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Cuthbert Scott

(d. 1564)

Bishop of Chester (1556 - 1559) (DNB); master of Christ's College, Cambridge (1553 - 1556) (Venn)

Cuthbert Scott was appointed to debate with Latimer in the Oxford disputations of 1554 (1563, p. 934).

He was one of the official disputants in the Oxford disputations of 1554 (1563, pp. 936-38; 1570, pp. 1591-92; 1576, pp. 1358-59; 1583, pp. 1428-30).

In an attempt to reinstate catholicism at the University of Cambridge, a commission under the direction of Cardinal Pole ordered the condemning and burning of the bones and books of Phagius and Martin Bucer. Members of the commission were Cuthbert Scott, Nicholas Ormanet, Thomas Watson, John Christopherson and Henry Cole. 1563, pp. 1537 [recte 1549]-1558 [recte 1570].

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Cuthbert Scott was chosen by Pole to be a persecutor of the University of Cambridge. 1563, p. 1537, 1570, p. 2142, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1956.

Scott responded to John Stokes' oration at Cambridge University on 11 January 1557. 1563, p. 1539, 1570, p. 2144, 1576, p. 1864, 1583, p. 1958.

Brassey again excused himself at St Mary's church on 12 January 1557. Scott answered his words. 1563, p. 1540, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1958.

Scott, Watson and Christopherson interdicted St Mary's Church, Cambridge, where Bucer was buried.1563, p. 1541, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1965, 1583, p. 1959.

On 14 January 1557, after the examination of the provost and vice-provost of Cambridge, Thomas Bacon invited Perne, Dr Young, Dr Harvey, Swinborne, and Maptide to come to dinner. He was examined before Scott, Watson and Christopherson on 14 January 1557. 1563, p. 1541, 1570, p. 2146, 1576, p. 1866, 1583, p. 1960.

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Scott spoke with Nicholas Carre, as a former pupil of Bucer, about the heresies of Bucer. 1563, p. 1540, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1957.

Carre denounced Scott's opinion of Bucer and sent him into a rage, berating Carre for his words at Bucer's burial. Scott desisted when no one presented any evidence against Carre's actions. 1563, p. 1540, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1957.

Scott made an oration at the condemnation of Bucer and Phagius. 1570, p. 2148, 1576, p. 1867, 1583, p. 1961.

The condemnation of Bucer was given the bishop of Chester's seal. 1570, p. 2148, 1576, p. 1868, 1583, p. 1961.

John Hullier appeared before Shaxton, Young, Segewick, Scott, Mitch and others on Palm Sunday eve at Great St Mary's. 1570, p. 2196, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

Dr Dakins was given commission by the bishop of Chester to examine John and Richard Snell. 1570, [unnumbered sheet at beginning of volume 1], 1576, 2008, 1583, p. 2150.

Cuthbert Scott was a participant in the Westminster disputation of 1559. 1563, p. 1717, 1583, p. 2119.

Scott was in the Fleet but escaped to Louvain and died there. 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2102.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Edmund Irish

(d. 1556)

Mayor of Oxford (1554 - 1555)

Ridley was detained during the Oxford disputations in Edmund Irish's house (1563, p. 937; 1570, p. 1592; 1576, p. 1358; 1583, p. 1429).

He was cited by Ridley as a witness, in a letter to Weston of 23 April 1554, that Ridley had written the said letter (1563, p. 977; 1570, p. 1633; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1464). [Note that this letter was sent a month before Ridley was placed in Irish's custody].

[On Irish's life and career see Carl J. Hammer, 'The Oxford Martyrs in Oxford: The Local History of their Confinements and their Keepers,' Journal of Ecclesiastical History 50 (1999), pp. 240-42].

 
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Richard Croke

(1489? - 1558) (DNB and Foster)

Richard Croke presented the delegation of doctors sent from Cambridge to participate in the 1554 Oxford disputations with a gift of wine on 13 April 1554 (1563, p. 936; 1570, p. 1592; 1576, p. 1358; and 1583, p. 1429).

[Also referred to as 'Dr. Crooke']

 
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Say

Notary for convocation at the Oxford disputations of 1554

As registrar for the university convocation held in St Mary, Oxford, Say read aloud the commission authorising the disputations (1563, p. 937; 1570, p. 1592; 1576, p. 1358; 1583, p. 1429).

He was appointed to act as notary on behalf of convocation during the Oxford disputations (1563, p. 937; 1570, p. 1592; 1576, p. 1358; 1583, p. 1429).

Say dined at Lincoln College together with other officials connected with the disputation on 14 April 1555 (1563, p. 937; 1570, p. 1592; 1576, p. 1358; 1583, p. 1429).

He collected the records of the other four notaries for the debates on the morning of Monday 16 April (1563, p. 938; 1570, p. 1593; 1576, p. 1359; 1583, p. 1430).

 
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Wakeclyn

Wakeclyn was a ?sometime servant? to Bishop Boner who lodged at the Cross Inn with the Cambridge doctors sent to participate in the Oxford disputations of 1554 (1563, p. 936; 1570, p. 1592; 1576, p. 1358; 1583, p. 1429).

[NB: He is called ?Wakefield? in 1563, p. 936].

 
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White

White was appointed to act as notary on behalf of Oxford University during the disputations there in 1554 (1563, p. 937; 1570, p. 1592; 1576, p. 1358; 1583, p. 1429).

On the morning of 16 April 1554, White and Say collected the disputants' subscriptions to the articles to be disputed (1563, p. 938; 1570, p. 1543; 1576, p. 1359; 1583, p. 1430).

1453 [1429]

Queene Mary. Cambridge Doctours comming to Oxford. Disputation there of the Sacrament.

MarginaliaAnno 1554. Aprill.with Articles therewith annexed, that should be disputed vpon at Oxford: the contentes of the which three Articles are sufficiently expressed before. Wherupon in the sayd congregation of the aforesayd Vniuersity of Cambridge, there was graunted first a grace in this fourme proposed by the Seniour Proctor: Placet vobis vt instrumentum fiat, quod horum iam prælectorum articulorum doctrina sana sit & catholica, atque, cum veritate orthodoxæ fidei consentiens, & vestro consensu, & suffragijs comprebetur? MarginaliaA grace for Articles.That is: may it please you to haue an instrument made that the doctrine of these foresaid Articles may be sound and catholicke and consonant with the verity of the right meaning fayth, & that the same may be approued by your consent and voyces? MarginaliaA grace for the Cambridge Doctours to dispute agaynst Cranmer, Ridley & Latimer.Secondly in the sayd congregation, an other grace was geuen and graunted, that Doctor Yong being the Vicechauncellor, D. Glin Doct. Atkinson, Doct. Scot, and M. Sedgewicke shoulde goe to Oxford to defend the sayde Articles agaynst Caunterbury, London, and Latimer: Also to haue letters to the Oxford men, sealed with theyr common seal: Item, an other grace graunted to M. Sedgewike, to be actuall Doctor, being therupon immediately admitted. The foresayd letters 

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Cattley, VI, Appendix, ref. page 440, line 16

These two documents are printed in Strype's Life of Cranmer, Appendix, Nos. 77, 78; and from thence by Wilkins, iv. p. 98: the doctors delegated by the University appear from these two documents to have been Dr. John Young, vice-chancellor, successor of Ridley as master of Pembroke; Dr. William Glynn, president of Queen's; Dr. Richard Atkinson, provost of King's; Dr. Cuthbert Scott, master of Christ's; Dr. Thomas Watson, master of St. John's; Dr. Alban Langdale, of St. John's; and Dr. Thomas Sedgwyke, of Trinity, regius professor of divinity in Cambridge. Dr. John Seton, of St. John's, was sent by the Convocation. Dr. Langdale was parson of Buxted in Sussex, and in that character appears a persecutor of the Gospel at vol. viii. p. 352, &c.; and again at p. 367. &c.

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being then drawne out, the third day after (whiche was the 11. day of Aprill) were read in the foresayd congregation house and there sealed.

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MarginaliaThe comming of the Cambridge men to Oxford.Wherupon the next day after (the 12. of the sayd month) the foresayd Doctors, with the ful grace of that vniuersity, set forward to Oxford: and comming thither the next daye after (being friday, the 13. of Aprill) were lodged all at the Crosse Inne, with one Wakecline, 

Commentary  *  Close

A number of minor but distinct changes were made to this material in the 1570 edition. Some of these appear to have been corrections: e.g. the name of Bonner's servant is given as 'Wakefield' in 1563 (p. 936), but is changed to 'Wakeclyn' (1570, p. 1592; 1576, p. 1358; 1583, p. 1429).

 
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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix, ref. page 440, line 22

{Cattley/Pratt substitutes 'Wakefield' for 'Wakecline'.} For "Wakecline" (or "Wakeclyn," ed. 1570,) the edition of 1563, p. 936, reads "Wakefield."

being somtime seruant to Byshop Boner.

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MarginaliaTheir welcomming to Oxford.Anon after their comming, Doct. Crooke presented thē with wine for theyr welcome: and shortly after, two of the Bedles came from the Vicechauncellor of Oxford, and presented the Vicehauncellour of Cambridge with a dishe of Apples, and a gallen of wine. After whome, next came M. Pye and Fecknam to welcome them. MarginaliaThe Cambridge Doctors repayre to D. Weston.Then after consultation concerning the deliuery of theyr letters and instrument of grace (which was in Doctor Seton and Watsons keeping) 

Commentary  *  Close

Foxe stated in 1563 (p. 936) that documents were in Watson's chambers; in later editions he stated that they were in his keeping (1570, p. 1592; 1576, p. 1358; 1583, p. 1429).

 
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Cattley/Pratt, VI, 440, fn 2

{Cattley/Pratt substitues 'chamber' for 'keeping' in the text and adds the note: Edition of 1563. - ED.}

Appendix:For "chaumber" all the editions except 1563 read "keeping," - "Doctor Seton and Watson's keeping."

they went all to Lincolne Colledge to Doct, Weston the Prolocutor, and to the Vicechauncellour D. Tresham: 
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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix, ref. page 440, line 32

Dr. William Tresham had been commissary according to Neve and Wood from 1532 to 1546, and vice-chancellor the latter part of 1550, and a considerable part of 1551. Richard Martiall was made vice-chancellor Oct. 3d, 1552: "Absentis vices gerebat Dr. Tresham." (Wood.) Martiall was reappointed 1553, but Walter Wryght is mentioned as such April 4th, and Dr. Tresham (who was about that time prisoner in the Fleet) as commissary Nov. 6th. John Warner was nominated as vice-chancellor by Martiall April 15th, 1554, and soon after admitted. (Wood.) It is plain, therefore, that Tresham ought here to have been called "commissary," especially as Martiall is called "vice-chancellor" at p. 443.

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and there they deliuered theyr letters, and declared what they had done touching the articles, letters, and graces. 
Commentary  *  Close

Foxe omitted the phrase 'where they had a junkery but sat not down' from the 1570 edition (cf. 1563, p. 936 with 1570, p. 1592; 1576, p. 1358; 1583, p. 1429), probably because he thought the phrase too informal or inelegant. (Foxe also purged a marginal note containing the word 'junkery' from the 1570 edition [see textual variant 621M]).

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Cattley/Pratt, VI, 440, fn 2

{Cattley/Pratt adds 'where they had a junkery, but sat not down' and notes: [Edition of 1563. - ED.]}

Addenda:Bishop Fisher, in his Months mind on Margaret Countess of Richmond, p. 113, Camb. 1840, recommends "exchewynge banketts, Reresoupers, joncryes betwixt meles."

Half houre after 8. they returned to theyr Inne again: but first they concluded of a Procession, Sermon, & conuocation to be had the morowe folowing, and that the Doctors of Cambridge should be incorporate in the Vniuersity of Oxford, & likewise that the Doctors of Oxford should be incorporate in the Vniuersity of Cambridge. MarginaliaThe three prisoners Cranmer, Ridley, & Latimer disseuered.The same day the forenamed prisoners were disseuered, as was sayd afore: 
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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix, ref. page 440, line 40

This is not true in any edition except that of 1563, which in the first Account of the Disputation ... had said (p. 936): "After the sentence pronounced they were separated the one from the other: videlicet, my lord of Canterbury was put in Bocardo: Dr. Ridley was caried to maister Shrives house: maister Latimer in maister Bailifs." The foregoing words are inserted at p. 534 of this volume, followed by a short paragraph which forms the termination of the first Account in the edition of 1563.

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Doctor Ridley to Alderman Iryshes house M. Latimer to another, and Doctor Cranmer remayned still in Bocardo.

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On Saterday (being the 14. of Aprill) at eighte of the clocke, the foresayd Vicechauncellour of Cambridge wyth the other Doctours of the same Vniuersitye: repayred to Lincolne Colledge agayne, and found the Prolocutour aboue in a Chappel, with the company of the house singing Requiem Masse, and taryed there vntill the end. MarginaliaConsultation.Then they consulting altogether in the Maysters lodging, about 9. of the clocke came all to the Vniuersity church called S. Maries, and there, after short consultation in a Chappell, the Vicechauncellor the Prolocutor, &c. of Oxford, caused the Vicechauncellor of Cambridge & the rest of the Doctours of that Vniuersity, MarginaliaThe Doctors in theyr scarlet robes.to send for theyr skarlet robes, 

Commentary  *  Close

One change appears to have been a typographical error: 'coapes' [copes] in 1563 (p. 937) became 'roabes' [robes] (1570, p. 1592; 1576, p. 1358; 1583, p. 1429).

 
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Cattley/Pratt, VI, 441, fn 1

{Cattley/Pratt substitutes 'copes' for 'robes' in the text.} Edition of 1563. - ED.

Appendix, ref. page 441, top line:All the editions except the first read "roabes" or "robes" in the text and margin.

brought from Cambridge, saue that Doct. Seton and Watson borowed of the Oxford men. And in this time, the Regentes in the congregation house, had graūted all the Cambridge doctors theyr graces, to be incorporate there, and so they went vp and were admitted immediately, D. Oglethorpe presenting them, and the Proctour reading the statute, and geuing them theyr othes.

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That done, they came all into the Quier, and there held the conuocation of the Vniuersity. 

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Foxe also omitted the words 'being gremials' (cf. 1563, p. 937 with 1570, p. 1592; 1576, p. 1358; 1583, p. 1429).

They had Masse of the holy Ghost solemnly song in pricksong, MarginaliaMasse in pikesauce, in prickesong I would say.by the Quier men of Christes Church. But first the cause of the Conuocatiō was opened in English, partly by the Vicechauncellour, and partlye by the Prolocutour, MarginaliaThe causes of their assembly declared.declaring that they were sent by the Queene, and wherfore they were sent: and caused Mayster Say the Register, openly to read the Cōmission. That done, MarginaliaCambridge letters read.the Vicechauncellor read Cambridge letters openly, and then concluded that MarginaliaThree Notaryes assigned.3. Notaries, Maister Say for the Conuocation, a Bedle of Cambridge for that vniuersity, and one Maister White for Oxford, shoulde testifye of theyr doing: and then willed the sayd Notaryes to prouide parchment, that the whole assemblye mighte subscribe to the Articles, MarginaliaSubscribing to the articles. saue those that had subscribed before in the conuocation house at London and Cambridge, and so the Vicechauncellour began first: after him the rest of the

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Oxford men, as many as could in the Masse time.

MarginaliaProcession in Oxford. The aray of the solemne procession.The Masse being done, they went in procession: First the Quier in theyr surplices followed the Crosse: then the first yeare Regentes and Proctours: then the Doctors of law, and theyr Bedle before them: then the Doctors of diuinity of both Vniuersities intermingled, the Duinitye & arte Bedles going before them, the Vicechauncellour and the Prolocutour going together. After them Bachelers of Duinity, Regentes, & non Regentes, in theyr aray: and last of all, the Bachelers of Law and Art. After whom folowed a great company of scholers and students not graduate. And thus they proceeded through þe street to Christs churche, and there the quier sang a Psalme, and after that a collect was read. This done, departed the Cōmissioners, doctours, and many other to Lincolne Colledge, where they dyned with the Maior of the towne, one Alderman, foure Bedles, Mayster Say, and the Cambridge Notary. MarginaliaAn other consultation of the Doctours and Priestes.After diner they went all agayne to S. Maries Church: & there after a short consultation in a Chappell, all the Commissioners came into the quier, and sate all on seates before the Aulter, to the number of 33. persons: And first they sent to the Maior, that he should bring in Doct. Cranmer, whiche within a while was brought to them with a great nūber of rusty bilmen.

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Marginalia
Archbishop Cranmer brought before the Doctours & high Priests at S. Maryes Church.
The reuerend humilitie & behauionr of the Archb. before thē.
Thus the reuerend Archb. when he was brought before the Cōmissioners, reuerenced them with much humility, and stoode with his staffe in his hande: who notwithstanding hauing a stoole offred him, refused to sit. Then the Prolocutor sitting in the midst in a skarlet gowne, began with a short Preface or Oratiō, 

Commentary  *  Close

The first thing that Foxe did in synthesising the accounts of his two informants in the 1570 edition was to eliminate some passages from the previous edition which introduced the first informant's account, (see textual variant 36). Then Foxe took material in the second informant's account describing events unmentioned by the first informant, which took place in the week of 7 to 14 April, and placed it in correct chronological order at the beginning of the account (see textual transposition 7).

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in praise of vnity, and especially in the church of Christ: declaring with all his bringing vp, and taking degrees in Cābridge, and also how hee was promoted by king Henry, and had bene his coūsellor and a Catholicke man, one of the same vnity, and a mēber therof in times past: but of late yeares did separate and cut of himselfe from it, by teaching & setting forth of erronious doctrine, making euery yeare a new fayth: and therefore it pleased the Queenes grace, to send them of the Conuocation & other learned men to bring him to this vnity again, if it might be. Then shewed he him how they of the Conuocation house, had agreed vpon certayne articles, wherevnto they willed him to subscribe.

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MarginaliaThe aunswere of the Archb. to D. Weston.The Archb. aunswered to the preface very wittily, modestly, and learnedly, shewing that he was very glad of an vnity, forasmuch as it was Cōseruatrix omnium rerum publicarum, tam Ethnicorum quam Christianorum, i. the preseruer of all common wealthes, as well of the Heathen, as of the Christians: and so he dilated the matter with one or two storyes of the Romaynes Common wealth. Whiche thing when he had done, he sayde, that he was verye gladde to come to an vnity, so that it were in Christ, and agreeable to his holy word.

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When he had thus spoken his full mind, the Prolocutor caused the articles to be read vnto him, and asked if he would graunt and subscribe vnto them. Then the Bishop of Canterbury did reade them ouer three or foure times & touching the first article he asked what they ment by these termes verū & naturale. i. true and natural. Doe you not meane sayth he, Corpus organicum. i. a sensible body? Some aunswered, Idem quod natus est ex virgine. i. the same that was borne of the Virgine: and so confusedly, some said one thing, some an other. MarginaliaThe articles denyed by the Archb.Then the Bishop of Canterbury denyed it vtterly, and when he had looked vpon the other two, he sayde they were all false and agaynst Gods holy word: And therefore would not agree he sayd, in that vnity with them. MarginaliaScarborough warning geuen to Cranmer to dispute.Which done, the Prolocutor first willing him to write his mynde of them that night, 

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Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix, ref. page 442, line 27

The official report says, that Cranmer "primo eosdem articulos in forma verborum qua concipiuntur veros non esse asseruit; nihilo minus aiebat, quod si copiam eorundem articulorum et tempus perpendendi eosdem concederemus, redigere vellet in scriptis ejus ad eosdem responsum, nobisque in crastino tunc consequente die transmittere." See the note next but one following this.

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sayd moreouer that he should dispute in them, and caused a copy of the articles to be deliuered him, assigning him to answere thereunto on Monday next, and so charged the Maior with him again, to be had to Bocardo where he was kept before: offring moreouer vnto him, to name what books he would occupy, and he should haue them brought vnto him. The Archbishop was greatly cōmended of euery body for his modesty: In so much, that some Maisters of Arte were seene to weep for him, which in iudgement were contrary to him. 
Commentary  *  Close

For Cranmer's exchange with Weston on 14 April, Foxe, in the 1570 edition, selected passages from the two accounts, weaving them skilfully together, see (textual transposition 7, textual variant 37, textual transposition 8, textual variant 38, textual transposition 9, textual variant 40 and textual transposition 10. Foxe selected those passages which supplied the most detail or were the most favourable to the three bishops. Thus, for example, the first informant's account gave fuller versions of Cranmer's answers and described, at some length, the favourable impression made on the spectators, but included the second informant's description of Cranmer's defiant refusal to sit and Weston's promise that Cranmer would be allowed access to books in preparation for the disputation.

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MarginaliaD. Ridley brought in.Then was Doctor Ridley brought in, who hearing þe articles read vnto him, answered, without any delay, MarginaliaAnswere of Bish. Ridley to the articles.sayiug: they were all false, and sayd further, that they sprange out of a bitter and sower roote. His aunsweres were sharp witty and very learned. MarginaliaB. Ridley falsely reported for his Sermon.Then did they lay to his charge a sermon that he made when he was Bishop of Rochester, wherein (they sayd) he spake with transubstantiation. He denyed it vtterlye, and asked whether they could bring out any that heard him, which would say and affirme with thē the same. They could bring no proofe of it at all. After that he was asked of one whether he desired not my lord Chancellor that now is, to sticke to the masse, and other things?

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He
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