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Áedán (Aidan) (St Aidan)

(d. 651) [ODNB]

Irish monk of Iona; missionary to Northumbria and bishop of Lindisfarne

Requested by King Oswald of Northumbria; worked with him and Oswine

He preached in Northumbria, with King Oswald translating into English. 1570, pp. 150, 163; 1576, pp. 112, 123; 1583, pp. 111, 122.

Áedán was given a valuable horse by King Oswine of Deira so that he would not always have to travel on foot. He met a poor beggar one day and gave him the horse with its trappings. 1570, p. 164; 1576, p. 123; 1583, p. 122.

Áedán allowed only milk and water to be drunk at Lindisfarne. 1570, p. 170; 1576, p. 129; 1583, p. 127.

Ádán, Finán and his successor Colmán held to the Irish method of calculating the date of Easter. 1570, p. 164; 1576, p. 124; 1583, p. 122.

 
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Agatho

Priest at the Synod of Whitby in 664, accompanying Bishop Agelbert and supporting the Roman position

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 165; 1576, p. 124; 1583, p. 123.

 
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Agilbert

(d. 679x90) [ODNB; Gams]

A Frank who had been ordained bishop before arriving in the kingdom of the West Saxons after 646; had studied in Ireland

Bishop of Dorchester c. 650; bishop of Paris (666/7 - death) Attended the synod of Whitby in 664, supporting the Roman position.

Agilbert went to Northumbria to ordain Wilfrid, abbot of Ripon, priest. 1570, p. 164; 1576, p. 124; 1583, p. 123.

Agilbert, James the deacon of Paulinus, Wilfrid and Alchfrith, son of King Oswiu, and his wife Cyneburh held to the Roman method of calculating the date of Easter. 1570, p. 165; 1576, p. 124; 1583, p. 123.

Agilbert was asked by King Oswiu at the synod of Whitby to put forward the Roman position. Agilbert asked that Wilfrid speak for him, as he was more familiar with the English tongue. 1570, p. 165; 1576, p. 124; 1583, p. 123.

 
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Alchfrith

(fl .c. 655 - c. 665) [ODNB]

Son of Oswiu of Northumbria. Sub-king of Deirans under Oswiu c. 655. As a result of his marriage to Cyneburh, he adhered to the Roman tradition on the keeping of Easter, sided with Wilfrid and against Oswiu at the synod of Whitby.

Agilbert, James the deacon of Paulinus, Wilfrid and Alchfrith, son of King Oswiu, and his wife Cyneburh held to the Roman method of calculating the date of Easter. 1570, p. 165; 1576, p. 124; 1583, p. 123.

Alchfrith and his father both attended the Synod of Whitby in 664. 1570, p. 165; 1576, p. 124; 1583, p. 123.

 
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Anatolius of Alexandria

(d. c. 285) scholar; master of mathematics, physics, astronomy, philosophy and rhetoric; head of the Aristotelian school at Alexandria

Bishop of Laodicea (268 - 83); wrote a treatise on the time of the celebration of Easter

Anatolius, in a part of Alexandria besieged by the Romans, arranged with Eusebius for the Romans to allow the escape of those opposing them. 1570, p. 107; 1576, p. 76; 1583, p. 76.

Anatolius was cited by both Colmán, bishop of Northumbria, and Wilfrid to support their opposing positions on the calculation of the date of Easter at the Synod of Whitby in 664. 1570, p. 107; 1576, p. 76; 1583, p. 76.

 
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Bede

(c. 673/4 - 735) [ODNB]

Benedictine monk at Wearmouth and Jarrow; historian and theologian

Wrote on the use of language, computation, chronology, biblical commentaries, hagiography and biography

Author of Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum

Bede entered the monastery at Wearmouth under Abbot Benedict Biscop when he was seven years old. 1570, p. 164; 1576, p. 124; 1583, p. 122.

Bede was made deacon at nineteen years of age, and priest when he was twenty. 1570, p. 170; 1576, p. 128; 1583, p. 127.

Pope Sergius I sent a letter to Ceolfrith, abbot of Wearmouth, praising Bede's learning and asking that he be sent to Rome. 1570, p. 170; 1576, p. 128; 1583, p. 127.

Bede gave his Anglorum Historia to King Ceolwulf of Northumbria to be approved and amended. 1570, p. 170; 1576, p. 128; 1583, p. 127.

Bede wrote that in his time Easter was celebrated in Britain following the eastern practice. 1570, p. 145; 1576, p. 107; 1583, p. 106.

Thomas Arthur and Thomas Bilney, in their examination for heresy, said that Bede had translated the gospel of St John into English. 1563, p. 465; 1570, p. 1137; 1576, p. 974; 1583, p. 1000.

Bede died during the reign of Æthelbald of Mercia. 1570, p. 150; 1576, p. 112; 1583, p. 111.

 
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Cedd (St Cedd)

(d. 664) [ODNB]

Trained at Lindisfarne; bishop of the East Saxons; missionary to the Middle Angles

Cedd was sent into the kingdom of the East Saxons after the conversion of King Sigeberht Sanctus. 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

Cedd was the second bishop of London, following Mellitus. 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

He was appointed prolocutor at the Synod of Whitby in 664. 1570, p. 165; 1576, p. 124; 1583, p. 123.

When King Oswiu decided in favour of the Roman position on the calculation of the date of Easter, Cedd agreed to accept it. 1570, p. 166; 1576, p. 125; 1583, p. 124.

 
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Colmán (St Colmán)

(d. 676) [ODNB]

Irish monk from Iona; succeeded Finán in 661 as abbot of Lindisfarne and bishop of the Northumbrians

After the Synod of Whitby, he left first for Iona and then went to Inishbofin, an island off the coast of Ireland, eventually moving to a new foundation at Mayo.

Ádán, Finán and his successor Colmán held to the Irish method of calculating the date of Easter. 1570, p. 164; 1576, p. 124; 1583, p. 122.

Colmán was asked by King Oswiu to be spokesman for the Irish position at the Synod of Whitby in 664. The king decided for the Roman position, and Colmán retired to Ireland, taking the bones of Ádán with him. 1570, pp. 165-66; 1576, pp. 124-25; 1583, pp. 123-24.

 
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Columba (St Columba)

(c. 521 - 597) [ODNB]

Irish nobleman; scholar and ascetic; monastic founder at Iona; left Ireland for Scotland in 563

Columba was cited by Colán, bishop of Northumbria, in support of the Irish position on the calculation of the date of Easter at the Synod of Whitby in 664. 1570, p. 165; 1576, p. 125; 1583, p. 123.

 
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Cyneburh

Daughter of Penda of Mercia [ODNB sub Penda]

Married to Alchfrith, son of Oswiu of Northumbria; supposed to have retired after his death to the minster at Castor, Northamptonshire and to have been buried there with her sister Cyneswith

She and her sister are referred to as holy virgins. 1570, p. 150; 1576, p. 112; 1583, p. 111.

Agilbert, James the deacon of Paulinus, Wilfrid and Alchfrith, son of King Oswiu, and his wife Cyneburh held to the Roman method of calculating the date of Easter. 1570, p. 165; 1576, p. 124; 1583, p. 123.

 
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Finán (St Finán)

(d. 661) [ODNB]

Irish monk of Iona; bishop of Lindisfarne in 651 following Áidán; missionary

Finán converted and baptised Peada, king of Mercia, and his court. 1570, p. 150; 1576, p. 112; 1583, p. 111.

Finán converted and baptised Sigeberht Sanctus, king of the East Saxons. 1570, p. 150; 1576, p. 112; 1583, p. 111.

[Foxe mistakenly refers to Sigeberht as the king of the East Angles]: 1570, p. 164; 1576, p. 123; 1583, p. 122.

Ádán, Finán and his successor Colmán held to the Irish method of calculating the date of Easter. 1570, p. 164; 1576, p. 124; 1583, p. 122.

 
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Hild (St Hilda)

(614 - 680) [ODNB]

Daughter of Hereric, prince of Deira; baptized with Eadwine of Northumbria in 627; became a nun c. 647; founded Streanaeshalch (Strensall)/Whitby in 657

Abbess of Strensall-Whitby (657 - 80); established a school there

Hild, with Colmán, bishop of the Northumbrians, held to the Irish method of calculating the date of Easter. 1570, p. 164; 1576, p. 124; 1583, p. 123.

The Synod of Whitby was held in Hild's abbey in 664. 1570, p. 165; 1576, p. 124; 1583, p. 123.

 
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James

(fl. 633 - late C7) [ODNB sub Paulinus]

Paulinus's deacon at York; remained behind when Paulinus fled into Kent after the death of Eadwine of Northumbria; taught church music at York in Bede's time

After Paulinus left, James continued to preach and baptise in the north until peace was restored. 1570, p. 163; 1576, p. 122; 1583, p. 121.

Agilbert, James the deacon of Paulinus, Wilfrid and Alchfrith, son of King Oswiu, and his wife Cyneburh held to the Roman method of calculating the date of Easter. 1570, p. 165; 1576, p. 124; 1583, p. 123.

 
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Oswine of Deira (St Oswin)

(d. 651) [ODNB]

Son of Osric; king of Deira (644 - 51)

Last independent ruler of Deira; murdered by the followers of Oswiu

Oswine ruled with his cousin Oswiu of Bernicia. Oswine gave Áedán, bishop of Lindisfarne, a valuable horse so that he would not always have to travel on foot. Because Oswine would not or could not join Oswiu in battle, Oswiu had him killed.1570, p. 164; 1576, p. 123; 1583, p. 122.

 
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Oswiu of Northumbria

(611/12 - 670) [ODNB]

Son of Æthelfrith; exiled with his brothers at their father's death; baptised as a Christian in exile

King of Northumbria (642 - 70); struggle with Penda of Mercia; chaired the synod of Whitby in 664

Before battle, Oswiu dedicated his daughter to religion, along with 12 lordships to found 12 monasteries. 1570, p. 150; 1576, p. 112; 1583, p. 111.

Oswiu was a friend of King Sigeberht of the East Saxons and was instrumental in his conversion. 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

King Oswiu gave with his daughter Ælfflæd 12 lordships to found 12 monasteries, six each in Bernicia and Deira. 1570, pp. 150, 177; 1576, pp. 112, 134; 1583, pp. 111, 133.

Penda of Mercia gave his consent to the marriage of his son Peada with Alhflæd, daughter of Oswiu. 1570, p. 164; 1576, p. 123; 1583, p. 122.

Oswiu killed Penda of Mercia in battle. 1570, p. 163; 1576, p. 123; 1583, p. 122.

Oswiu presided over the Synod of Whitby in 664 and opened it with an oration. 1570, p. 165; 1576, p. 124; 1583, p. 123.

Oswiu, having listened to spokesmen for both the Irish and the Roman positions on the calculation of the date of Easter, decided in favour of the Roman. 1570, pp. 165-66; 1576, pp. 124-25; 1583, pp. 123-24.

 
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Paulinus (St Paulinus)

(d. 644) [ODNB]

Bishop of York 625 and of Rochester 633; one of the monks sent by Gregory I in 601; worked to convert Eadwine of Northumbria

Eadwine of Northumbria was converted and baptised by Paulinus at York. 1563, p. 18; 1570, pp. 150, 163; 1576, pp. 112, 122; 1583, pp. 111, 121.

Eadwine was reluctant to convert, but Paulinus worked patiently to persuade him. Paulinus baptised many people in the rivers of the realm, and he built a stone church at Lincoln. 1570, p. 163; 1576, p. 122; 1583, p. 121.

Paulinus was the first bishop of York, consecrated by Justus, archbishop of Canterbury. Upon the death of Justus, Paulinus consecrated Honorius as his successor. 1570, p. 163; 1576, p. 122; 1583, p. 121.

After the death of King Eadwine, and the conquest by Cadwallon of Gwynedd and Penda of Mercia, the subsequent disorder forced Paulinus to flee into Kent, along with Queen Æthelburh and her daughter Eanflæd. There Paulinus became bishop of Rochester. 1570, p. 163; 1576, p. 122; 1583, p. 121.

 
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Roman

Priest; chaplain to the Kentish queen Eanflæd; attended the Synod of Whitby in 664 on the side of Bishop Agilbert, who supported the Roman position on calculating the date of Easter

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 165; 1576, p. 124; 1583, p. 123.

 
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Wilfrid (St Wilfrid)

(c. 634 - 709/10) [ODNB]

Abbot of Ripon (c. 658 - 78, 686)

Bishop of Northumbria, York (664 - 78, 686 - 92)

Abbot of Hexham (672 - 78, 686); exile in Sussex, missionary; abbot of Selsey

Bishop of Leicester (692 - 703); guardian of Osred

Bishop of Hexham (706 - 709/10)

Agilbert, bishop of Dorchester, went to Northumbria to ordain Wilfred priest. 1570, p. 164; 1576, p. 124; 1583, p. 123.

Agilbert, James the deacon of Paulinus, Wilfrid and Alchfrith, son of King Oswiu, and his wife Cyneburh held to the Roman method of calculating the date of Easter. 1570, p. 165; 1576, p. 124; 1583, p. 123.

Agilbert was asked by King Oswiu at the Synod of Whitby to put forward the Roman position. Agilbert asked that Wilfrid speak for him, as he was more familiar with the English tongue, and Wilfred put the Roman case. The king decided in his favour. 1570, pp. 165-66; 1576, pp. 124-25; 1583, pp. 123-24.

Theodore, archbishop of Canterbury, replaced Wilfrid as bishop of York with Ceadda. This was supported by King Ecgfrith of Northumbria. Wilfrid went to Rome to complain to Pope Agatho, but the king's and archbishop's friends there meant he was unsuccessful. He went into the realm of the South Saxons and founded an abbey at Selsey. 1570, p. 166; 1576, p. 125; 1583, p. 124.

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King Aldfrith of Northumbria restored Wilfrid to the bishopric of York, but after about five years removed him again. Wilfrid went to Rome. He was restored again by King Osred I of Northumbria. 1570, p. 166; 1576, p. 125; 1583, p. 124.

Wilfred founded the abbeys at Selsey and Ripon. 1570, p. 177; 1576, p. 134; 1583, p. 133.

 
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Strensall (Streoneshall)

[Sternehalt; Stransall]

York, North Riding of Yorkshire

OS grid ref: SE 635 605

146 [123]

The question of Easter day moued betweene the Scottes, and the Saxons.

their miracles wherefore they were made Saintes in the Popes calender, seing they are not written in the Gospel, nor in my Crede, but in certaine old chronicles of that age so they are no matter of my faith: notwithstanding as touching there conuersation, this I read, and also do credite, that the Clergy both of Britaine & Englande at that time, plied nothing that was worldly, but gaue thē to preching and teaching the word of our Sauiour, and followed the life that they preached, by giuing of good ensample. MarginaliaO quanta mutatio? Beda. lib. 4. cap 5. Hunting. Polycr. Iornalensis. Fabia. And ouer that, as our histories accord, they were so voyd of couetousnes, that they receiued no possessions or territories as was forced vpon them.

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About this season or not much before, MarginaliaAn. 664. vnder the raigne of Oswy & Oswyne, kynges of Northumberlande, an other Synode or Councell was holden against the Brytaines and the Scottish bishops, for the ryght obseruyng of Easter, at Sternehalt. 

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Dispute over Easter

The famous Synod of Whitby, held in 664 at Saint Hilda's double monastery of Streonshalh (Streanoeshalch) ('Sternehalt': 'Streneshalch' in Foxe's narrative) was the famous centrepiece of the third book of Bede's Ecclesiastical History, the moment when King Oswiu of Northumbria decided that his kingdom would calculate Easter and observe the monastic tonsure according to the customs of Rome, rather than the customs practiced by Iona and its satellite monasteries. When Foxe came to construct his narrative of the 'second age' for the 1570 edition of the martyrology, he took his narrative of what happened at Whitby directly from Bede's Ecclesiastical History (book 3, ch. 25), translating it often word for word. The Synod had been seen as the triumph of Roman over Celtic Christianity, but Foxe prefers to gloss it as confirming the power of the Saxon monarchs to determine the religious complexion of their state, albeit the king's reasons for doing so were 'simple and rude'. Foxe accompanied the passage with a Latin tag from Claudian with obvious contemporary (Elizabethan) resonance: 'Mobile mutatur simper cum principe vulgus' ('the fickle populace always changes with the prince'). Foxe allowed himself no more than the briefest of mentions, however, of the significance of the year 666, situating it not in the context of events in England, but in terms of the rise of Islam. As Catherine Firth has argued, however, Foxe hardly felt the need to emphasise an apocalyptic framework in 1570 which was, by then, an all too familiar periodisation to his readers (Catherine Firth, The Apocalyptic Tradition, 1530-1645 [Oxford, 1979], pp. 69-110). For Foxe's continuing narrative of the coming of Christianity to the Saxon kingdoms, he relied (as is evident from other sections of books 2) principally on the chronicles of Fabian and Brompton, stretching his net more widely as and when it seemed appropriate. So, for the accession of Egfride as king of Northumbria, Foxe seems to have also used Henry of Huntingdon's Chronicle (T. Arnold, ed. Henry of Huntingdon. Henrici Huntendunensis Historia Anglorum, the History of the English, by Henry, Archdeacon of Huntingdon, from B. C. 55 to A. D. 1154 [London: Rolls Series, 1879], book 2, ch. 35; book 3, chs 48-9; book 4, ch. 4) to supplement Fabian (R. Fabyan, The Chronicle of Fabian (London, 1559), book 5, chs 133-135) and Bede. For the dispatch of Theodorus to England as Archbishop of Canterbury and Wilfred's appeal to Rome, Foxe's references are confused. He appears to be following the account in William of Malmesbury's Gesta Pontificium (book 1, ch. 1). His references to Ranulph Higden's Polychronicon and to Bede's Ecclesiastical History, however, are mistaken (they should read: book 5, ch. 19 and book 4, ch. 12 respectively). For the Synod at Thetford, his souce is unambiguously Bede (either directly or indirectly). For the miracles of St Cuthlake ('a popish saint') Foxe allowed his scepticism to be more evident: 'But why thys Cuthlake shoulde bee sancted for hys doings, I see no great cause, as neyther do I thinke the fabulous miracles reported of himn to be true: as when the vulgar people are made to beleue, that he inclosed the deuil in a boiling pot, and caused wicked spirites to erect vp houses, with such other fables and lying miracles'. His sources here were Fabian's Chronicle (book 6, ch. 141) although he may have checked back to the Polychronicon (book 5, ch. 21). This was in line with the gradually ascending scornful tone that Foxe allowed himself towards miracles in Book II, culminating in those of Adelm and John of Beverley. For the scepticism, Foxe probably owed something here to Bale's Catalogus (pp. 82-4; 89) but for the material he relied on Fabian's Chronicle (book6, ch. 141), Brompton (J. Brompton, 'Chronicon Johannis Brompton Abbatis Jornalensis.' In Historiæ Anglicanæ Scriptores X. [....], ed. by Roger Twysden [London, 1652], col. 794), William of Malmesbury's Gesta Pontificium and Ranulph Higden's Polychronicon. Along with his crescendo of scepticism towards these miracles, however, comes a greater insistence upon the 'Monkish devises' and 'monkish fantasies' of these sources.

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Matthew Phillpott and Mark Greengrass
University of Sheffield

At what time Agilbertus Byshop of westsaxons came to Northumberlande, to instytute Wilfride, Abbot of Rypon, where this question for Easter day began to be moued. MarginaliaControuersie about Easter day. For Colmannus then Byshop of Northūberland followed not þe custome of Rome, nor of the Saxons: but followed the Brytaynes, and the Scottish Bishops, his predecessors in the same sea before. Thus on the on side was Colmannus the Archbyshop of Yorke and Hilda the Abbes of Sternhalt: which alleaged for them the doinges and exambles of their predecessours, both godly and reuerend byshops: as Aidanus, Finianus, Archbishops of that sea of Yorke before them, and diuers moe. Who had vsed alwaies to celebrate the Easter, from the xiiij day of the first moneth, till the xxviij. of the same. And specially for that S. Iohn þe Euangelist at Ephesus, kept and obserued that day, &c. On the other side was Agilbert bishop of Westsaxons, Iames the Deacon of Paulinus aboue mentioned: Wilfride Abbot of Ripon: and King Alfride Oswyes sonne, with his Queene, holding on the same side. The full contentes of which disputation here followeth, according as in the story of Beda at large is described: with their reasons and argumentes, on both sydes as insueth, &c.

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MarginaliaEx Beda. lib. 2. cap. 23.The question of Easter, and of shauing, and other Ecclesiasticall maters being moued, it was determined that in the Abbey which is called Streneshalch, of the which Hilda a deuout woman was Abbes: a conuocation should be had and this question there determined. To the which place came both the kinges, the father and the sonne. MarginaliaA disputation betweene the Romayne Bishops and the Scottish bishops for the day of Easter and other ceremonyes. Byshop Colman with his clergy of Scotland. Aigelbert wyth Agathon and Wilfride Priestes, Iames and Roman were on their sides. Hilda the Abbes with her company was on the Scottish part. And the reuerend Byshop Cedda was appointed Prolocutor for both parties in that Parliament. King Oswye begā first with an Oration: MarginaliaThe king beginneth. declaring that it was necessary for such as serued one God, to liue in one vniforme order, and that such as loked for one kingdome in heauen should not differ in celebration of the heauenly sacraments, but should rather seeke for the true tradition & follow the same. This said, he commaunded his Byshop Colman to declare what the rite and custome was in thys behalfe that he vsed, and from whence it had the originall. Then Colman obeying his princes cōmaundement, sayd: MarginaliaColman speaketh. the Easter, which I obserue I receaued of my auncestors that sent me hether a Bishop. The which, all our forefathers being men of God, did celebrate in like maner, & lest it should be contēned or despised of any man, it is manifestly aparant, to be þe very same, which þe holy Euangelist S. Iohn (a disciple especially beloued of the Lord) did customably vse, in al churches and congregations, where he had authoritie. When Colman had spoken manye thinges to this effect, the king cōmaunded Aigelbert to declare his opinion in this behalfe, and to shew the order that he then vsed, from whence it came & by what authoritie he obserued the same. Aigelbert requested the king, that his scooler Wilfride, a Priest, might speake for him: in as much as they both with the rest of his clergy, were of one opinion herein: and that the said Wilfride coulde vtter his minde better and more plainely in the Englishe toung, then he himselfe could. Then Wilfride at the kings cōmaundements, began on this sort and sayd: MarginaliaWilfride replyeth. The Easter which we keepe, wee haue seene at Rome, whereas the holye Apostles, Peter, & Paule, did liue and teach, did suffer and were buried. The same also is vsed in Italy, and in Fraunce: the which coūtries we haue traueled for learning, and haue noted it to be celebrated of them all. MarginaliaVniuersality alledged. In Asia also and in Aphricke, in Egipt and in Greece, and finally in all the world, the same maner of Easter is obserued, that we vse: saue onelye by these here present with their accomplices, the Pictes & the Britanes: with the which two (& yet not altogither agreing ) they condescend and striue foolishly in this order againstthe vniuersal world. To whom Colman replied, saying, MarginaliaColman agayne speaketh. I maruel you wil cal this order folish, that so great an Apostle as was worthy to lie in the Lordes lap, did vse, whom all þe world doth wel know to haue liued most wisely: and Wilfride aunswered, MarginaliaWilfride replieth. god forbid that I should reprooue S. Iohn of folye who kept the rites of Moses law according to the letter (the Churche being yet Iewishe in manye pointes) and the Apostles not as yet able to abdicate al the obsernations of the law before ordained: as for example þt could not reiect Images inuented of the Diuel, the which all men that beleue on Christ ought of necessitie to forsake, and detest: least they should be an offence to those Iewes that were amongst the Gentiles. For this cause dyd S. Paule Circumcise Timothie, MarginaliaWhy Paule circumcised Timothy. for this cause did hee sacrifice in the temple, and did shaue his head with Aquila and Priscilla, at Corinth. all which thinges were done to none other purpose, then to eschue the offēce of the Iewes. Hereupon also said Iames to Paule, thou seest brother howe many thousand Iewes do beleue & all these be zealous (notwithstanding) of the law. Yet seing the Gospell is so manyfestly preached in the worlde, it is not lawfull for the faithfull to bee Circumcised, neither to offer sacrifice of carnall things to God. Therefore Iohn according to the custome of the law, the xiiij. day of the first moneth at euening, did begin the celebration of the feast of Easter, nothing respecting whether it were relebrated in the Sabboth, or in any other seriall day. But Peter when hee preached at Rome, remembring that the Lord did arise from death on the first day after the Sabboth giuing thereby an hope to þe world of the resurrection, thoughht good to institute Easter on þt day, & not after the vse and precepts of the law (that was) the xiiij. day of the first moneth. MarginaliaExample of Peter alledged, but no proofe brought thereof. Euen so Iohn looking for the Moone at night if it did arise, & the next day after were Sonday, which was then called the Sabboth, then did he celebrate the Easter of the Lord in the euening like as wee vse to do euē at this day. But if Sonday were not the next day after the xiiij, day, but fel on the xvi. day, or xvij or on any other day vnto the xxi: he taried alwayes for it, and did begin the holy solemnitie of Easter, on the euening nexte before þe sabboth. MarginaliaPeter and Iohn did not agree in the celebrating of Easter. And so came it to passe that Easter, was alwaies kept on the Sonday, and was not celebrated but from the xv. day vnto the xxj. Neither doth this tradition of the Apostle breake the law, but fulfilled the same. In the which it is to be noted, that Easter was instituted frō the xiiij. day of the first moneth at euening vnto the xxj. day of the same moneth at euening, the which manner all S. Iohns successours in Asia, after his death did follow, and the Catholike Church throughout the whole worlde. And that this is the true Easter, and onely of all Christians to be obserued, it was not newly decred: but confirmed by þe Councell of Nice, as appeareh by the Ecclesiasticall history. MarginaliaIn the counsell of Nice no such matter appeareth. Wherupon it is manifest that you (Colman) do neither folow the example of S. Iohn as ye thinke, nor of S. Peter whose tradition you do willingly resist, nor of þe church nor yet of the gospel, in the celebration of Easter. For S. Iohn obseruing Easter according to the preceptes of the law kept it not on the first daye after the Sabboth. But you precisely keepe it, onely on the first day after the Sabboth. Peter did celebrate Easter from the xv. daye of the moone to the xxj. day, but you keepe Easter from the xiiij. vnto the xx, day, so that you begin Easter oftentimes the xiij. day at night: of which maner neither the law nor the Gospell maketh any mention. But the Lord in þe xiiij. day either did eate the olde passouer at night, or els did celebrate the sacraments of the new Testament in the remēbraunce of his death and passiō. You doe also vtterly reiect from the celebration of Easter the xxj. daye, the whiche the law hath chiefly willed to be obserued. And therfore as I saide in the keeping of Easter, you neither agree wyth S. Iohn, nor with Peter, nor with the lawe, nor yet with the Gospel. Then Colman againe aunswered to these things, saying. MarginaliaColman agayne aunswereth. Did then Anatholius a godly man and on much cōmended in the foresaid Ecclesiasticall history, agaynst the law & the Gospell? who writeth that the Easter was to be kept frō the xiiij. day. vnto the xx: or shal we thinke that Columba our reuerend father, and his successors being mē of God, who obserued the Easter, after this maner, did against the holye Scripture? where as some of them were men of such godlines and vertue as was declared by their wonderful miracles. And I hereby (nothing doubting of their holines) do endeuor to fallow their life, order, & dyscipline. Then saide Wilfride, MarginaliaWilfride replyeth. it is certainethat Anatholius was both a godly and a learned man, and worthy of great commendation, but what haue you to do with him, seyng you obserue not his order? For he following þe true rule in keping his Easter, obserueth the circle of xix. yeares. The which either you know not, or if you do, you cōtemne the

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