and met with Cranmer to discuss their participating in a disputation to defend the Book of Common Prayer at Oxford. But Cranmer was arrested and Martyr deported (1563, p. 905; 1570, p. 1571; 1576, p. 1339; 1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

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Peter Martyr was permitted to leave the realm and returned to Strasburg (1570, p. 1579; 1576, p. 1347; 1583, p. 1418).

On 14 February 1555 at 3 o'clock Dr Harding went to see John Bradford in prison and talked of his fear for Bradford's soul after excommunication, and said that he himself had spoken against Peter Martir, Martin Bucer, Luther and others for their beliefs. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, pp. 1790-91, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, pp. 1612-13 .

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Foxe states that he omitted the talk Bradford and Pendleton had of 'my lord of Canterbury, of Peter Martirs boke, of Pendleto[n]s letter laid to Bradford', a discussion held on 28 March 1555. 1563, p. 1214, 1570, p. 1804, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

Ridley was converted through reading Bertram's book of the sacrament, and confirmed in his beliefs through conference with Cranmer and Peter Martyr. 1570, p. 1895 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

Bartlet Green was converted through attending Peter Martyr's lectures at Oxford. 1563, p. 1458, 1570, p. 2021, 1576, p. 1742, 1583, p. 1850.

Peter Martyr wrote a book against Gardiner's Marcus Anthonius Constantius. 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1870.

Julins Palmer borrowed Peter Martyr's Commentaries on I Corinthians, which helped to convert him. 1570, p. 2118, 1576, p. 1841 [recte 1829], 1583, p. 1935.

Foxe states that those who were blinded with ignorance or malice thought Peter Martyr not a learned man. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472].

[Also referred to as 'Peter Martyr']

Nicholas Carre wrote a letter to John Cheke about Martin Bucer, which was then passed on to Peter Martyr. 1563, p. 1540, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1957.

 
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Sir Peter Carew

(1514 - 1575)

Of Mohun's Ottery, Devon. MP for Tavistock (1545), Dartmouth (1547), Devon (1553), Exeter (1563). Soldier. Son of Sir Edmund Carew. Leader of the conspiracy in Devon in January 1554, after which he fled to France. (DNB) [See Bindoff, Commons; Hasler, Commons; DNB]

Sir Peter Carew rebelled against Mary, was proclaimed a traitor and fled into France; all in early 1554. 1563, pp. 916-17; 1570, pp. 1579-80; 1576, pp. 1347-48; and 1583, p. 1418.

Carew travelled with John Cheke and was taken en route between Brussels and Antwerp. 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1955.

Elizabeth was charged with conspiring with Carew. 1563, p. 1712, 1570, p. 2289, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2091.

[NB: Peter Carew is the nephew of Gawain Carew.]

 
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Sir Thomas Wyatt

(1521? - 1554) (DNB)

Sir Thomas Wyatt was the king's ambassador to the emperor before Sir Henry Knyvet. Wyatt's servant William Wolfe was taken on by Knyvet as steward of his household. 1583, p. 1786.

In 1554 Sir Thomas Wyatt led a rebellion in Kent against Mary, provoked by fear that Mary's marriage to Philip would 'bring upon this Realme most miserable and establish popish religion'. The duke of Norfolk was sent against Wyatt but Norfolk's followers deserted and he retreated.

Wyatt advanced on London in February 1554. Wyatt could not gain entry into London and was resisted and apprehended at the Temple Bar. Wyatt was executed. Foxe promises to relate a story about the removal of Wyatt's head from the spike on Hay Hill where it was displayed, but he never did (1563, pp. 916-17; 1570, pp. 1579-80; 1576, pp. 1347-48; and 1583, pp. 1418-19).

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In 1570 et seq. Foxe prints an account of Mary's oration - there is an earlier, different version of this speech in 1563, pp. 1730-31 - at the London Guildhall denouncing Wyatt. Foxe's marginal notes to this speech, in 1570 et seq., defend Wyatt against Mary's charge that Wyatt looted Southwark (1570, p. 1580; 1576, p. 1348; and 1583, p. 1418).

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Foxe states that Wyatt, at his own request, spoke with Edward Courtenay on the day of his execution and, before the Lieutenant of the Tower, got down on his knees and begged forgiveness of Courtenay for having falsely accused both him and Elizabeth of involvement in his rebellion (1570, p. 1587; 1576, p. 1355; 1583, p. 1425). [It is reported elsewhere that Wyatt did speak with Courtenay on the day of his execution, but what they said is not known; see J. G. Nichols, (ed.), The Chronicle of Queen Jane and of two years of Queen Mary, (London, 1850) Camden Society Original series 48, pp. 72-73].

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Wyatt also allegedly proclaimed from the scaffold that Elizabeth and Courtenay were innocent of any complicity in his crimes, but Hugh Weston who was also standing on the scaffold cried out to the crowd that Wyatt had confessed otherwise to the Privy Council (1570, p. 1587; 1576, p. 1355; and 1583, p. 1425).

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Sir Martin Bowes informed Sir Thomas White that he had heard a report circulating at Westminster, that Wyatt had urged Courtenay to confess the truth (1570, pp. 1587- 88; 1576, p. 1355; and 1583, p. 1425).

During the Star Chamber trial of one Cut, who was charged with sedition for claiming that Wyatt (on the scaffold) had cleared Elizabeth and Courtenay of any complicity in his rebellion, Sir John Brydges, who was present at Wyatt's interview with Courtenay, claimed that Wyatt begged Courtenay to confess the truth and seek the Queen's mercy (1570, p. 1588; 1576, p. 1355; and 1583, pp. 1425-26).

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Foxe declares that he will pass over Wyatt's rebellion, as it has been dealt with in more detail elsewhere (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1467).

The execution of Wyatt on 11 April, and his statement that neither Elizabeth or Courtenay were involved in his conspiracy (1563, p. 1001; 1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1467).

Elizabeth was suspected of being involved in Wyatt's rebellion. 1563, p. 1711, 1570, p. 2288, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2091.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Cranmer

(1489 - 1556)

Archbishop of Canterbury (1533 - 1553) [Fasti; DNB; MacCulloch, Thomas Cranmer, 1996]. Martyr

Foxe records the life, condemnation and death of Cranmer. 1563, pp. 1470-1503, 1570, pp. 2032-71, 1576, pp. 1752-82, 1583, pp. 1859-90.

Foxe records Cranmer's formative years and early career. His mother was Agnes Hatfield. Cranmer read the works of Faber, Erasmus and Luther. 1563, pp. 1470-71, 1570, pp. 2032-33, 1576, pp. 1752-53, 1583, pp. 1859-60.

Cranmer was asked by Dr Capon to be a founding fellow of Wolsey's college. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2035, 1576, p. 1753, 1583, p. 1860.

Alexander Seton and Edward Foxe lodged with Cressey while Thomas Cranmer was there and dined with him. The following day Henry VIII called Seton and Foxe to him to discuss his marriage. They then sent for Cranmer. 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1755, 1583, p. 1860.

Cranmer was sent as Henry VIII's ambassador to the emperor. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2035, 1576, p. 1753, 1583, p. 1860.

He was made archbishop of Canterbury. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2035, 1576, p. 1753, 1583, p. 1860.

Cranmer was asked by Henry VIII to search the scriptures for a case for his divorce from Catherine of Arragon. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1754, 1583, p. 1860.

Henry VIII asked the earl of Wiltshire to allow Cranmer to stay at his house in Durham. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1755, 1583, p. 1861.

Cranmer went to Mr Cressey's house at Waltham Abbey during the summer plague season. Cranmer's wife was a relative of Cressey. 1570, p. 2033 1576, p. 1754, 1583, p. 1860.

Henry VIII called Seton and Foxe to him to discuss his marriage. They then sent for Cranmer. 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1755, 1583, p. 1860.

The pope's authority was discussed at the universities of Cambridge and Oxford, where it was concluded that Henry VIII's marriage to Catherine of Arragon was not legal, and the pope's authority was denounced. Cranmer, the earl of Wiltshire, Stokesley, Carne and Benet were then sent before the pope to deliver these conclusions. 1563, p. 1472, 1570, p. 2033, 1576, p. 1755, 1583, p. 1861. [1563 has the commission as consisting of: Bonner, Winchester, Sampson, Repps, Goodricke, Latimer, Shaxton, and Barlow.]

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Cranmer met with Cornelius Agrippa. 1570, p. 2035, 1576, p. 1754, 1583, p. 1861.

Cromwell was sent with Norfolk and Suffolk to dine with Cranmer at Lambeth. 1570, p. 2036, 1576, p. 1756, 1583, p. 1862.

Chersey, a grocer in the city of London, had a kinsman who was a priest and who spent more time in the alehouse than his church. This priest spoke against Cranmer in the alehouse one day. 1570, p. 2036, 1576, p. 1756, 1583, p. 1863.

The priest was sent to the Fleet. Cromwell forgot about him and eventually sent him to Cranmer. Cranmer in time spoke to the priest and set him free. 1570, pp. 2036-38, 1576, pp. 1756-57, 1583, pp. 1863-64.

Cranmer investigated the case of a woman accused of committing adultery. 1563, pp. 1477-78, 1576, pp. 1570-71.

Cranmer sent a token via W. P. [William Porrege] to a woman falsely accused of adultery, asking for forgiveness for the treatment she received while in custody. 1563, p. 1478, 1576, p. 1751.

Lord Wryosley wept at the bedside of King Henry VIII and saved the life of Mary, Henry and Catherine's daughter. 1563, p. 1478.

Thomas Seymour spoke against Cranmer to the king, which he later regretted. 1570, p. 2039, 1576, p. 1758, 1583, p. 1865.

Richard Neville, noting that Sir Thomas Seymour was hoping to see Cranmer, brought him to the archbishop at dinner. 1570, p. 2039, 1576, p. 1758, 1583, p. 1865.

After Cromwell was apprehended, bishops Heath and Skip forsook Cranmer and stood against him. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, pp. 1865-66.

Winchester and others tried to take Cranmer out of the king's favour. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, p. 1866.

The king sent Sir Anthony Denny to commit Cranmer to the Tower. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, p. 1866.

Cranmer spoke with the king. 1570, p. 2040, 1576, p. 1759, 1583, p. 1866.

Buttes, the king's physician, spoke to the king about the fact that Cranmer was being forced to wait like a lackey to come into council. 1570, p. 2041, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1866.

The king and the council made their peace with Cranmer. 1570, p. 2041, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1867.

Sir John Gostwicke accused Cranmer of heresy before parliament, citing his sermons at Sandwich and his lectures at Canterbury as evidence. 1570, p. 2041, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1867.

Prebendaries and justices of Kent accused Cranmer of heresy. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1867.

Articles were put to Henry VIII against Cranmer. Henry VIII told Cranmer what these articles were. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1867.

A commission was sent to Kent to find out the truth about Cranmer's beliefs and the charges of heresy against him. The commission members were Dr Belhouse, Chauncellor Cox and Hussey the registrar. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1761, 1583, p. 1867.

Cranmer's secretary wrote to Buttes and Denny asking for Dr Lee to join the commission, lest nothing be learned by the commission. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1761, 1583, p. 1868.

A conspiracy against Cranmer was discovered through some letters that were found, including one by the suffragen of Dover and one by Barbar, a civilian maintained in Cranmer's household as a counsellor in matters of law. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1761, 1583, p. 1868.

Cranmer spoke with Dover and Barber. Barber said that hanging was too good for villains. They asked for Cranmer's forgiveness. 1570, pp. 2042-43, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1868.

Cranmer was confirmed in his reformist beliefs after a conference with Ridley. 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1870.

Cranmer's wife is mentioned as a niece to the wife of Osiander. Cranmer was married while acting as the king's ambassador to Charles the emperor. 1563, p. 1478, 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1870.

Cranmer was opposed to the writings of Gardiner. 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1870.

Rowland Taylor left Cranmer's household to become rector of Hadleigh (1563, p. 1065; 1570, p. 1693; 1576, p. 1495; 1583, p. 1519). [Actually Taylor was Cranmer's chaplain.]

Cranmer commanded Rowland Taylor to make Robert Drakes a deacon. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

In the third year of Edward's reign Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley admitted Robert Drakes to minister the sacraments. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Foxe states that at his death Edward VI bequeathed the throne to Lady Jane. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1870.

Cranmer refused to swear allegience to Lady Jane. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, pp. 2045-46, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1870.

The dukes of Northumberland and Suffolk were executed for their support of Lady Jane. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472], 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

Lady Jane and her husband were beheaded. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472], 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

Foxe states that those who were blinded with ignorance or malice thought Peter Martyr not a learned man. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472].

A mass was said at Canterbury by Thornden after the death of Edward VI. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472], 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

Scory, bishop of Rochester, visited Cranmer. He took a copy of Cranmer's writings about the rumour that he had said the mass (when Thornden had in fact said it) and had it published. Cranmer was commanded to appear before the council and bring an inventory of his goods. 1563, p. 1479, 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

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Heath questioned Cranmer about his bill against the mass. 1570, p. 2047, 1576, pp. 1764-65, 1583, p. 1871.

Cranmer was examined by Brookes, Martyn and Story. 1563, pp. 1479-83, 1570, pp. 2046-47, 1576, p. 1764-65, 1583, p. 1871.

Cranmer was accused of conspiring with John Dudley, duke of Northumberland. 1563, p. 1483, 1570, p. 2058, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

Thomas Cranmer met with Peter Martyr, about 5 September 1553, in London, to discuss a projected disputation where they would defend the Book of Common Prayer. Cranmer was then arrested (1563, p. 905; 1570, p. 1571; 1576, p. 1339; and 1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

On 13 September Cranmer was ordered to appear before the privy council. On 14 September he was charged by the privy council with treason and spreading seditious libels and was committed to the Tower (1583, p. 1410).

He was a signatory to a letter from the privy council to Princess Mary, dated 9 July 1553, declaring that she was illegitimate and that Jane Grey was Edward VI's true heir (1570, p. 1568; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, pp. 1406-7).

He was cited to appear before the queen's commissioners on 27 August 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; and 1583, p. 1465).

Rumoured to have celebrated a mass at Canterbury, Cranmer issued a denial or 'purgation' of the rumours on 7 September 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; and 1583, p. 1465).

Cranmer was examined by Bonner and Ely and condemned on 12 September 1553 (seven days before the condemnation of Ridley and Latimer). 1563, pp. 1491-92, 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

He was committed to the Tower on 14 September 1553 (1570, p. 1466; 1576, p. 1395; and 1583, p. 1466).

A rumor spread that Cranmer had recanted his protestant conviction and allowed a mass to be celebrated at Canterbury; he issued a printed denial of this. In the denial, he offered to defend his religious beliefs in open debate together with Peter Martyr. Cranmer was imprisoned and arraigned for treason but ultimately pardoned. He was still charged with heresy (1570, p. 1579; 1576, p. 1347; and 1583, p. 1418).

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He was examined by Weston and the other members of the catholic delegation to the Oxford disputations on Saturday 14 April 1554 (1563, pp. 932 and 937; 1570, pp. 1592-93; 1576, p. 1935 [recte 1359]; and 1583, p. 1429).

[NB: There is a summary of Cranmer's disputation on Monday 16 April 1554 which was printed in its entirety only in 1563, p. 933.]

Cranmer disputed with the catholic doctors on 16 April 1554 (1563, pp. 938-56; 1570, pp. 1593-1606; 1576, pp. 1360-70; and 1583, pp. 1430-41).

He disputed with John Harpsfield on the nature of the eucharist as part of Harpsfield's obtaining his D.D. on 19 April 1554 (1563, pp 987-90; 1570, pp. 1629-31; 1576, pp. 1390-91; and 1583, pp. 1460-62).

Cranmer wrote to the privy council on 23 April 1554, protesting at the way in which the Oxford disputations were conducted. Weston opened the letter and refused to deliver it (1570, p. 1633; 1576, p. 1394; and 1583, p. 1464).

The queen's letter ordering Cranmer to be held in the custody of the mayor and bailiffs of Oxford during the disputation is printed in 1563, p. 999.

A new commission was sent to Rome for the restoration of the pope's authority to allow the condemnation of Cranmer. Those sent were: James Brookes, Martyn and Story . 1570, p. 2047, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

He was summoned, together with Ridley and Latimer, before Weston and the commissioners on 20 April 1554. He refused to recant his opinions and denied Weston's claim that he had been defeated in the disputation, claiming that the questions and challenges flew at him without order or giving him time to answer. He was condemned and taken to Bocardo (1563, pp. 935-36; 1570, pp. 1632-33; 1576, p. 1393; and 1583, pp. 1463-64).

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Bullinger sent commendations to Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer in a letter to John Hooper dated 10 October 1554. 1570, pp. 1692-93; 1576, pp. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer. 1563, pp. 1042-43; 1570, pp. 1667-68; 1576, pp. 1422-23; 1583, pp. 1496-97.

John Bradford sent a letter to Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley. 1570, p. 1815 1576, p. 1551, 1583, p. 1634.

Rowland Taylor wrote a letter to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer when they were prisoners in Oxford. 1570, p. 2072; 1576, p. 1787; 1583, p. 1893.

Ridley was converted through reading Bertram's Book of the Sacrament, and confirmed in his beliefs through conference with Cranmer and Peter Martyr. 1563, p. 1285, 1570, p. 1895 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. He mentioned his imprisonment with Cranmer, Latimer and Bradford. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, p. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

Foxe records Ridley's lamentation for a change in religion, in which he made reference to Latimer, Lever, Bradford and Knox, as well as Cranmer and their part in the duke of Somerset's cause. 1570, pp. 1945-50, 1576, pp. 1670-78, 1583, pp. 1778-84.

Ridley hoped to see Cranmer before his death, but Cranmer was with Friar Soto. 1570, p. 1936, 1576, p. 1661, 1583, p. 1769.

Cranmer was condemned by Weston and others of the university. He was committed to the mayor and sheriffs of Oxford. 1570, p. 2047, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

On 21 April 1554, Cranmer was compelled to observe, from Bocardo, a procession in which Weston carried the sacrament and four doctors carried the canopy over Weston (1563, p. 936; 1570, p. 1633; 1576, p. 1393; and 1583, pp. 1463-64).

A ten-foot high scaffold was set up in St Mary's church at the east end for Brookes to represent the pope, from which Cranmer was condemned. 1563, p. , 1570, p. 2047 , 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

Foxe records Martyn's oration against Cranmer. 1570, pp. 2049-50, 1576, pp. 1767-68, 1583, p. 1874.

Cranmer's profession of his faith was spoken in St Mary's church before those who condemned him. 1570, pp. 2050-52, 1576, pp. 1768-69, 1583, pp. 1874-75.

Foxe records Story's oration against Cranmer. 1576, pp. 1769-70, 1583, pp. 1875-76.

Foxe records Brookes' oration against Cranmer. 1570, pp. 2054-56, 1576, pp. 1772-73, 1583, pp. 1878-79.

There was a talk between Martyn and Cranmer. 1570, pp. 2052-53, 1576, pp. 1770-72, 1583, pp. 1876-77.

Foxe records interrogatories and answers. 1570, p. 2054, 1576, p. 1772, 1583, pp. 1877-78.

The witnesses against Cranmer were Dr Marshall, commissary and dean of Christ's Church; Dr Smith, under commissary; Dr Tresham; Dr Crooke, London; Mr Curtop; Mr Warde; Mr Serles. 1570, p. 2056, 1576, p. 1772, 1583, p. 1879.

Story said that they were true witnesses, as they swore allegience to the pope. Cranmer was sent to Gloucester by Story. 1570, p. 2056, 1576, p. 1773, 1583, p. 1879.

Foxe records Cranmer's full answer to Brookes' oration against him. 1570, pp. 2057-58., 1576, pp. 1774-75, 1583, pp. 1880-81.

Cranmer stated that he was ambassador in Germany when Warham died. 1570, p. 2058, 1576, p. 1774, 1583, p. 1880.

Cranmer met with Dr Oliver and other civil lawyers to discuss the pope's authority. 1570, p. 2058, 1576, p. 1775, 1583, p. 1881.

Martyn had demanded to know who Cranmer thought was supreme head of the church of England. 1570, p. 2058, 1576, p. 1775, 1583, p. 1881.

A commission was sent from the pope regarding the sentencing of Cranmer. 1563, pp. 1490-91.

Thirlby and Bonner came to Cranmer with a new commission on 14 February 1556. 1570, pp. 2058-59, 1576, pp. 177576, 1583, pp. 1881-82.

Cranmer appealed. 1570, pp. 2059-61, 1576, pp. 1776-77, 1583, pp. 1882-83.

Cranmer's appeal was put to the bishop of Ely. 1570, p. 2062, 1576, p. 1777, 1583, p. 1883.

Bullinger sent commendations to Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer in a letter to John Hooper dated 10 October 1554 (1570, pp. 1692-93; 1576, pp. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518).

Cranmer received a letter from Ridley, together with copies of Ridley's account of the disputation, and news about recent developments (1570, pp. 1633-34; 1576, p. 1394; and 1583, pp. 1464-65; not in LM).

Foxe mentions Cranmer's condemnation and disputation in 1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer (1563, pp. 1042-43; 1570, pp. 1667-68; 1576, pp. 1422-23; 1583, pp. 1496-97).

Cranmer was degraded. 1563, p. 1493.

Cranmer recanted. 1563, pp. 1497-98, 1570, p. 2062, 1576, pp. 1778-80, 1583, p. 1884.

Witnesses to Cranmer's recantation were Henry Sydall and Friar John de villa Garcina. 1570, pp. 2062-63, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1884.

Lord Williams, Thomas Bridges and Sir John Bourne arrived in Oxford, prior to Cranmer's martyrdom. 1570, p. 2063, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1885.

Cole was secretly asked to prepare a funeral sermon. 1570, p. 2063, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1885.

The deaths of Northumberland and Thomas More are referred to in the description of the death of Cranmer. 1570, p. 2064, 1576, p. 1781, 1583, p. 1885.

Foxe records Cranmer's prayer. 1570, pp. 2064-65, 1576, p. 1780, 1583, p. 1886.

Cranmer was pulled from the pulpit. 1570, p. 2065, 1576, p. 1781, 1583, p. 1887.

Cole preached a sermon prior to the martyrdom of Cranmer. 1570, p. 2065, 1576, p. 1781, 1583, pp. 1885-86.

Thomas Cranmer was burned. 1570, p. 2066, 1576, p. 1782, 1583, pp. 1887-88.

Cranmer's letters. 1563, pp. 1483-84, 1489, 1492-93, 1570, pp. 2067-72, 1576, pp. 1782-86, 1583, pp. 1889-93.

Henry VIII directed Cranmer and Cromwell (and others, including Stokesly) to examine John Frith. 1583, pp. 2126-27.

Buswell, a priest, spoke to Edward Benet whilst they were imprisoned together and gave him a copy of Cranmer's recantation. 1570, p. 2279, 1576, p. 1968 [incorrectly numbered 1632], 1583, p. 2075.

Foxe includes a copy of the Pope's commission to proceed against Cranmer. 1583, p. 2132.

During his examination Weston and Smith challenged Cranmer over his book of the sacrament. 1583, p. 2135.

William Holcroft was charged with treason by Cole and Geffre for supporting Cranmer. 1583, p. 2135.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Howard

(1473 - 1554)

Earl of Surrey and 3rd duke of Norfolk. [DNB]

Thomas Howard was released from the Tower on 10 August 1553 (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

He presided over the treason trial and condemnation of the duke of Northumberland, his son the earl of Warwick and the marquis of Northampton on 18 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

He accompanied Queen Mary to Westminster Abbey for her coronation on 1 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

He was sent against Wyatt but was compelled to retreat when his soldiers deserted (1563, p. 916; 1570, p. 1579; 1576, p. 1347; and 1583, p. 1418).

A letter from Mary to Norfolk, describing Wyatt's capture, and dated 8 February 1554, is printed in 1563, p. 1731 and 1583, p. 2128. [It was omitted from 1570 and 1576.]

The old duke of Norfolk witnessed the sudden illness of Stephen Gardiner that preceded his death. 1583, pp. 1787-88.

Cromwell was sent with Norfolk and Suffolk to dine with Cranmer at Lambeth. 1570, p. 2036, 1576, p. 1756, 1583, p. 1862.

Mary sent a letter to him in the first year of her reign. 1583, p. 2128.

In her letter Mary told Howard that three of the Cobhams, Bret, Knevet and Rudstone, and Iseley had been arrested. [The arrest was in connection with the Wyatt rebellion, which Norfolk was sent out to suppress (and failed).] 1583, p. 2128.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Wotton

(d. 1587)

Of Boughton Malherbe, Kent. JP (1553 - 1587 and Sheriff of Kent (1558 - 1559). Brother-in-law of Robert Rudstone.

Thomas Wotton comitted to the Fleet on 21 January 1554 by the Privy Council for 'obstinate standing against matters of religion' (1583, p. 1418).

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Underwood

Servant to Henry Grey

Underwood was the servant of the Duke of Suffolk who betrayed him to his enemies (1570, p. 1579; 1576, pp. 1347-48; 1583, p. 1418). [NB: The story of Underwood's betraying the Duke is on 1563, p. 916, but Underwood is unnamed in this edition].

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Astley
Asteley Parke
NGR: SP 311 891

Astley is a parish in the Kirby division of the hundred of Knightlaw, county of Warwick. 4.5 miles west-south-west from Nuneaton. The living is a perpetual curacy in the Archdeaconry of Coventry, diocese of Coventry and Lichfield. A short distance to the north is an old mansion house, erected in the sixteenth century.

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There are also Astleys in Lancashire, Shropshire and Worcestershire

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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1442 [1418]

Queene Mary. Good Bishops displaced. Forayne Maryage. Queene Maryes Oration.

MarginaliaAnno 1553.The same time Bonner also had bene prisonner in the Marshalsey, whome likewise Queene Mary deliuered, & restored to the Bishopricke of London againe, MarginaliaGood Byshops displaced.displacing Doct. Ridley, with diuers other good Bishops moe, as is aboue mentioned, as Cranmer from Canterb. the Archbyshoppe of Yorke likewise, Poynette fromWinchester, Iohn Hooper from Worcester, Barlow from Bath, Harley from Hereforde, Taylor from Lincolne, Ferrar from S. Dauids, Couerdale from Excester, Scorye from Chichester, &c. with a great number of Archdeacons, Deanes, and briefly all suche beneficed men, which either were married, or woulde constantly adheere to theyr profession. All which were remooued from their liuings, MarginaliaPopish Prelates intruded by Q. Mary.and other of the contrary secte sette in the same, as Cardinall Poole (who was then sent for) Gardiner, Heath, White, Daye, Troublefield, &c. 

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, 412, fn 2

{Cattley/Pratt substitutes 'Tubervill' in the text, footnoting:} Or "Troublefield." - ED.

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And as touching Cranmer, of whome mention was made before, for so much as there was a rumor spreade of hym the same time at London, MarginaliaFalse reporte.that he hadde recanted, and caused Masse to be sayde at Caunterburye, for purging of hymselfe hee published abroade a declaration of hys truthe and constancie in that behalfe, protestinge that hee neyther had so done, nor mineded so to doe: MarginaliaCranmer with Peter Martyr and 5. other offer to defend the cause of their doctrine, agaynst all men.adding moreouer, that if it woulde so please the Queene, he wyth Peter Martyr and certaine other whome he would chuse, would in open disputation sustaine the cause of the doctrine taught and set foorth before in the time of king Edward, againste all persons whomesoeuer. 

Commentary  *  Close

Much of the remaining material, particularly that concerning the rumours that Cranmer had celebrated mass and his public denial of these rumours, would be treated in greater detail later in the Actes and Monuments (cf. 1570, p. 1579; 1576, p. 1347; and 1583, p. 1418; with 1570, p. 1465-66; 1576, p. 1395; and 1583, p. 1635).

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But while he was in expectation to haue this disputation obtained, he with other bishops wer laid fast in the Tower, and P. Martir permitted to depart the realme, and so went he to Argentine. 
Commentary  *  Close

'Argentine', mentioned in 1570, p. 1579; 1576, p. 1347; and 1583, p. 1418, is a slightly anglicised version of the Latin name for Strasburg.

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MarginaliaD. Cranmer with the Lady Iane arraigned of treason in the Guildhall.After this, in the moneth of Nouemb. the Archbyshop Cranmer (notwithstāding he had earnestly refused to subscribe to the kings wil, in disheriting his sister Marye, alledging many graue and pithy reasons for her legitimation, was in Guild hall of London arraigned and attainted of treason, with the L. Iane, and three of the Duke of Northumberlandes sonnes, which at the intreatye of certayne persons were had againe to the Tower, and there kept for a time. 

Commentary  *  Close

The description of the arraignment of Cranmer, Jane Grey and Northumberland's sons is taken from Crowley's chronicle (cf. Crowley, Epitome, sig. Ffff2v with 1563, p. 916; 1570, p. 1579; 1576, p. 1347; 1583, p. 1418) except for the passage which reads: 'which at the intreatye of certayne persons were had againe to the Tower and there kept for a time'. This passage is excerpted from Thomas Cooper, Coopers chronicle ... vnto the late death of Quene Marie (London, 1560), STC 15218, sig. Yyyy2r. This is Foxe's only borrowing from Coopers chronicle in Book 10 (or, as far as is known, anywhere in the Actes and Monuments).

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MarginaliaArchbishop Cranmer quit of treason.All which notwithstanding, Cranmer beinge pardoned of treason, stoode onely in the action and case of doctrine, whych they called heresie, whereof hee was ryghte glad and ioyfull.

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This being done in Nouember, the people, and especially the Churchmen, perceuing the Queene so eagerlye set vpon her olde religion, they likewise for theyr partes, to shewe themselues no lesse forwarde to serue the Queenes appetite (as the manner is of the multitude, commonlye to frame themselues after the humour of the Prince and time present) began in their Quiers to set vp the pageants of s. Katherine, and of S. Nicholas, MarginaliaGoing about of S. Katherin, and S. Nicholas.and of their processions in Latine, after all their olde solemnitie with their gaye gardeuiance, and gray amices. 

Commentary  *  Close

The passages on the restoration of the festivals of St. Catherine and St. Nicholas and of the repeal of the statutes of praemunire and of the Edwardine religious statutes, were added to the 1570 edition (see textual variant 14). The sources cannot be determined; possibly they are an individual's recollections transmitted to Foxe.

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And when the month of December was come, the Parliament brake vp, but first of all such statutes were repealed, which were made either of Premunire, or touched anye alteration of religion and administration of Sacramentes vnder king Edward. In the which parliament also communication was mooued of the Queenes mariage, wyth king Phillip the Emperors sonne.

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MarginaliaCardinall Poole sent for.In this meane while Cardinal Poole being sent for by Q. Mary, was by the Emperour requested to staye wyth hym, to the intcnte (as some thinke) that hys presence in England should not be a let to the mariage which hee intended betweene Philip his sonne and Q. Marye. For the making wherof, he sent a most ample Ambassade, with full power to make vp the mariage betwixt them: which tooke such successe that after they had communed of the matter a few daies, they knit vp the knot. 

Commentary  *  Close

The detaining of Pole by the emperor and the coming of an embassy sent to arrange the marriage of Philip and Mary are recounted by Crowley and reprinted by Foxe (cf. Crowley, Epitome, sig. Ffff2v with 1563, p. 916; 1570, p. 1579; 1576, p. 1347; 1583, p. 1418).

MarginaliaMariage betweene Philip and Mary concluded.

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Anno. 1554. 
Commentary  *  Close
Block 8: Anno 1554

Much of the material in this section is reprinted from Crowley's chronicle. Later in Book 10, after the Oxford disputations, Foxe would draw on yet another chronicle or chronicles to form a political narrative of the early years of Mary's reign. Because he was drawing on different sources which covered roughly the same chronological period, there was a good deal of repetition (and a certain amount of inconsistency) between these different sections of Book 10. For example, Foxe gave one account of the capture of the Duke of Suffolk here (1563, p. 916; 1570, p. 1579; 1576, p. 1347; and 1583, p. 1418) and another, different, account of the same events later in Book 10 (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1396; and 1583, p. 1467). Foxe made no attempt, at any time, to reconcile any of these differing versions of the same events.

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Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
Anno 1554

Foxe seems to have been especially concerned to defend the Wyatt rebels against Mary's account of their intentions ('Demaundes pretended to be sent from M. Wyat and hys company to Queene Mary' and 'How he pretended the spoyle of theyr goodes it appeareth in that he comming to Southwarke, did hurt neither man, woman, nor childe, neyther in body nor in a penny of their goodes'). The later dropping of the gloss 'Duke of Suffolke forsooke Quene Mary' (1563) is a possible example of Foxe striving to discredit Mary without explicitly speaking against her.

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MarginaliaAnn. 1454.The 13. of Ianuarie 1554. Doctor Crome for his preaching vpon Christmas day without licence, was committed to the Fleete.

The 21. of Ianuarie, M. Thomas Wootten Esquire, was for matters of religion committed to the Fleete close prisonner. 

Commentary  *  Close

The notices of the imprisonment of Edward Crome and Thomas Wotton (see textual variant 15) both come from the Privy Council register; Foxe omitted the phrase about Crome's 'lewde behaviour'.

This mention of mariage was about the beginning of Ianuary, and was very euill takē of the people, & of many of the nobility, who for this, and for religion, conspiring among themselues, made a rebellion: whereof sir Thomas Wyate knight was one of the chief beginners: who beyng in Kent, said (as many els perceiued) that the Queene and the Counsel would by forraine mariage bring vppon thys Realme moste miserable seruitude, & establish popish religion. MarginaliaIanuary 25.About the 25. of Ianuary newes came to London of this stur in Kent, and shortlye after of the D. of Suffolke,

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who was fled into Warwikeshier & Lecestershire: there to gather a power. The Queene therefore caused them bothe wyth the two Carewes of Deuonshire to bee proclaimed Traitors: MarginaliaThe Duke of Norfolke sent agaynst M. Wyat.and sent into Kent against Wyate, Thomas D. of Norfolke, who being aboute Rochester bridge forsaken of them that went with him, returned safe to London with out any more harme done vnto him, and wythoute bloudshed on either partie. 

Commentary  *  Close

It might be noted here that in the Appendix of 1563 (p. 1731), Foxe prints a letter from Mary to the third Duke of Norfolk, informing the Duke of Wyatt's defeat. (This letter was removed from the editions of 1570 and 1576, but was reprinted in the 1583 edition). This letter was almost certainly loaned or given to Foxe by the fourth Duke of Norfolk.

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The brief description of Wyatt's rebellion, Suffolk's capture and the flight of Sir Peter Carew are all taken from Crowley (cf. Crowley, Epitome, sigs. Ffff2v - Ffff3 with 1563, pp. 916-17; 1570, pp. 1579-80; 1576, pp. 1347-48; 1583, p. 1419).

There is one interesting piece of re-writing here, however. Crowley described the fate of the Duke of Norfolk's expedition against Wyatt: 'Thomas Duke of Norfolk, who beynge forsaken of them that went with hym, escaped to London agayne with great difficultie, as he thought, although no man followed him' (cf. Crowley, Epitome, sig. Ffff2v). Foxe, apparently thinking that this made the Duke of Norfolk sound too much like the Duke of Plaza Toro, rendered this: 'Thomas D. of Norfolke, who being aboute Rochester Bridge, forsaken of them that went with him, returned safe to London with out any more harme done unto him, and withoute bloudshed on either partie' (1563, p. 916; 1570, p. 1579; 1576, p. 1347; and 1583, p. 1418). Once again Foxe's loyalty to the Howard family shaped his narrative.

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Furthermore to apprehende the Duke of Suffolke, being fled into Warwickshiere, was sent the Earle of Huntington in post, who entring the Citie of Couentrie before the Duke, disappoynted him of his purpose. Wherefore the Duke in great distresse committed himselfe to the keeping of a seruaunt of his named Vnderwoode 

Commentary  *  Close

While Foxe reprinted the account of Suffolk's capture directly from Crowley, in the 1570 edition, he added one detail not in Crowley's account: that the name of the servant who betrayed the duke was Underwood.

in Astley Parke, who like a false traitor, bewraied him. And so was brought vp to the Tower of London. MarginaliaThe Duke of Suffolke apprehended.

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In the meane while Sir Peter Carewe hearynge of that was done, fledde into Fraunce, but the other were taken, and Wyat came towards London in the beginning of February. MarginaliaQueene Mary commeth into the Guildhall.The Queene hearing of Wyates comminge, came into the Citie to the Guilde Hall, where shee made a vehement Oration against Wyate: the contentes, at least, the effect wherof here foloweth, as nere as out of her owne mouth could be penned.

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The Oration of Queene Marie in the Guild Hall. 
Commentary  *  Close

The version of Mary's speech in the London Guildhall on 1 February 1554, which is printed in the 1563 edition (see textual transposition 23), is different from the version printed in subsequent editions. The substance is generally similar but the version in the later editions is much smoother. The 1563 version appears to have been based on a spectator's notes; Foxe may have worked this up into a more polished version or he may have obtained a better version. (It is more likely to be the latter, and this is partially confirmed by Foxe's adding of anecdotes in the 1570 edition, together with his account of the speech, describing what happened when the speech was given [see textual variant 17]). In any case, the initial appearance of this oration in the concluding pages of the 1563 edition suggests that Foxe obtained this version of the speech only as the Actes and Monuments was going to press. Earlier, in the 1563 edition, Foxe was able only to summarise the speech (see textual variant 16).

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MarginaliaQueene Maryes Oration to the Londoners.I Am come vnto you in mine own person, to tel you that, which already you see and know, that is, how traiterously and rebelliously, a number of Kentish mē haue assembled them selues against both vs and you. Their pretence (as they sayde at the first) was for a mariage determined for vs: to the which, and to all the Articles therof ye haue bene made priuie. But sithens we haue caused certaine of our priuie Counsaile to goe againe vnto them, and to demaunde the cause of this their rebellion, and it appeared then vnto our sayde Counsel, that the matter of the mariage seemed to be but as a Spanish cloake to couer their pretenced purpose against our religion, so that they arrogantly and traiterously demaunded to haue the gouernance of our person, the keeping of the Tower, and the placing of our Counsailers. MarginaliaDemaundes pretended to be sent from M. Wyat and hys company to Queene Mary.

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Nowe louing subiectes, what I am ye right well knowe, I am your Queene, to whome at my Coronation when I was wedded to the Realme, and lawes of the same (the spousall Ring wherof I haue on my finger, which neuer hetherto was, nor heereafter shall be left off) you promised your allegeaunce and obedience vnto me. And that I am the right, and true inheritour of the crowne of this Realme of England I take all Christendome to witnesse. My Father, as ye all know, possessed the same regall state, which nowe rightly is descended vnto me: and to him alwaies ye shewed your selues most faithfully and louing subiectes, and therefore I doubte not, but ye will shew your selues likewise to me, and that yee will not suffer a vile Traitour to haue the order & gouernance of our person, and to occupie our state, especially being so vile a Traytor as Wyat is. Who most certainly as he hath abused mine ignorant subiects, which be on his side, so doth he entend and purpose the destruction of you, and spoile of your goodes. MarginaliaHow he pretended the spoyle of theyr goodes it appeareth in that he comming to Southwarke, did hurt neither man, woman, nor childe, neyther in body nor in a penny of their goodes.And this I say to you in the woorde of a Prince, I can not tel how naturally the mother loueth the childe, for I was neuer the mother of anye, but certainely, if a Prince and gouernour maye as naturally and earnestly loue her subiectes, as the Mother doeth the Childe, then assure your selues, that I being your Ladie and Maistres, doe as earnestly and as tenderly loue & fauour you. And I thus louing you, cannot but thinke that yee as heartely and faithfully loue me, and then I doubt not, but we shall geue these rebelles a short & speedy ouerthrow.

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As concerning the Mariage, ye shall vnderstand that I enterprised not the doing thereof without aduise, and that by the aduice of all our priuie Counsell, who so considered and wayed the great commodities that might ensue thereof, that they not onely thought it very honorable, but also expediēt, both for the wealth of the Realme, and also of you our Subiects. MarginaliaQ. Mary excuseth her maryage.And as touching my selfe, I assure you, I am not so bente to my will, neither so precise, nor affectionate, that either for mine own pleasure, I wold chuse where I lust, or that I am so desirous, as needes I would haue one. For God I thanke him, to whome bee the praise therefore, I haue hetherto liued a Virgin, and doubt nothing, but with Gods grace am able so to liue stil. But if as my progenitors haue done before, it might please God that I might leaue some fruit of my body behinde me, to be your Gouernor, I trust you would not onely reioyce therat, but also I know it would be to your great comforte. And certainely, if I either did thinke or knowe, that this Mariage were to the hurt of any of you my Commons, or to the empeachment of any part or parcel of the royall state of this realme of England, I would neuer consent therunto, neither wold I euer mary while I liued. And in the word of a Queene I promise you, that if it shall not probably appeare to all the Nobilitie and Commons in the highe Court of Parliament, that thys Marryage shall be for

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