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Augustine Kyrke

Latimer, seeing a procession led by Dr Weston, mistakenly thought he was about to be taken to execution. He urged ?Augustine Cooper, a Catchpole? to prepare the fire for him (1563, p. 936; 1570, p. 1633; 1576, p. 1393; 1583, p. 1464).

Augustine Kyrke, a cooper, was indeed a sergeant of the bailiff?s keys (or ?catchpole?) in Oxford during the relevant administrative year of 1553 - 1554 (see Carl J. Hammer, ?The Oxford Martyrs in Oxford: The Local History of their Confinements and their Keepers,? Journal of Ecclesiastical History 50 [1999], p. 237).

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[Also referred to as 'Augustine Cooper'.]

 
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Edmund Irish

(d. 1556)

Mayor of Oxford (1554 - 1555)

Ridley was detained during the Oxford disputations in Edmund Irish's house (1563, p. 937; 1570, p. 1592; 1576, p. 1358; 1583, p. 1429).

He was cited by Ridley as a witness, in a letter to Weston of 23 April 1554, that Ridley had written the said letter (1563, p. 977; 1570, p. 1633; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1464). [Note that this letter was sent a month before Ridley was placed in Irish's custody].

[On Irish's life and career see Carl J. Hammer, 'The Oxford Martyrs in Oxford: The Local History of their Confinements and their Keepers,' Journal of Ecclesiastical History 50 (1999), pp. 240-42].

 
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Edward Crome

(d. 1562)

Rector of St Mary, Aldermary, London. [DNB]

Edward Crome was sent to the Fleet on 13 January 1554 by the privy council for preaching without a licence (1583, p. 1418; APC IV, p.384).

Another notice that Crome was committed to the Fleet on 13 January 1554 (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1396; and 1583, p. 1467).

Ridley reported to Cranmer, in a letter written in the aftermath of the Oxford disputations in April 1554, that Crome, Rogers and Bradford would be taken to Cambridge for a disputation on similar lines to that held in Oxford (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; and 1583, p. 1464).

Crome was a signatory to the letter of 8 May 1554 protesting the proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71.

Ridley praised the piety, integrity and constancy of 'D.C.' in a letter he wrote to Hooper, probably in 1554. 1563, pp. 1051-52; 1570, p. 1677; 1576, p. 1404; 1583, pp. 1504-5. [NB: Only the initials 'D.C.' are given in Foxe's version of the letter, but the name 'Doctor Crome' is given in the version of the letter printed in Letters of the Martyrs, p. 46.]

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Crome was brought before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Overy's on 30 January 1555. He asked for two months to consider whether he would or would not recant and this was granted to him (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483). [Taken from BL Harley MS 421, fols. 43r and 45r].

A copy of one of Crome's recantations was given to George Marsh in an attempt to persuade Marsh to recant. 1570, p. 1733; 1576, p. 1480; 1583, p. 1563.

Bradford was asked by Heath and Day to read a book that had done Dr Crome good. 1563, p. 1208, 1570, p. 1797, 1576, 1524, 1583, p. 1617.

A letter from Ridley and his fellow prisoners to Bradford and his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench in 1554 stated that Ridley longed to hear of Father Crome, Doctor Sandys, Masters Saunders, Veron, Beacon and Rogers. 1563, p. 1294, 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1624, 1583, p. 1724.

Foxe refers to Edward Crome's first recantation. 1563, p. 1682, 1570, p. 2260, 1576, p. 1951, 1583, p. 2058.

Master Tracy secretly took a letter to William Plane and asked him to take it to Crome. Someone read the letter while Plane was out of the house and believed Plane to be the author of its defamatory contents. Plane was sent to the Tower. 1583, p. 2128.

[Also referred to as 'D. C.']

 
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John Bradford

(1510? - 1555)

Protestant divine. Martyr. Of Manchester. [DNB]

Foxe gives an account of Bradford's birth, early life and education. 1563, p. 1172, 1570, p. 1779, 1576, p. 1520 , 1583, p. 1603.

Martin Bucer exhorted Bradford to preach and join the ministry. 1563, pp. 1172-73, 1570, pp. 1779-80, 1576, p. 1520 , 1583, p. 1603.

Bradford was persuaded to enter the ministry by Ridley. Foxe provides an account of Bradford's ordination and early career under Edward. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1520, 1583, pp. 1603-04.

He was deprived under Mary. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1520, 1583, p. 1604.

On 13 August 1553 Bradford saved Bishop Bourne from a riotous crowd when the bishop preached at Paul's Cross. (1563, pp. 904-5, 1173; 1570, pp. 1570, 1780; 1576, pp. 1339, 1520; and 1583, pp. 1497 (recte 1409), 1604).

One Sunday Bradford preached at the St Mary le Bow Church in Cheapside, reproving people for their 'sedicious misdeamenour'. He was accused of sedition in 1553 and committed to the Tower. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford was committed to the Tower by the privy council on 16 August 1553 together with Thomas Becon and 'M. Vernon' [Jean Veron], (1583, p 1497, (recte 1409)). Another mention of Bradford being sent to the Tower, together with Veron and Becon, on 16 August 1553 is in 1570, p. 1634; 1576, p 1395; 1583, p. 1465.

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He was sent to the King's Bench in Southwark and later to the Counter, Poultry Street, London. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Rowland Taylor was imprisoned with him in the King's Bench. Taylor told his friends that Bradford was an angel of God sent to comfort him (1563, p. 1570; 1570, p. 1696; 1576, p. 1448; 1583, p. 1521).

In a letter William Tyms wrote to 'God's faithful servants', he named his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench as Robert Ferrar, Rowland Taylor, John Philpot, John Bradford and five other Sussex men. 1570, p. 2082, 1576, p. 1795, 1583, p. 1902.

Bradford became ill whilst incarcerated. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

He received the sacrament whilst incarcerated. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Foxe gives an account of Bradford's character and behaviour. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford was generous with his money towards fellow prisoners. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Foxe describes the conditions of Bradford's imprisonment. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Ridley reported to Cranmer, in a letter written in the aftermath of the Oxford disputations in April 1554, that Crome, Rogers and Bradford would be taken to Cambridge for a disputation on similar lines to that held in Oxford (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p 1394; 1583, p. 1464; not in LM). It was rumored in May 1554 that Bradford, Saunders and John Rogers would be in a disputation to be held at Cambridge (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p 1399; 1583, p. 1469). Bradford was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71.

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On 6 May 1554, John Hooper sent Robert Ferrar, John Philpot, John Bradford and Rowland Taylor a letter discussing a proposed disputation in Cambridge in which they would represent the protestants. 1570, p. 1687; 1576, p. 1440; 1583, p. 1513.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to him and his fellow prisoners Robert Ferrar, John Philpot and Rowland Taylor (1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500).

Ferrar would have taken the sacrament if not for Bradford's intervention. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford's final days and execution are described. 1563, p. 1174-75, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, pp. 1521-22, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford was examined after the lord chancellor and his commission had finished their talk with Ferrar. 1563, p. 1185, 1570, p. 1782, 1576, p. 1522, 1583, p. 1605.

Bradford was brought to speak to Bonner by the under-marshal of the King's Bench. Talk and communication took place between the lord chancellor, Bonner and John Bradford on 22 January 1555, during which the bishop of Durham, Sir Richard Southwell, Sir Robert Rochester, and Secretary Bourne questioned Bradford's eucharistic doctrine. 1563, pp. 1185-88, 1570, pp. 1782-84, 1576, pp. 1522-23, 1583, pp. 1605-06.

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Secretary Bourne declared that Bradford had caused much trouble with letters, as had been reported to him by the earl of Derby. 1563, p. 1186, 1570, p. 1783, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

Bourne asked Bradford if the letters were seditious, but Bradford claimed they were not. 1563, p. 1187, 1570, p. 1783, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

The bishop of Worcester was present at this examination. 1563, p. 1187, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

The under-marshall was called to take watch over Bradford and was told to make sure that Bradford wrote no letters. 1563, p. 1187, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

Bradford was examined on 29 January 1555 before Bonner. 1563, pp. 1185-92, 1570, pp. 1782-87, 1576, pp. 1524-26, 1583, pp. 1607-09.

Thomas Hussey met Bradford and spoke with him after his first examination. He told him that he could organise an escape for him, and that all those who had witnessed the examination could see that they had not reason to hold Bradford, yet Bradford did not want any assistance. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1525, 1583, p. 1609.

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During the conversation between Hussey and Bradford, Doctor Seton entered the room, and spoke a 'long sermon of my Lord Canterbury, M. Latimer, and M, Ridley'. He acknowledged that Latimer and Ridley were not able to answer anything at all at their examinations, and that Canterbury desired to confer with Durham and others, saying that Bradford should make a like suit, to which Seton received no agreement from Bradford. Seton berated Bradford for his attitude, and claimed that Bonner could be charitable. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

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Bradford was brought before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Overy's on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

Bradford's second examination took place directly after the excommunication of John Rogers. 1563, pp. 1185, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

Gardiner told Bradford that he would be handed over to the secular authorities if he did not follow the example of Barlow and Cardmaker. 1563, p. 1188, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

During Bradford's second examination, Doctor Seton described Ridley and Latimer as being unable to answer anything at all at their examinations. 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1607.

Gardiner spoke on the subject of Bradford's allegedly seditious letters, referring to a report given by the earl of Derby. Bradford claimed that he had been denied paper, pen and ink. 1563, p. 1190, 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1525, 1583, p. 1609.

Bradford was taken to St Mary Overyes church and stayed there until early morning after his second examination. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1787, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

Bradford's last examination took place directly after the excommunication of Laurence Saunders. 1563, pp. 1192, 1195, 1570, p. 1787, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

Mr Chamberlaine told Gardiner that Bradford had served Harrington, to which Gardiner answered that Bradford deceived Harrington out of ?7, and claimed that this was why Bradford left his service. Bradford said this was slanderous. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1788, 1576, p. 1527, 1583, p. 1610.

The bishop of London referred to Bradford's letter to Mr Pendleton as proof of his heresy. A clerk named Allen then reminded Gardiner of Bradford's letters to Lancashire. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1788, 1576, p. 1527, 1583, p. 1610.

Bradford and Gardiner debated transubstantiation and Bradford denied Christ's presence in the bread and wine. The bishops and council discussed Luther, Zwingli and Oecolampadius. A bishop asked Bradford if he received Christ's body to which he said that he did not. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1789, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1611.

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In his last examination Bradford was also questioned by the bishop of Worcester. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1789, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1611.

Gardiner excommunicated Bradford. 1563, p. 1198, 1570, p. 1789, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1611.

He was excommunicated and sentenced to death by Stephen Gardiner on 30 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p 1412; 1583, p. 1483; also see 1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1450; 1583, pp. 1523-24).

Bradford was handed over to the sheriff of London and taken to the Clink. He was then taken to the Counter in the Poultry, and it was intended that he be handed to the earl of Derby and burned in Manchester, but these original plans were altered and he was burned in London. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, pp. 1789-90, 1576, p. 1528,1583, p. 1611.

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On 4 February 1555, after the condemnation of Bradford, Bonner went to the Counter to degrade Master Taylor but spoke to Bradford first. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1612.

Rowland Taylor told Bradford that he threatened to strike Bishop Bonner as he (Taylor) was being degraded (1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1451; 1583, p. 1524).

On 4 February 1555 Bonner took Harpsfield to speak with John Bradford, who was imprisoned after his excommunication. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1612.

In February 1555 Willerton, a chaplain to Bishop Bonner, went to speak with John Bradford in prison. They discussed the doctors and scripture and agreed that each would write down his own arguments over transubstantiation. Willerton sent his few sparse answers to Bradford the next morning and went to see him in the afternoon. They discussed whether or not the scriptures should be in the vernacular. Bradford gave Willerton his answers on transubstantiation and told Willerton to form his answers as reasons. 1563, pp. 1199-1200. Willerton was with Creswell, Harding, Harpsfield and others. 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1612.

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On 12 February 1555 a servant of the earl of Derby went to see Bradford in prison. He asked Bradford to tender himself, and what his answer would be if Derby petitioned the queen to have Bradford sent overseas. Bradford refused, as he believed he would only end up being burned in Paris or Louvain, instead of in England, which was where he wished to die. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, p. 1612.

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On 14 February 1555 Percival Creswell, an old acqauintance of Bradford's, went to visit Bradford in prison. He offered to make suit for Bradford. He returned later, at 11 o'clock, with another man and gave Bradford a book by More, desiring him to read it. He told Bradford that the lords of York, Lincoln and Bath wished to speak with him. Then at 3 o'clock the same day, Dr Harding, the bishop of Lincoln's chaplain, went to see Bradford in prison. Harding talked of his fear for Bradford's soul, and that he himself had spoke against Peter Martir, Martin Bucer, Luther and others for their beliefs. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, pp. 1790-91, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, pp. 1612-13.

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On 15 February 1555 Percival Cresswell and another man went to see Bradford once more. Harspfield discussed with Bradford the way to enter the kingdom of heaven and also baptism. 1563, pp. 1200-01. In 1570 the date is given as 25 February. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, p. 1791, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, p. 1613.

On 16 February 1555 John Harpsfield and two others went to see Bradford in prison, to defend the line of bishops in the catholic church. Bradford refuted the argument. 1563, pp. 1202-03, 1570, pp. 1792-93, 1576, pp. 1530-31, 1583, pp. 1614-15.

On 23 February 1555 the archbishop of York (Nicholas Heath) and the bishop of Chichester (George Day) went to the Counter to speak with Bradford. 1563, pp. 1204-08, 1570, pp. 1794-97, 1576, pp. 1532-34, 1583, pp. 1615-17.

Bradford was asked by Heath and Day to read a book that did Dr Crome good. 1563, p. 1208, 1570, p. 1797, 1576, 1524, 1583, p. 1617.

On 25 February , at about 8am, two Spanish friars visited Bradford in the Counter. One of them was the king's confessor, the other was Alphonsus, who had written against heresies. Their conversation was held in Latin. 1563, pp. 1208-11, 1570, pp. 1797-98, 1576, pp. 1534-36, 1583, pp. 1617-19.

On 25 February, at about 5pm, Master Weston visited Bradford and asked to speak with him in private. When the two men were alone, Weston thanked Bradford for his writings to him and then produced the work that Bradford had sent him. It was entitled, 'Certayne reasons againste Transubstantiation gathered by John Bradforde, and geuen to Doctour weston and others'. 1563, p. 1212. They discussed transubstantiation. 1563, pp. 1211-12, 1570, pp. 1801-02. [Note that in 1570 this meeting is dated as the afternoon of 28 March. 1570, p. 1800.]

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On 21 March 1555 Bradford talked with Dr Weston, after being told of Weston's intention to visit by the earl of Derby's servant (when master Collier, warden of Manchester, had come to dinner at the Counter). 1576, p. 1536. Bradford and Weston spoke to each other in the presence of Master Collier, the earl of Derby's servant, the subdean of Westminster, the keeper (Master Clayden), and others. 1570, pp. 1799-80, 1576, pp. 1536-37, 1583, pp. 1619-20.

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Bradford wrote his religious convictions down for Weston, and on or around 28 March 1555 Dr Pendleton, Master Colier (sometime warden of Manchester) and Stephen Beche visited Bradford in the Counter. 1563, p. 1213, 1570, p. 1800, 1576, p. 1537, 1583, p. 1620.

Bradford questioned Pendleton as to why Pendleton changed his religion. 1563, pp. 1213-14, 1570, p. 1800, 1576, p. 1537, 1583, p. 1620.

Foxe states that he omitted the talk that Bradford and Pendleton had of 'my lord of Canterbury, of Peter Martirs boke, of Pendleto[n']s letter laid to Bradford.' 1563, p. 1214, 1570, p. 1800, 1576, p. 1537, 1583, p. 1620.

Bradford's reasons against transubstantiation were given to Weston and others. 1563, pp. 1211-12, 1570, pp. 1800-01, 1576, pp. 1537-38, 1583, pp. 1620-21.

Weston told Bradford of what he had done for Grimald, who had subscribed. 1563, p. 1212, 1570, p. 1801, 1576, p. 1538, 1583, p. 1621.

On 5 April, at 2pm, Weston went to visit Bradford in the Counter. Weston had not visited him earlier due to ill health and also because he had been busy withstanding monks from entering Westminster. He also thought that Pendleton would be coming to see him. Weston told Bradford that the pope was dead and that Weston had petitioned the queen and so thought that death would not come to Bradford soon. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, pp. 1538-39, 1583, pp. 1621-22.

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As Weston left Bradford on 5 April, he sent for Master Weale. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

After Weston left Bradford on 5 April, the keeper, Master Claydon, and Steven Bech came to Bradford and spoke unkindly to him even though they had hitherto appeared to be friendly to him. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, pp. 1538-39, 1583, pp. 1621-22.

Bradford spoke to the servant of an unnamed gentlewoman, misused by her family for not going mass, who visited Bradford while he was in prison. [Note that Foxe says that the gentlewoman is still alive and so does not give her name, but simply records the conversation between the servant and Bradford.] 1570, pp. 1802-03, 1576, pp. 1539-40, 1583, pp. 1622-23.

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Bradford told the servant of the unnamed gentlewoman that he had read the work of Friar Fonse. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

The servant of the unnamed gentlewoman gave Bradford greetings from Cardmaker. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

The servant of the unnamed gentlewoman told Bradford that she saw a priest come to him in the morning and Bradford told her that he had brought a letter from a friar, to which he was replying. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

Rowland Tayor joked to Bradford as he was about to be led away to execution (1563, p. 1080; 1570, p. 1703; 1576, p. 1454; 1583, p. 1527).

Foxe describes Bradford's behaviour at his burning at Smithfield. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, pp. 1804-05, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

Sheriff Woodruff chided Bradford at his burning. When Woodruff went home after the burning of John Bradford, he became paralysed in his legs and arms. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, pp. 1804-05, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1624.

Bradford sent Anne Smith money. 1563, pp. 1266-7, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

He was described as a faithful witness of Christ by Robert Glover in a letter to his wife.1563, pp. 1273-80, 1570, p. 1886-89, 1576, pp. 1615-19, 1583, pp. 1710-12.

Bradford was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking them for a chance to debate the rectitude of the Edwardian religious reforms. The petition is printed in 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483.

Bradford's letter to John Treves, dated February 1548. [BL Harley 416, fos.33r-34r. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Bradford's letter to John Treves, dated Christmas 1549. [BL, Harley 416, fo.37v. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Bradford's letter to an unnamed gentleman or noble, written during Lent 1549. [BL Harley 416, fo.37r. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Letters of Bradford: 1563, pp. 1176-85, 1570, pp. 1805-40, 1576, pp. 1541-75, 1583, pp. 1624-64.

Ridley and his fellow prisoners sent a letter to Bradford and his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench. 1563, pp. 1894-95, 1570, pp. 1896-97, 1576, pp. 1624, 1583, pp. 1724-25.

Ridley wrote a letter to Bradford. 1563, p. 1295, 1570, p. 1897, 1576, pp. 1624-25, 1583, p. 1725.

Ridley wrote a letter to Bradford and his fellow prisoners, in which Ridley spoke of his love for Taylor. The bearer of the letter to Bradford was Punt, who also carried Hooper's letters. 1570, pp. 1897-98, 1576, pp. 1625-26, 1583, p. 1725.

Another letter was written by Ridley to Bradford. 1570, p. 1898, 1576, p. 1626, 1583, p. 1726.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. He mentioned his imprisonment with Cranmer, Latimer and Bradford. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

Foxe includes Ridley's lamentation for a change in religion, in which he makes reference to Latimer, Lever, Bradford and Knox, as well as Cranmer and their part in the duke of Somerset's cause. 1570, pp. 1945-50, 1576, pp. 1670-78, 1583, pp. 1778-1784.

Bradford received a letter from John Careless. 1570, pp. 2104-05, 1576, pp. 1815-16, 1583, p. 1922-23.

Bradford wrote a letter to Careless. 1570, p. 2105, 1576, p. 1816, 1583, p. 1923.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Moreman

(1490? - 1554)

D.D., vicar of Menheniot, Cornwall; nominated to the deanery of Exeter but he died before presentation. He was a major figure in the diocese of Exeter (see DNB)

John Moreman was one of the champions of catholic doctrine in the disputes in the 1553 convocation; he debated with John Aylmer, John Philpot and Walter Phillips there (1563, pp. 907-09, 912 and 915-16; 1570, pp. 1572-74, 1576 and 1578; 1576, pp. 1341-42, 1344 and 1346-47; 1583, pp. 1411-12, 1414 and 1417).

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Ridley reported, in a letter to Cranmer written in the aftermath of the Oxford disputations in April 1554, that Moreman had persuaded Sir James Hales to recant (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1464).

Foxe describes Moreman as coadjutor to John Veysey, the bishop of Exeter and then Veysey?s successor (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1467). The last is inaccurate but the DNB suggests that Moreman was nominated dean of Exeter but died before he could take up the post.

 
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John Rogers

(1500? - 1555) (DNB)

Martyr.

Foxe describes Rogers' life and career. 1563, pp. 1022-23; 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1484.

John Rogers preached a sermon at Paul's Cross on 6 August 1553 denouncing 'popery', for which he was placed under arrest. 1563, p. 1023; 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1484. [NB: This contradicts the next two entries].

On 13 August 1553 Gilbert Bourne (Marian bishop of Bath and Wells) preached a sermon at Paul's Cross, praising Bonner and criticising Edward VI. This sermon incited a fanatic to throw a dagger at him and enraged the mob. John Rogers and John Bradford escorted Bourne to safety (1563, p. 905; 1570, p. 1570; 1576, p. 1339; and 1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]. The story is in Rerum, pp. 464-65, but Rogers is not mentioned in that version).

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On 16 August 1553, Rogers was placed under house arrest by the privy council (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

He was committed to Newgate on 26 January 1554 (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

Ridley reported to Cranmer, in a letter written in the aftermath of the Oxford disputations in April 1554, that Crome, Rogers and Bradford would be taken to Cambridge for a disputation on similar lines to that held in Oxford (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1464).

It was rumoured in May 1554 that Rogers, together with Bradford and Saunders, would take part in a disputation to be held in Cambridge (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

Rogers was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71).

He was summoned before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Overies on 28 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

Rogers' examination took place on 29 January 1555. [BL Harley 421, fos.40r-41r. Not printed in Acts and Monuments or Letters of the Martyrs but mentioned in 1563, p. 1029 et seq.]

Bradford's second examination took place on 29 January 1555, directly after the excommunication of John Rogers. 1563, pp. 1188-92, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

He was excommunicated and condemned to death by Stephen Gardiner on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

His examination and condemnation: 1563, pp. 1026-31; 1570, pp. 1656-62; 1576, pp. 1414-19; 1583, pp. 1484-89. He was examined and condemned with John Hooper on. 1563, p. 1056; 1570, p. 1680; 1576, pp. 1433-34; 1583, p. 1507.

Rogers was degraded, with John Hooper, on 4 February 1555. 1563, pp. 1057-58; 1570, p. 1681; 1576, pp. 1434-35; 1583, p. 1508.

Rogers' martyrdom is described. 1563, pp. 1036-37; 1570, pp. 1663-64; 1576, pp. 1419-20; 1583, pp. 1492-93.

When examined by Bonner, John Leafe (who was burned with John Bradford) denied transubstantiation and admitted to being a scholar of John Rogers, and that he believed in the doctrine of Rogers, Hooper and Cardmaker. 1563, p. 1214, 1570, p. 1804, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

In a letter to his mother and others, John Bradford asked that Rogers be remembered. 1570, pp. 1805-06,1576, pp. 1541-42, 1583, p. 1624.

John Rogers' martyrdom was referred to in Bradford's letter to the university town of Cambridge. 1563, pp. 1178-80, 1570, pp. 1808-09., 1576, p. 1545, 1583, p. 1627.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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His other writings: (1563, pp. 1031-36; 1570, p. 1663; 1576, p. 1419; 1583, pp. 1489-92).

Rogers was involved in the debate over the clerical wearing of caps. 1563, p. 1732.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir James Hales

(d. 1554)

Judge of the Common Pleas (1547 - 1553) (DNB); father-in-law of Joyce Hales

Sir James Hales is mentioned as opposing the Act proclaiming Lady Jane Grey as heir to Edward VI and is characterised as both 'favouringe true religion' and 'as upright a Iudge as any was in this realme' (1563, p. 901; 1570, p. 1567; 1576, p. 1336; and 1583, p. 1406).

Hales' exemplary character and piety described (1563, pp. 1113-14).

A brief account of how Hales upheld the statutes passed in Edward's reign against the establishing of altars and the Mass, was imprisoned and attempted suicide (1563, p. 905; 1570, p. 1571; 1576, pp. 1339-40; and 1583, p. 1410; also see 1563, p. 1114).

After Hales had enforced the Edwardian statues in Kent in the summer of 1553, he came to Westminster at the beginning of the legal term in October 1553 to be sworn in as a justice. Lord Chancellor Stephen Gardiner refused to administer the oath to him unless he abjured. Hales refused. He was arrested soon after. While imprisoned, George Day, William Portman and one Foster sought to persuade him to recant (1563, pp. 1114-15; 1570, pp. 1708-9; 1576, p. 1458; 1583, p. 1532).

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A notice that Hales was committed to the Marshalsea appears in 1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

Hales attempted to commit suicide in prison. Afterward, in April 1554, he was released (1563, p. 1115; 1570, p. 1709; 1576, p. 1459; 1583, p. 1533).

Ridley reported, in a letter to Cranmer, written in the aftermath of the Oxford disputations in April 1554, that John Moreman had persuaded Sir James Hales to recant (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1464).

Hales succeeded in killing himself (1563, p. 1115; 1570, p. 1709; 1576, p. 1459; 1583, p. 1533).

Foxe defends Hales' character and suicide (1563, pp. 1116-17; 1570, p. 1709; 1576, p. 1459; 1583, p. 1533).

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir Richard Morgan

(d. 1556)

Chief Justice of the Common Pleas; Privy Councillor (DNB; Bindoff, Commons)

Sir Richard Morgan was on the commission which tried Lady Jane Grey. According to Foxe, he fell mad as a providential punishment for judging Lady Jane Grey. This is in Foxe's section on the providential punishment of persecutors. (1563, p. 1704; 1570, p. 2298; 1576, p. 1990; and 1583, p. 2099).

In a more elaborate version of the story, which appears in the narrative of Jane Grey's martyrdom, Morgan fell mad and in his raving 'cried out continually to have the Lady Jane taken away from hym, and so ended his life' (1570, p. 1585; 1576, p. 1352; and 1583, p. 1423).

Ridley reported in a letter to Cranmer written in the aftermath of the Oxford Disputations of April 1554, that Morgan had gone mad (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1464).

[NB: Interestingly, this story may have had some foundation in fact; see Bindoff, Commons].

Foxe appended a marginal note to Ridley's comment, tying Morgan's madness to his condemning Lady Jane Grey to death: 'Thys Justice Morgan gave sentence agaynst Lady Jane', (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1464).

Morgan was on the commission which deprived John Hooper of his bishoprics; during the deprivationMorgan upbraided Hooper for his punishments of religious offenders while he had been Bishop of Gloucester (1563, pp. 1054-55; 1570, pp. 1678-79; 1576, pp. 1432-33; 1583, p. 1605).

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Spenser

Hugh Latimer, in Oxford in 1554, turned and ran rather than gaze at a religious procession led by Hugh Weston. He ran as far as ?one Spensers shop? (1563, p. 936; 1570, 1633, 1576, 1393; 1583, 1464).

[NB: This has been identified as a shop belonging to William Spenser the elder, a prosperous Oxford cordwainer who held several properties in the centre of Oxford. See Carl I. Hammer, ?The Oxford Martyrs in Oxford; The Local History of their Confinements and their Keepers?, Journal of Ecclesiastical History 50 (1999), p. 237].

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1488 [1464]

Queene Mary. Letters of Doctour Cranmer, and Maister Ridley.

MarginaliaAnno 1554. Aprill.the iust iudgement of God almighty, trusting to be present wyth him in heauen, for whose presence in the altare, I am thus condemned.

Doctour Ridley. Although I be not of your companye, yet doubte not I but my name is wrytten in an other place, whether thys sentence wil sende vs sooner, then we shoulde by the course of nature haue come.

Doctour Ridley. I thanke God most hartily, that he hath prolonged my life to this end, that I may in this case glorify God by that kinde of death.

Doctor Westons answere vnto Latimer.

If you goe to heauen in thys faith, then will I neuer come thither, as I am thus perswaded. MarginaliaWeston geueth sentence against himselfe.

MarginaliaThe Archb. and his fellow prisoners separated.After the sentence pronounced, they were separated one from the other, videlicet, the Archbishop was retourned to Bocardo, 

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, 534, fn 2

A prison so called. - ED.

Appendix:"The north gate of the city remembered in St. Frid's Days an. 700 and before ... in after time fell into the hands of the mayor and bailiffs, who made it a common prison." (Peshall's Account of Oxford, pp. 197-8).

D. Ridley was caried to the sheriffes house, master Latimer to the Bailiffes.

On Saterday following, they had a Masse with a generall procession and great solemnitie. Doctor Cranmer was caused to beholde the Procession oute of Bocardo, Doctour Ridley out of the Sheriffes house. Latimer also being brought to see it, from the Bayliffes house, thoughte that he should haue gone to burning, and spake to one Augustine Cooper a Catchpoll, to make a quicke fire. But when he came to Karfox, 

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, 534, fn 3

The market-place, "Quadrivium" in Latin. - ED.

and sawe the matter, he rannes as fast as his olde bones would carrie him, to one Spensers shop, and would not looke towardes it. Last of all, D. Weston caried the sacrament, and foure doctors caried the Canapie ouer him.

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Immediately after the sentence was geuen, D. Ridley wryteth to the Prolocutor, in maner, as foloweth.

Doctor Ridley to the Prolocutor. 
Commentary  *  Close

After adding a transitional sentence (textual variant 71), Foxe transposed Ridley's letter to Weston, which also protested the unfairness of the disputations, from after Ridley's disputation, to follow all the disputations. Foxe divided this letter into two parts (see textual transposition 18 and textual transposition 19). Between the two sections of the letter, Foxe interposed an account of Weston's having opened a letter which Cranmer had sent to Privy Council, his reading it and refusing to deliver it (textual variant 73). (This is based on material in Guildhall MS 9531/12, fol. 339r; a copy of this letter, in Matthew Parker's handwriting is Harley 422, fol. 46r-v). Foxe's insertion of this story in the letter gives the impression that there were two letters. The reason for this unusual editing is that Foxe apparently wanted the description of Weston's 'treachery' to precede Ridley's demand in the conclusion of his letter, that Weston exhibit this letter, as well as Ridley's written answers to the articles of disputation to Convocation. In this process, a few lines of the letter were (inadvertently?) omitted (see textual variant 72).

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MarginaliaD. Ridleyes letter to the prolocutor. MAister Prolocutor, you remember, I am sure, howe you promised me openly in the schooles, after my protestation, that I should see howe my answeares were there taken and wrytten of the Notaries whom ye appoynted, (me fateor neminem recusare) to wryte what should be sayd, and to haue had licence for to haue added vnto them, or to haue altered them, as vpon more deliberation should haue seemed me best. Ye graūted me also at the deliuery of my aunswere vnto your first proposition, a copie of the same: these promises are not performed. MarginaliaPapistes haue small conscience in performing promises. If your sodaine departure be any part of the cause therof, yet I pray you remember that they may be perfourmed: for performaunce of promise is to be looked for at a righteous Iudges handes. Nowe I send you here my aunsweres in wryting, to your second and third propositions, & doe desire and require earnestly a copie of the same, & I shal by Gods grace procure the paines of the wryter to be paid for and satisfied accordingly. Maister Prolocutor, in the time of my aunswearing in the Scholes, when I would haue cōfirmed my sayings with authorities and reasons, ye said then openly, that I should haue time and place to say and bring whatsoeuer I could an other time, and the same your saying was then there confirmed of other of the Commissioners: yea, and (I dare say) the audience also thoughte then that I shoulde haue had an other daye, to haue broughte and sayde what I coulde for the declaration and confirmation of mine assertions. Nowe that this was not done, but so sodainly sentence geuen before the cause was perfectly heard, I canne not but maruaile. &c.  

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, 534, fn 4

{Cattley/Pratt finishes the paragraph with: 'at it all; and the due reformation of all things which are amiss, I commit to Almighty God my heavenly Father, who, by his dear Son our Saviour Jesus Christ whom he hath made the universal judge of all flesh, shall truly and righteously judge both you and me.'} This letter and the next are given according to the Edition of 1563, page 977, except that they are there exhibited as one letter. - ED.

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MarginaliaAprill. 13.On Monday next ensuing, after these things done and past, being the xxiij. of the sayde moneth of Aprill, 

Commentary  *  Close

After adding a transitional sentence (textual variant 71), Foxe transposed Ridley's letter to Weston, which also protested the unfairness of the disputations, from after Ridley's disputation, to follow all the disputations. Foxe divided this letter into two parts (see textual transposition 18 and textual transposition 19). Between the two sections of the letter, Foxe interposed an account of Weston's having opened a letter which Cranmer had sent to Privy Council, his reading it and refusing to deliver it (textual variant 73). (This is based on material in Guildhall MS 9531/12, fol. 339r; a copy of this letter, in Matthew Parker's handwriting is Harley 422, fol. 46r-v). Foxe's insertion of this story in the letter gives the impression that there were two letters. The reason for this unusual editing is that Foxe apparently wanted the description of Weston's 'treachery' to precede Ridley's demand in the conclusion of his letter, that Weston exhibit this letter, as well as Ridley's written answers to the articles of disputation to Convocation. In this process, a few lines of the letter were (inadvertently?) omitted (see textual variant 72).

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D. Weston Prolocutor tooke his iourney vp to London, 
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix, ref. page 535, line 11

The following extract from the Convocation and Bonner Registers is in Wilkins, iv. p. 94: "Vicesimo septimo ejusdem mensis (post diversas continuationes, in quibus nihil actum est memoratu dignum) post aliquales tractatus et colloquia de reformatione status cleri in convocatione habita, comparuerunt in domo capitulari S. Pauli London. prolocutor et alii doctores, viz. theologiæ professores et legum utriusque universitatis nuper ad universitatem Oxoniæ destinati, et præsentaverunt processum super examinatione Thomæ Cranmer, Nicolai Ridley, et Hugonis Latymer per eosdem doctores ex speciali commissione eis directa habit. et fact. sub sigillo universitatis Oxon. ac subscriptione notariorum publicorum una cum quibusdam aliis scriptis."

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with the letters certificatorie from þe vniuersitie vnto the Queene, by whome the Archb. of Cant. directed his letters supplicatorie vnto the Counsaile. The whych letters after the Prolocutor had receiued, & had caried them welneare halfe way to London, by the way he opened the same, and seeing the contentes thereof, sente them backe againe, refusing to carie them. &c. Likewise Bishoppe Ridley, hearing of the Prolocutors going to London, writeth to him his letters, wherin he desireth him to cary his answers vp to certaine Bishops in London, the forme of which letters, first of D. Ridley, then of the Archb. and lastly an other letter of D. Ridley to the Archbishop, here in order foloweth.

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A letter of B. Ridley to the Prolocutor.  
Commentary  *  Close

After adding a transitional sentence (textual variant 71), Foxe transposed Ridley's letter to Weston, which also protested the unfairness of the disputations, from after Ridley's disputation, to follow all the disputations. Foxe divided this letter into two parts (see textual transposition 18 and textual transposition 19). Between the two sections of the letter, Foxe interposed an account of Weston's having opened a letter which Cranmer had sent to Privy Council, his reading it and refusing to deliver it (textual variant 73). (This is based on material in Guildhall MS 9531/12, fol. 339r; a copy of this letter, in Matthew Parker's handwriting is Harley 422, fol. 46r-v). Foxe's insertion of this story in the letter gives the impression that there were two letters. The reason for this unusual editing is that Foxe apparently wanted the description of Weston's 'treachery' to precede Ridley's demand in the conclusion of his letter, that Weston exhibit this letter, as well as Ridley's written answers to the articles of disputation to Convocation. In this process, a few lines of the letter were (inadvertently?) omitted (see textual variant 72).

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MAister Prolocutour, I desire you, and in Gods name require you, that you truely bring forth and shew al mine answers,  

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix, ref. page 535, line 25

{Cattley/Pratt alters the text from 'al mine answers' to 'all my three answers'.} "All my three answers" is the reading in the first edition, the later ones read "all mine answers; "now," four lines lower, is from the same source.

wrytten and subscribed with mine owne hande, vnto the higher house of the Conuocation, and specially to my L. Chauncelor, my Lordes of Duresme, Ely, Worcester, Norwich and Chichester, and also to shewe and exhibite this my wryting vnto them, whyche in

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these fewe lines heere I wryte vnto you: and that I did make thys request vnto you by this my wryting, know ye that I did take witnesse of them by whome I did send you this wryting, and also of those whiche were then with them present, videlicet, the two Bailiffes of Oxforde, and of master Irishe Alderman, then there called to be a witnesse.

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By me Nicholas Ridley
23. of April, An. 1554.

The copie of the Archb. of Canterb. letters to the Counsaile, sent by Doctour Weston, who refused to deliuer them.  
Commentary  *  Close

Foxe inserted the letter which Cranmer wrote and which Weston failed to deliver, together with a letter from Ridley to Cranmer (See textual variant 73). Cranmer's letter was first printed by Henry Bull in LM, pp. 16-17 and was presumably uncovered by Bull's research. (This would suggest that copies of the letter circulated among the Marian protestants, as Bull had no access to Privy Council records. A copy of the letter, made by Bull, is ECL MS 260, fol. 15r).

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Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix, ref. page 535, line 34

Dr. Jenkyns has printed another copy of Cranmer's Letter to the Council from the Emmanuel Library at Cambridge,which differs considerably from Foxe's, but very little from that in Coverdale's "Letters of the Martyrs." ("Cranmer's Remain," i. p. 365.)

MarginaliaThe Archb. writeth to the Counsell. IN right humble wise sheweth vnto your honourable Lordships, Thomas Cranmer late Archbishop of Canterburie, beseeching the same to be a meanes for mee vnto the Queenes highnesse for her mercy and pardon. Some of you knowe by what meanes I was broughte and trained vnto the will of oure late soueraigne Lorde king Edwarde the sixte, and what I spake against the same, wherein I referre me to the reportes of your honoures and woorships. Furthermore, this is to signifie vnto your Lordshippes, that vpon Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday last past, were open disputations heere in Oxforde against me, maister Ridley, and maister Latimer, in three matters concerning the Sacrament: First of the reall presence, secondly of Transubstātiation, & thirdly of the sacrifice of the Masse: vpon Monday against me, vpon Tuesday against Doctour Ridley, and vppon Wednesday against maister Latimer. Howe the other two were ordered, I knowe not, for we were seperated, so that none of vs knoweth what the other sayd, nor how they were ordered. But as concerning my selfe I can report. Doctour Chadsey was appoynted to dispute against me, but the disputation was so confused, that I neuer knewe the like, euery man bringing foorth what him liked, without order, and such hast was made, that MarginaliaThe Archb. not suffered to aunswere fully to any argument. no aunsweare coulde be suffered ro be taken fully to any argument: and in suche waightie matters the disputation must needes be ended in one day, which can scantly well be ended in three moneths. And when we had answeared them, they woulde not appoynte vs one day to bring foorth our proofes, that they might answeare vs, being required by me thereunto, whereas I my selfe haue more to say, then can be well discussed, as I suppose in twentie dayes. The meanes to resolue the truth, had bene to haue suffered vs to aunsweare fully to all that they coulde say, and then they again to answeare vs fully to all that we can say. But why they woulde not answeare vs, what other cause can there be, but that either they feared their matter, that they were not able to answere vs, or else for some consideration they made such hast, not to seke the truth, but to condemne vs, that it must be done in poast haste before the matters coulde be throughly heard: MarginaliaHast made in condemning the Archb. and hys fellowes. for in all haste we were all 3. condemned of heresie. Thus much I thought good to signifie vnto your Lordshippes, that you may knowe the indifferent handlinge of matters, leauing the iudgement thereof vnto your wisedomes. And I beseeche your Lordships to remember me a poore prisoner vnto the Queenes Maiestie, and I shall pray as I doe daily, vnto God for the long preseruation of your good Lordshippes in all godlinesse and felicitie. April. 23.

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Doctour Ridley to the Archbishop of Caunterburie.  
Commentary  *  Close

The source for the letter from Ridley to Cranmer is problematic; this letter is not in the Rerum, 1563 or in LM. A possible source was Cranmer's family; Thomas Norton, Cranmer's son-in-law, was Foxe's friend.

MarginaliaB. Ridley writeth to the archbishop. I Wishe ye might haue seene these mine answeares before I had deliuered them, þt yee myght haue corrected them. But I truste in the substaunce of the matter wee doe agree fully, both led by one spirite of truth, and both walking after one rule of Gods woorde. It is reported that Sergeant Morgane, MarginaliaThis Iustice Morgan gaue sentence against Lady Iane.the chiefe Iustice of the Common place is gone madde. It is sayde also that Iustice Hales hath recanted, peruerted by D. Moreman. Item, that M. Rogers, D. Crome, and M. Bradforde shall be had to Cambridge, MarginaliaDisputation in Cambridge intended.and there be disputed with, as we were here, and that the Doctours of Oxforde shall goe likewise thither, as Cambridge men came hither. When ye haue red mine answeares, sende thē againe to Austen, except ye wil put any thing to them. I trust the day of oure deliuerie out of all miseries, and of our entrance into perpetuall rest, and vnto perpetuall ioye and felicitie draweth nie: the Lorde strengthe vs wyth hys mighty spirite of grace. If you haue not to wryte with, you must make your man your frende. And this bearer deserueth to be rewarded, so he may and will doe you pleasure. My man is trustie, but it greeueth both him and mee, that when I sende hym with any thing to you, your man will not let him come vp to see you, as he maye to M. Latimer, and yours to me. I haue a promise to see how my answers were wrytten in the schooles, but as yet I cannot come by it. Praye for me, I pray for you, and so shall I for you. The Lord haue mercy of his church, and lighten the eyes of the magistrates, that Gods extreme plagues light not on this realme of England. MarginaliaTurne, or burne.

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