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Henry GreyThomas Harding
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Henry Grey

(d. 1554)

Marquis of Dorset (1517 - 1554); duke of Suffolk (1551 - 1554). Father of Lady Jane Grey. [DNB)]

Although it was originally intended that Henry Grey should take the field against Mary in 1553, it was later decided that he should have custody of the Tower, where his daughter Jane Grey and her husband Guildford Dudley were staying (1563, p. 901; 1570, p. 1568; 1576, p. 1337; and 1583, p. 1407).

He was committed to the Tower on 28 July 1553; released on 31 July 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

Suffolk fled into Warwickshire and Leicestershire 'to gather a power'. The earl of Huntingdon was sent into Warwickshire to stop the duke. Huntingdon reached Coventry before the duke and thwarted him. Suffolk was betrayed by a servant and taken to London (1563, p. 916; 1570, p. 1579; 1576, pp. 1347-48; 1583, p. 1418).

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At the end of January 1554, Suffolk, together with his brother John, went into Leicestershire. Frances Hastings, the earl of Huntingdon, was ordered to bring him back to London; Hastings proclaimed the duke a traitor (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

Henry was apprehended together with his brother John (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1467).

On 17 February he was arraigned and condemned to die (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1467).

He was beheaded on Tower Hill (1563, p. 923; 1570, p. 1585; 1576, p. 1352; and 1583, p. 1423).

The dukes of Northumberland and Suffolk were executed for their support of Lady Jane Grey. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472], 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

Foxe presents a detailed account of Suffolk's fortitude and affirmation of his protestantism at his execution (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, pp. 1467-68).

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Thomas Harding

(1516 - 1572)

John White's chaplain. Of Lincoln. Catholic controvertialist. Born Combe Martin, Devonshire. [DNB]

Author of STC 12758-12763.5.

Jane Grey wrote a letter to Thomas Harding (he had been her father's chaplain) reproving him for apostasy during Mary's reign. The letter is not in the Rerum and, although it is printed in 1563 (pp, 920-22), Harding is unnamed in that edition. He was identified, however, when the letter was reprinted in 1570 (p. 1582-83) and subsequent editions (1576, pp. 1349-41 [recte 1351] and 1583, pp. 1420-21).

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Harding participated in the 1554 Oxford disputations, challenging both Ridley and Latimer on Greek vocabulary and grammar (1563, pp. 934, 970 and 981; 1570, pp. 1606, 1616 and 1624; 1576, pp. 1371, 1379 and 1388; 1583, pp. 1441, 1450 and 1456).

On 14 February 1555 Harding went to see Bradford in prison. Harding talked of his fear for Bradford's soul, and that he himself had spoken against Peter Martir, Martin Bucer, Luther and others for their beliefs. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, pp. 1790-91, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, pp. 1612-13.

In February 1555 Willerton, a chaplain to Bishop Bonner, went to speak with John Bradford in prison. They discussed the doctors and scripture and agreed that each would write down his own arguments over transubstantiation. Willerton sent his few sparse answers to Bradford the next morning and went to see him in the afternoon. They discussed whether or not the scriptures should be in the vernacular. Bradford gave Willerton his answers on transubstantiation and told Willerton to form his answers as reasons. 1563, pp. 1199-1200. Willerton was with Creswell, Harding, Harpsfield and others. 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1612.

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Harding was with Creswell, Willerton, Harpsfield and others who visited Bradford in prison in February 1555. 1570, p. 1790.

In his rejoinder against John Jewel [STC 12760], bishop of Salisbury, Harding dismissed Foxe's version of the three Guernsey martyrs as a series of inflammatory lies. He also charged that Perotine Massey was a whore and responsible for the death of her child. 1570, pp. 2130-34, 1576, pp. 1852-55, 1583, pp. 1946-49.

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Foxe challenged Harding to disprove the legitimacy of Perotine Massey's marriage to David Jores. 1570, p. 2131, 1576, p. 1853, 1583, p. 1947.

Foxe refuted Harding's case that Massey was responsible for the death of her child. 1570, pp. 2131-32, 1576, p. 1853, 1583, p. 1947.

1444 [1420]

Queene Mary. Letters of the Lady Jane to her father, and her fathers chapleine reuolted.

MarginaliaAnno 1554.many more things whereof they reasoned, but these were the chiefest.

After this Fecknam tooke his leaue, saying, that he was sory for her: For I am sure (quoth he) that we two shall neuer meete.

Iane. True it is (sayd she) that we shall neuer meete, except God turne your hart. For I am assured, vnlesse you repent and turne to God, you are in an euill case: and I pray God, in the bowels of his mercy, to send you his holy spirite: for he hath geuen you his great gift of vtterance, if it pleased him also to open the eyes of your hart. MarginaliaThe wordes were spoken openly.

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¶ A letter of the Lady Iane sent vnto her father.

MarginaliaLady Ianes letter sent to her father.FAther, although it hath pleased God to hasten my death by you, by whome my life should rather haue bene lengthened: yet can I so patiently take it, as I yeeld God more harty thankes for shortening my wofull dayes, then if all the world had bene geuen into my possession with life lengthened at my owne will. And albeit I am well assured of your impacient dolours, redoubled manyfold wayes, both in bewayling your owne woe, and especially (as I heare) my vnfortunate state, yet my deare father (if I may without offence reioyce in my owne mishaps) me seemes in this I may accompt my selfe blessed, that washing my handes with the innocencie of my fact, my giltles bloud may cry before the Lord, mercy to the innocent. And yet though I must needes acknowledge, that being constrayned, and, as you wot well inough, continually assayed, in taking vpon me I seemed to consent, and therein greeuously offended the Queene and her lawes: yet do I assuredly trust that this mine offence towards God is so much the lesse, in that being in so royall estate as I was, mine enforced honour being neuer with mine innocent hart. And thus good father I haue opened vnto you the state wherein I presently stand. Whose death at hand, although to you perhaps it may seme right wofull, to me there is nothing that can be more welcome, then from this vale of miserie to aspire to that heauenly throne of all ioy and pleasure with Christ our Sauiour. In whose stedfast fayth (if it may be lawfull for the daughter so to write to the Father) MarginaliaThis Parenthesis includeth with a praier, a priuy admonition to her father that he fall not from his religion.the Lord that hetherto hath strengthened you, so continue you that at the last we may meete in heauen with the Father, the Sonne, and the holy Ghost.

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At what time her father was florishing in freedome and prosperitie in the time of King Edward, there belonged vnto him a certayne learned man, student and Graduate of the Vniuersitie of Oxford. Who then being Chaplayne to the sayd Duke, and a sincere Preacher (as he appeared) of the Gospell, according to the doctrine of that time set foorth and receiued, shortly after that the state of Religion began to alter by Queene Mary, altered also in his profession with the time, and of a Protestant, became a friend and defender of the Popes proceedings. MarginaliaFebruary.At whose sodayne mutation and inconstant mutabilitie, this Christian Lady being not a little agreeued, and most of all lamenting the daungerous state of his soule, in sliding so away for feare from the way of truth, writeth her minde vnto him in a sharp and vehement letter: which as it appeareth to proceede of an earnest and zealous hart, so woulde God it might take such effect with him, as to reduce him to repentaunce, and to take better holde againe for the health and wealth of his owne soule. The copie of the letter is thys as followeth.

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¶ Another letter of the Lady Iane to M. Harding, late Chaplayne to the Duke of Suffolke her father, and then fallen from the truth of Gods most holy worde. 
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The evolving headings to this letter - from a letter to an unnamed 'learned man of late falne from the truth' (1563, p. 920) to a letter to 'M. H. late Chaplayne to the Duke of Suffolk' (1570, p. 1582; 1576, p. 1399) and finally a letter to 'M. Harding late Chaplayne to the Duke of Suffolk (1583, p. 1420), as well as the appearance of marginal notes in the edition of 1570 identifying Harding and describing his apostasy in detail, (see textual variant 204M and textual variant 205M) reflect Foxe's increasing desire to embarrass Thomas Harding (Jewel's adversary and a bitter critic of the Actes and Monuments.

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Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, 418, fn 3

It is thus that Foxe introduces this Letter in the First Edition of the Acts and Monuments, p. 920. "Here followeth a letter or epistle of the aforesaid lady Jane to a certain learned man, whom both I know, and could also here nominate, if I were disposed. But, partly reverencing the worthy learning of the person, and partly, again, trusting and hoping again of some better towardness of the party hereafter, so have I set forth this her zealous letter to the man, that neither he be at any time thereby made the worse (being by me, as yet, vnknown), and [that] others with himself also [may be] made the better; in that they may take heed, thereby not to fall in the like: and he also, being graciously and secretly admonished, may recover the fall, and avoid the peril; which I pray the Lord (if his will so be) he may." - ED.

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Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix, ref. page 418, middle

The genuineness of this letter has been disputed by some. Sir Harris Nicolas in his Life of Lady Jane Gray, p. lxxvi, allows its authenticity, but thinks it must have been written before her condemnation, because it is signed with her maiden name. Sir H. Nicolas prints it in Latin, as well as that to her sister, evidently thinking that they were originally written in Latin. But it appears from a letter of James Haddon to Bullinger, and another from John Banks to the same, published by the Parker Society (Zurich Letters, 1846, Nos. 134, 141), not only that they are genuine, but that they were originally written by her in English, and translated into Latin by Banks, who infused a coarseness into the Latin, for which Sir H. Nicolas apologizes from the state of the times, but which really does not appear in Lady Jane's English.

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Addenda:Lady Jane's Letter to Harding varies much in subsequent editions from the text of 1563; slight portions are added or omitted.

SO oft as I call to mynde the dreadfull and fearefull saying of God: That he which layeth holde vpon the plough, and looketh backe, is not meete for the kingdome of heauen: MarginaliaLuke 9.and on the other side, the comfortable words of our Sauiour Christ to all those that forsaking themselues, do folow him: MarginaliaA sharpe letter or exhortation of the Lady Iane to M. Harding.I can not but maruell at thee and lament thy case: which seemedst somtime to be the liuely member of Christ, but now the deformed impe of the deuil, sometime the beutifull temple of God, but now the stinking and filthy kenel of Sathan, sometime the vnspotted spouse of Christ, but now the vnshamefast paramour of Antichrist, sometyme my faythfull brother, but now a straunger and Apostata, sometime a stoute Christen souldiour, but now a cowardly runneaway. Yea, when I consider these things, I can not but speake to thee, and cry out vpon thee, thou seede of Sathan, and not of Iuda, whome the deuill hath deceyued, the world hath begiled, and the desire of life subuerted, and made thee of a Christian an Infidell: wherefore hast thou taken the Testament of the Lord in thy mouth?

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Marginalia* This man a little before K. Edward dyed, was heard openly in his sermōe in London to exhort the people with great vehemency after thys sorte: that if trouble came, they shoulde neuer shrinke from the true doctrine of the Gospell whiche they had receiued, but should take it rather for a tryall sent of God to proue them whether they would abide by it or no All which to be true, they can testify that heard him, and be yet aliue: who also foreseeing the plague to come were then muche confirmed by hys wordes. MarginaliaAnno. 1554. Februarye.* Wherfore hast thou preached the law and the wil of God to others? Wherefore hast thou instructed other to be strong in Christ, when þu thy selfe doest now so shamefully shrinke, and so horrible abuse the Testament and lawe of the Lord? When thou thy selfe preachest, not to steale, yet most abhominably stealest, not from men but from God, and committing most haynous sacriledge, robbest Christ thy Lorde of his right members thy bodye and soule, and chosest rather to liue miserably with shame to the worlde, then to dye and gloriously with honor to reigne with christ in whome euen in death is life? Why doest thou now shew thy selfe most weake, when in deede thou oughtest to bee most strong? The strength of a fort is vnknowne before the assault: but thou yeldest thy hold before anye battrie be made.

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Oh wretched and vnhappy man, what art thou but dust and ashes? and wilt thou resist thy maker that fashioned thee and framed thee? Wilt thou nowe forsake hym þt called thee from the custome gathering amōg þe Romish Antichristians, to be an Ambassadour & messenger of hys eternall worde? Hee that first framed thee, and since thy first creation and byrth preserued thee, nourished and kept thee, yea and inspired thee with the spirit of knowledge (I cannot say of grace) shall he not now possesse thee? Darest thou deliuer vp thy selfe to an other, being not thine owne but his? How cāst thou hauing knowledge, or how darest thou neglect the law of the Lord, and follow the vayn traditions of men: and where as thou hast bene a publicke professor of his name, become now a defacer of his glorye? Wilt thou refuse the true God, and worship the inuention of man, the golden calfe, the whore of Babilon, þe Romish Religion, the abhominable Idoll, the most wicked masse? wilt thou torment agayne, rent and teare the most precious body of our Sauior Christ with thy bodily and fleshly teeth? Wilt thou take vpon thee to offer vp anye sacrifice vnto God for our sinnes, considering that Christ offered vp himselfe (as Paule sayth) vppon the crosse a liuely sacrifice once for all? Can neither the punishment of the Israelites (which for their Idolatry they so oft receaued) nor the terrible threatninges of the Prophetes, nor the curses of Gods owne mouth feare thee to honour anye other God then him? Doest thou so regard him that spared not hys deare and onely sonne for thee, so diminishing, yea, vtterly extinguishing his glory that thou wilt attribute the prayse and honour due vnto him to the Idols, which haue mouthes and speak not, eyes and see not, eares and heare not: which shall perish with them that made them?

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What sayth the Prophet Baruc, where hee recited the Epistle of Ieremy written to the captiue Iewes? MarginaliaBaruch. 6. Did hee not forwarne them that in Babilon they should see Gods of gold, siluer, wood, & stone borne vpon mens shoulders, to cast a feare before the Heathen: But be not ye afrayd of them (sayth Ieremy) nor doe as other doe? But when you see other worship thē, say you in your hartes: it is thou (O Lord) that oughtest onely to be worshipped: for as for those Gods, the Carpenter framed them and polished them, yea gilded be they, and layde ouer with siluer, and vayne thinges and cannot speake. He sheweth moreouer, the abuse of theyr deckings, howe the Priestes tooke off their ornamentes and aparelled their women withall: how one holdeth a scepter, an other a sworde in his hand, and yet can they iudge in no matter, nor defend themselues, much lesse anye other, from either battell or murther, nor yet from gnawing of wormes, nor any other euill thing. These, & such like wordes, speaketh Ieremy vnto them, whereby he proueth them to be but vayne thinges, and no Gods. And at last he concludeth thus: Confounded be they that worship them. They were warned by Ieremy, and thou as Ieremye hast warned other, and art warned thy selfe by many Scriptures in many places. God sayth: he is a ielous God, which will haue all honour, glory, and worship geuen to him onely. And Christ saith in the 4. of Luke to Sathan which tempted him: euen to the same Sathan, the same Belzebub, the same deuill, whiche hath preuayled agaynst thee: It is written (saith he) thou shalt honor the Lord thy God, and him onely shalt thou serue. MarginaliaMath. 4.

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These and such like doe prohibite thee and all Christians to worship anye other God then whiche was before all worldes, and layd the foundations both of heauen and earth: and wilt thou honour a detestable Idol, inuented by Romish Popes, and the abhominable Colledge of craftye Cardinals? Christ offered himselfe vp once for al, and wilt thou offer him vp agayne dayly at thy pleasure? MarginaliaGood intent.But thou wilt say, thou doest it for a good intēt. O sinck of sinne: Oh child of perdition: doest þu dreame therein of a good intent, where thy conscience beareth thee witnes of Gods threatned wrath against thee? How did Saule? who for that hee disobeyed the worde of the Lorde for a good intent was

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