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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Ambrose Dudley

(1528? - 1590)

Third son of the Duke of Northumberland; Earl of Warwick (1561–90) (DNB)

Put in the Tower with Northumberland 25 July 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

Released from the Tower on 18 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1482).

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Cuthbert Vaughan

Released from the Tower on 18 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1482).

Foxe does not state why Vaughan was imprisoned, but Vaughan was one of the leaders of Wyatt's rebellion. (See D. M. Loades, Two Tudor Conspiracies (Cambridge, 1965), pp. 74, 81-82 and 109-10).

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Henry Dudley

(d. 1555) [See DNB under Dudley, John] Second son of the Duke of Northumberland

Put in Tower with Northumberland 25 July 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

Released from the Tower on 18 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1482).

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
James Gorge

(d. 1555)

Foxe states that a ?James Gorge? died in prison and that he was buried in the fields (1563, p. 1022; 1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1482).

[NB: Foxe calls him ?James George? in the 1576 and 1583 editions.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Hooper

(d. 1555)

Bishop of Gloucester and Worcester. Martyr. (DNB)

Foxe recounts Hooper's life and career before becoming a bishop (1563, pp. 1049-50; 1570, pp. 1674-76; 1576, pp. 1429-1403 [recte 1430]; 1583, pp. 1502-3).

Hooper refused to wear vestments at his consecration and was consequently imprisoned. Ultimately he made a qualified submission (1563, pp. 1050-52; 1570, pp. 1676-77; 1576, pp. 1403 [recte 1430]-31; 1583, pp. 1503-5).

Foxe relates his conduct as bishop (1563, pp. 1052-53; 1570, pp. 1677-78; 1576, pp 1431-32; 1583, p. 1505).

Hooper was summoned to London on Mary's accession and imprisoned (1563, pp. 1053-54; 1570, p. 1678; 1576, p. 1432; 1583, p. 1505).

He was ordered to attend the privy council on 22 August 1553 (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

On 31 August, Hooper appeared before the council and he was committed by them to the Fleet on the next day (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]). (APC IV, p. 337, has Hooper appearing on 1 September and committed to the Fleet the same day).

Foxe gives accounts of Hooper's imprisonment and examinations. 1563, pp. 1055-57; 1570, pp. 1678-80; 1576, pp. 1433-34; 1583, pp. 1506-7.

He was deprived of his bishopric, but he defended the validity of clerical marriage at his deprivation (1563, pp. 1054-55; 1570, pp. 1678-79; 1576, pp. 1432-33; 1583, p. 1403 [recte 1430]).

Hooper was rumored to have recanted after he was condemned; he wrote denying this. 1563, p. 1057; 1570, pp. 1680-81; 1576, p. 1434; 1583, pp. 1507-8.

Foxe records his degradation, journey to Gloucester and execution. 1563, pp. 1057-62 and 1064; 1570, pp. 1681-86; 1576, pp. 1434-39; 1583, pp. 1508-12.

Hooper was excommunicated and condemned to death by Stephen Gardiner on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

His letters: 1563, pp. 1062-63; 1570, pp. 1686-93; 1576, pp. 1439-45; 1583, pp. 1512-18.

Hooper was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71.

On 3 January 1555, a letter was sent to Hooper informing him of the arrest of Thomas Rose's congregation at the churchyard of St. Mary-le-Bow on 1 January 1555 (1563, p. 1020).

Hooper wrote an answer to this letter (1563, p. 1020; 1570, p. 1654; 1576, p. 1411; 1583, p. 1482).

Hooper also sent a letter of encouragement to the members of Rose's congregation imprisoned in the Counter in Bread Street (1563, pp. 1021-22; 1570, pp. 1654-55; 1576, pp. 1411-12; 1583, pp. 1482-83).

He was summoned before Stephen Gardiner at St. Mary Overy's on 28 January 1554 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

Ridley wrote a letter to Bradford and his fellow prisoners, in which Ridley speaks of his love for Taylor. The bearer of the letter to Bradford was Punt, who also carried Hooper's letters. 1570, p. 1897-98, 1576, pp. 1625-26, 1583, p. 1725.

During his examination, John Hallingdale said that Cranmer, Latimer, Ridley and Hooper were not heretics. 1563, p. 1638, 1570, p. 2222, 1576, p. 1919, 1583, p. 2026.

Hooper's Latin epistle touching matters of religion was sent to Convocation House. 1583, pp. 2135-36.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Rogers

(1500? - 1555) (DNB)

Martyr.

Foxe describes Rogers' life and career. 1563, pp. 1022-23; 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1484.

John Rogers preached a sermon at Paul's Cross on 6 August 1553 denouncing 'popery', for which he was placed under arrest. 1563, p. 1023; 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1484. [NB: This contradicts the next two entries].

On 13 August 1553 Gilbert Bourne (Marian bishop of Bath and Wells) preached a sermon at Paul's Cross, praising Bonner and criticising Edward VI. This sermon incited a fanatic to throw a dagger at him and enraged the mob. John Rogers and John Bradford escorted Bourne to safety (1563, p. 905; 1570, p. 1570; 1576, p. 1339; and 1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]. The story is in Rerum, pp. 464-65, but Rogers is not mentioned in that version).

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On 16 August 1553, Rogers was placed under house arrest by the privy council (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

He was committed to Newgate on 26 January 1554 (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

Ridley reported to Cranmer, in a letter written in the aftermath of the Oxford disputations in April 1554, that Crome, Rogers and Bradford would be taken to Cambridge for a disputation on similar lines to that held in Oxford (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1464).

It was rumoured in May 1554 that Rogers, together with Bradford and Saunders, would take part in a disputation to be held in Cambridge (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

Rogers was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71).

He was summoned before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Overies on 28 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

Rogers' examination took place on 29 January 1555. [BL Harley 421, fos.40r-41r. Not printed in Acts and Monuments or Letters of the Martyrs but mentioned in 1563, p. 1029 et seq.]

Bradford's second examination took place on 29 January 1555, directly after the excommunication of John Rogers. 1563, pp. 1188-92, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

He was excommunicated and condemned to death by Stephen Gardiner on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

His examination and condemnation: 1563, pp. 1026-31; 1570, pp. 1656-62; 1576, pp. 1414-19; 1583, pp. 1484-89. He was examined and condemned with John Hooper on. 1563, p. 1056; 1570, p. 1680; 1576, pp. 1433-34; 1583, p. 1507.

Rogers was degraded, with John Hooper, on 4 February 1555. 1563, pp. 1057-58; 1570, p. 1681; 1576, pp. 1434-35; 1583, p. 1508.

Rogers' martyrdom is described. 1563, pp. 1036-37; 1570, pp. 1663-64; 1576, pp. 1419-20; 1583, pp. 1492-93.

When examined by Bonner, John Leafe (who was burned with John Bradford) denied transubstantiation and admitted to being a scholar of John Rogers, and that he believed in the doctrine of Rogers, Hooper and Cardmaker. 1563, p. 1214, 1570, p. 1804, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

In a letter to his mother and others, John Bradford asked that Rogers be remembered. 1570, pp. 1805-06,1576, pp. 1541-42, 1583, p. 1624.

John Rogers' martyrdom was referred to in Bradford's letter to the university town of Cambridge. 1563, pp. 1178-80, 1570, pp. 1808-09., 1576, p. 1545, 1583, p. 1627.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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His other writings: (1563, pp. 1031-36; 1570, p. 1663; 1576, p. 1419; 1583, pp. 1489-92).

Rogers was involved in the debate over the clerical wearing of caps. 1563, p. 1732.

 
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Miles Coverdale

(1488 - 1568)

Evangelist, Bible translator, Bishop of Exeter (1551 - 1553) (DNB)

Miles Coverdale associated with John Rogers and William Tyndale in translating the Bible (1563, p. 1022; 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1484).

He was ordered to attend the Privy Council on 22 August 1553 (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

On 31 August, Coverdale appeared before the Privy Council and on the next day was commanded to await their pleasure (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

According to Foxe, he wrote a confutation of Weston's Paul's Cross sermon of 20 October 1553. Foxe claimed that he possessed a copy of Coverdale's confutation; it has not survived (1570, p. 1636; 1576, p 1396; and 1583, p. 1466).

Coverdale was a signatory to the letter of 8 May 1554 protesting the proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41 [Coverdale's signature is on p. 1642]; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; and 1583, p. 1469-71.

Coverdale sent Rowland Taylor a cap to wear at his execution (1570, p. 1704; 1576, p. 1454; 1583, p. 1557).

Throughout 1554, Christian III of Denmark repeatedly requested that Mary release Coverdale from custody and send him to Denmark. Although Mary was reluctant to grant the request, eventually she agreed, sending Coverdale to Denmark in February 1555 (1563, pp. 1081-83; 1570, pp. 1706-7; 1576, pp. 1456-57; 1583, pp. 1529-31).

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Nicholas Ridley

(d. 1555) (DNB)

Bishop of London (1550 - 1553). Martyr. [DNB]

Nicholas Ridley gave John Rogers a prebend in St Paul's (1563, p. 1023; 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1484).

He led the bishops who compelled John Hooper to wear vestments at his consecration. Ridley wrote a letter to Hooper apologising for this in Mary's reign (1563, pp. 1050-2; 1570, pp. 1676-7; 1576, p. 1404; 1583, pp. 1504-5).

He preached a sermon at Paul's Cross, at the behest of the privy council, supporting Jane Grey's claim to the throne. After Mary's accession Ridley visited the queen at Framlingham and was arrested (1563, p. 903; 1570, p. 1569; 1576, p. 1338; and 1583, p. 1408).

He was engaged, over dinner with John Feckenham and Sir John Bourne, in a debate on the nature of the eucharist. An account of the debate, 'penned with his own hand,' is first printed in 1563, (1563, pp. 928-31; 1570, pp. 1589-91; 1576, pp. 1356-58; and 1583, pp. 1426-28). There is no earlier printed version or manuscript of the exchange.

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Ridley was examined by Weston and the other members of the catholic delegation to the Oxford disputations on Saturday 14 April 1554 (1563, p. 933 and 937-38; 1570, p. 1593; 1576, p. 1935 [recte 1359]; 1583, pp. 1429-30).

[NB: There is a summary of Ridley's disputation on Tuesday 17 April 1554 which was printed in its entirety only in 1563, pp 933-34].

Ridley disputed with Richard Smith and the other catholic doctors on 17 April 1554 (1563, p. 957-78; 1570, pp. 1606-22; 1576, pp. 1370-84; 1583, pp. 1441-54).

Ridley's preface to his account of the disputation is 1563, pp. 956-57 and (in a differently worded version) 1570, p. 1632; 1576, pp. 1392-93; 1583, p. 1463.

Ridley's conclusion to his account of the Oxford disputations is printed (only) in 1563, p. 978.

Ridley wrote to Weston protesting the conduct of the 1554 Oxford disputations and demanding that Ridley's written responses to the three propositions be shown to the higher house of convocation (1563, p. 977; 1570, p. 1633; 1576, pp. 1393-94; 1583, p. 1464).

The queen's letter ordering Ridley, together with Cranmer and Latimer, to be held in the custody of the mayor and bailiffs of Oxford during the disputation is printed in 1563, p. 999.

He was summoned, together with Cranmer and Latimer, before Weston and the commissioners on 20 April 1554. He refused to recant what he had said during the disputations. He was condemned and taken to the sheriff's house (1563, pp. 935-38; 1570, pp. 1632-33; 1576, p. 1393; 1583, pp. 1463-64).

On 21 April 1554, Ridley was compelled to observe, having been brought from the sheriff's house, a procession in which Weston carried the sacrament and four doctors carried a canopy over Weston (1563, p. 936; 1570, p. 1633; 1576, p. 1393; 1583, p. 1464).

Ridley wrote a letter to Cranmer, which was sent together with copies of his account of the disputation and news of recent developments (1570, pp. 1633-34; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, pp. 1464).

Foxe mentions Ridley's condemnation and disputation in passing in 1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469.

In a letter of 10 October 1554, Heinrich Bullinger asked John Hooper to pass his commendations toRidley, Hugh Latimer and Thomas Cranmer (1570, p. 1692; 1576, pp. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518).

Ridley was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking them for a chance to defend, in public debate, the Edwardian religious reforms (1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483).

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Ridley, Thomas Cranmer and Hugh Latimer from the Marshalsea(1563, pp. 1042-43; 1570, pp. 1667-68; 1576, pp. 1422-23; 1583, pp. 1496-97).

Foxe describes Ridley's character. 1563, p. 1283, 1570, p. 1895, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

John Bradford was persuaded to enter the ministry by Ridley. Ridley called Bradford to take the position of deacon and, at Bradford's willing, ordered him deacon. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, pp. 1603-04.

He led the bishops who compelled John Hooper to wear vestments at his consecration. Ridley wrote a letter to Hooper apologising for this in Mary's reign. 1563, pp. 1050-2; 1570, pp. 1676-7; 1576, p. 1404; 1583, pp. 1504-5.

In a letter of 10 October 1554, Heinrich Bullinger asked John Hooper to pass his commendations to Ridley, Hugh Latimer and Thomas Cranmer. 1570, p. 1692; 1576, pp. 1444-45; 1583, p. 1518.

Ridley was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking them for a chance to defend, in public debate, the Edwardian religious reforms. 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Ridley, Thomas Cranmer and Hugh Latimer from the Marshalsea.1563, pp. 1042-43; 1570, pp. 1667-68; 1576, pp. 1422-23; 1583, pp. 1496-97.

During Bradford's second examination, Doctor Seton described Ridley and Latimer as being unable to answer anything at all at their examinations. 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1607.

John Bradford sent a letter to Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley. 1570, p. 1815 1576, p. 1551, 1583, p. 1634.

Rowland Taylor wrote a letter to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer when they were prisoners in Oxford. 1570, p. 2072; 1576, p. 1787; 1583, p. 1893.

Foxe recounts the life of Ridley. 1563, pp. 1283-96, 1570, pp. 1895-96, 1576, pp. 1623-24, 1583, pp. 1717-30.

Ridley was kind to Heath, archbishop of York during Edward VI's reign. 1563, p. 1285, 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

Ridley was kind to Edmund Bonner's mother. She would dine at Ridley's manor in Fulham with Ridley and Mistress Mungey, Bonner's sister. 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

Ridley's sister and her husband, George Shipside, were also kind to Bonner's mother and sister. 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, pp. 1717-18.

Ridley was converted through the reading of Bertram's Book of the Sacrament, and confirmed in his beliefs through conference with Cranmer and Peter Martyr. 1563, p. 1285, 1570, p. 1895, 1576, p. 1623, 1583, p. 1717.

After Mary's accession, Ridley was kept first in the Tower, then in the Bocardo in Oxford, and then held in custody at Master Irish's house until his death. 1563, p. 1285, 1570, p. 1896, 1576, p. 1624, 1583, p. 1717.

Ridley was cast into Bocardo prison with Hugh Latimer. 1563, p. 1285, 1583, p. 1718.

A conference took place between Ridley and Latimer in prison on the objections of Antonian, in other words, those of a popish persecutor, such as Winchester. 1563, pp. 1285-94, 1583, pp. 1718-24.

Letters of Ridley. 1570, pp. 1896-1902, 1576, pp. 1624-30, 1583, pp. 1724-30.

A letter was sent by Ridley to West, in which Ridley asked West and also Dr Harvey to remember their promises to him. Foxe also includes West's letter and Ridley's response. 1570, pp. 1900-01, 1576, pp. 1627-28, 1583, pp. 1728-29.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. He mentioned his imprisonment with Cranmer, Latimer and Bradford. He mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins, a weaver, had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. He had heard that West had relented, and Grimald been cast into the Marshalsea. He had also heard that Thomas Ridley, of the Bull-head in Cheapside, had died. He had heard that his brother-in-law, Shipside, had spent much time in prison but was now released. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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The examination of Ridley and Latimer by White (Lincoln) and Brookes (Gloucester) took place on 30 September 1555. White and Brookes received their commission from Cardinal Poole. 1563, pp. 1297-98, 1570, pp. 1903-09, 1576, pp. 1631-39, 1583, pp. 1757-60.

A communication took place between Ridley and Brookes in Irish's house on 15 October, on which day he was degraded, and at which Edridge ('reader then of the Greek lecture') was present.. 1563, pp. 1374-76, 1570, pp. 1934-35, 1576, pp. 1659-60, 1583, pp. 1768-69.

Ridley had a discussion with Brookes on 16 October, on which day he was degraded. 1563, pp. 1374-76.

Foxe recounts the behaviour of Ridley at supper the night before he was martyred. 1563, pp. 1376-79, 1570, pp. 1936-37, 1576, p. 1661, 1583, p. 1769.

Foxe recounts the behaviour of Ridley and Latimer at their martyrdom. 1563, pp. 1376-1379, 1570, pp. 1937-39, 1576, pp. 1661-62, 1583, p. 1769.

Ridley gave his gown and tippet to Shipside. 1563, p. 1377, 1570, p. 1937, 1576, p. 1661, 1583, p. 1769.

Ridley gave a new groat to Henry Lea. 1563, p. 1377, 1570, p. 1937, 1576, p. 1661, 1583, p. 1769.

Ridley spoke with Lord Williams before his martyrdom. 1563, p. 1379, 1570, p. 1937, 1576, p. 1662, 1583, p. 1769.

Ridley's friendly farewell. 1563, pp. 1379-81, 1570, pp. 1939-43, 1576, pp. 1622-28, 1583, pp. 1770-76.

Ridley's lamentation for a change in religion, in which he makes reference to Latimer, Lever, Bradford and Knox, as well as Cranmer and their part in the duke of Somerset's cause. 1570, pp. 1945-50, 1576, pp. 1670-78, 1583, pp. 1778-84.

Cranmer was confirmed in his reformist beliefs after conference with Ridley. 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1870.

Cranmer was examined by Bonner and Ely and condemned on 12 September 1556 (seven days before the condemnation of Ridley and Latimer). 1563, pp. 1491-92, 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

In the third year of Edward's reign, Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley admitted Robert Drakes to minister the sacraments. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Letter to Augustine Bernher [BL, Harley 416, fo.16v. Printed in LM, p. 72 et seq. Also in 1570, p. 1902 et seq.].

Letter to Augustine Bernher [BL Harley 416, fos.17v and 32r. Not printed in Foxe or LM].

Letter to Bernher [BL Harley 416, fo.32r. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Letter to Bradford. [BL Harley 416, fo.32v. Printed in LM, pp. 62 et seq. and 1570, p. 1897 et seq.]

Foxe records Nicholas Ridley's writings against idolatry. 1583, pp. 2128-31.

Lord Dacre would have paid a ransom to Mary for his kinsman Nicholas Ridley's life if it were possible but she refused. 1563, p. 1733, 1583, p. 2131.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir Andrew Dudley

(d. 1559)

Younger brother of the Duke of Northumberland (DNB)

Put in Tower with Northumberland 25 July 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

Arraigned and condemned at Westminster 19 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

Heard Mass in Tower 21 August 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1465).

Released on 18 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1482).

 
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Sir Edward Rogers

Foxe states that a Sir John Rogers was committed to the Tower on 24 February 1554 (1570, p. 1638; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1468).

[NB: According to the Privy Council Register a Sir Edward Rogers was committed to the Tower of 24 February 1554. This name is confirmed in J. G. Nicholas, ed., The Chronicle of Queen Jane and of ... Queen Mary, Camden Society Original series 48 (London, 1850), p. 65].

Released from the Tower on 18 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1482).

 
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Sir Edward Warner

(1511- 65)(DNB)

Lieutenant of the Tower under Edward VI, he lost the post under Mary and was actually sent to the Tower with Northampton in January 1554.

Sent to the Tower with Northampton, 25 January 1554 (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

Released from the Tower on 18 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1482).

 
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Sir Gawain Carew

(c. 1503 - 1585)

Uncle to Sir Peter Carew (Hasler, Commons)

Sir Gawain Carew was sent to the Tower on 3 March 1554 (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p 1398; 1583, p. 1469).

He was released from the Tower on 18 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p 1412; 1583, p. 1482).

 
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Sir George Harper

(1503-83)

Of Sutton Valence, Kent, and London (Bindoff, Commons)

Released from the Tower on 18 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1482).

[Foxe does not state what Harper had been imprisoned for; but he was a participant in Wyatt's rebellion (Bindoff, Commons).]

 
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Sir James Croft

(d. 1591) (DNB)

Sent to the Tower on 21 February 1554 (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; and 1583, p. 1467).

Brought to the Guildhall on 17 April 1554 (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; and 1583, p. 1469).

Arraigned and convicted of treason at the Guildhall on 28 April 1554 (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; and 1583, p. 1469).

Released from the Tower on 18 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; and 1583, p. 1482).

 
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Sir Nicholas Arnold

(c. 1509 - 1580)

Of Highnam Court, Glos. and Llanthony, Mon. (Bindoff, Commons and Hasler, Commons)

Released from the Tower on 18 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1482)

Foxe does not state what he had been imprisoned for but it was for complicity in Wyatt's rebellion (Bindoff, Commons).

 
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Sir Nicholas Throckmorton

(1515 - 1571)

[DNB] [Also Bindoff, Commons; Hasler, Commons]

Sir Nicholas Throckmorton was sent to the Tower on 22 February 1554 (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1467).

He was brought to the Guildhall on 17 April 1554 and arraigned for treason. He defended himself so well, challenging the legality of the laws under which he was being prosecuted as well as arguing his innocence of any wrong doing, that the jury cleared him (1563, p. 1001; 1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1649).

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Eight members of the jury that acquitted Throckmorton refused to admit wrong doing and were sentenced by Star Chamber to pay 1000 marks apiece and were imprisoned (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1473).

Three members of the jury that acquitted him, Whetstone, Lucar and Kightely, were ordered to pay fines of £2,000 each, another five were ordered to pay fines of a thousand marks each and four others, who confessed their fault and asked pardon, were exempted from any fines (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1474).

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On 12 December 1554, five of the eight defiant jurors were released from prison after paying fines of £220 each. On 21 December the remaining three jurors were released from prison after declaring that they could not pay the fines and paid £40 each instead (1570, p. 1652; 1576, p. 1409; 1583, p. 1480).

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Throckmorton was released from the Tower on 18 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1482).

[Also referred to as 'Sir Nicholas Throgmorton' or 'Throgmerton']

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir William St Loe

(1518? - 1565?)

MP for Somerset (1559), Derbyshire (1563). Keeper of the horse to Edward VI (1553). Gentleman attendant to princess Elizabeth; captain of the guard by 1558; chief butler, England and Wales (1559); JP Somerset (from 1559), Derbyshire (from 1561). (Hasler)

St Loe employed John Hooper briefly, c 1539. 1570, p. 1675; 1576, p. 1429; 1583, p. 1503.

One of Elizabeth's gentlemen, he was committed to Queen Mary's Master of the Horse as a prisoner (1570, p. 1638; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1468).

He was released from the Tower on 18 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1482).

[Foxe does not say so, but St Loe had been arrested and eventually sent to the Tower accused of being the link between Elizabeth and Wyatt (Hasler, Commons)].

Sir William St Loe was called before the privy council at around the same time as Elizabeth was imprisoned in the Tower. 1563, p. 1712, 1570, p. 2289, 1576, p. 1982, 1583, p. 2091.

[Also referred to as 'Sir William Sentlow']

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Matthew

Thomas Matthew was the pen name of John Rogers when translating the Bible. 1563, p. 1022; 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1484.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Gibbes

Of Silverton, Devon

Foxe reports that Master Gibbes was taken to the Tower on 3 March 1554 (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1398; 1583, p. 1469).

[APC IV, p. 403, confirms this and gives Gibbes's name as William. CSP Dom. Mary I, p. 75, reports him speaking strong words against Philip's imminent arrival.]

Released from the Tower on 18 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1482).

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Tyndale

(1494? - 1536)

Biblical translator. Martyr. [DNB; David Daniell, William Tyndale: A Biography (1994)]

William Tyndale was associated with John Rogers and Miles Coverdale in translating the Bible. 1563, p. 1022, 1570, p. 1656, 1576, p. 1413, 1583, p. 1484.

Hubberdin railed against Latimer, and also railed against Luther, Melancthon, Zwingli, Frith, and Tyndale. Hubberdin danced in the pulpit. 1570, p. 1912, 1576, p. 1639, 1583, p. 1748.

Tyndale's translation of scripture inspired the conversion of John Maundrel. 1570, p. 2073, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1894.

1506 [1484]

Q. Mary. Letters of M. Hooper Bishop of Worcester full of godly comfort and consolation.

MarginaliaAnno 1555. Ianuary.that certaine euill prayers should be treason agaynst the Queenes highnes. 

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix: ref page 584, line 9 from the bottom

This matter is handled more at large in the first edition, p. 1019, as follows: "In the beginning of ye next yere, in ye moneth of January, the parliament (whiche began as ye haue heard, the xii. day of Nouember last) was nowe dissolued; wherin it was enacted yt the statutes, before time made for the punishement of heretikes, (or rather to speake more truly, the true professors of Christes gospell) and the confirmation of the Popes power, shuld be reuiued, and in as good force, as euer they were before the raign of king Henry theight; and that all such statutes as were at any tyme made against ye supremacie of the Pope, should be cleane abrogated & abolished. When these things were once obtained, & that the Papists had gotten the lawes on their side, & the swerde put into their handes, to kill & murther whom they would: there was then no delay made on their behalf, to accomplishe the effecte of their long hidden infestred and cankred tyranny, against the saintes of God, and true professors of Christes gospell: with whome neither wisdome, learning, dignitie, nor age, coulde preuayle, as shall more playnly appeare in the discourse of these seuerall matters hereafter followynge, wherein also shall some time appeare that the churche of God (as in al times heretofore: so nowe) was not voyde of dissemblyng and false brethren, by whose meanes (as most fit instrumentes) Satan brought his purpose the better to passe. All whiche notwithstanding the children of God, hauing the lawful oportunitie of seruing of God, taken by this crueltie from them, yet in sundrie times and places secretly assembled them selues, to the comforte of their consciences, & instruction of their soules. And therfore, as at other tymes, so vpon newe yeares day, An. 1555, at euening, there were many godly persones gathered together in a house within Bowe churchyarde in London, where they were, with their minister maister Thomas Rose, deuoutly & zelously occupied in prayer, and hearing of Goddes worde. But whyle they were in the middest of this their godly exercise, they were about xxx. of them apprehended and caried to the Counters, but maister Rose was had before the Lorde Chauncelour, and from thence to the Fleete. To the whiche company that godly man and dere martyr of God, maister Hoper, beinge certified by a letter, of the whole discourse hereof, did wryte this comfortable and strengthening exhortation, the copy whereof with the other letters, hereafter ensueth."

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The prayers of these men were thus: God turne the hart of Queene Mary from Idolatrie, or els shorten her dayes. Wherof read the statute, Ann. 1. & 2. Reg. Phil. & Mariæ. Cap. 9.

As touching the taking of M. Rose & his felows, word was brought therof to M. Hooper being thē in the Fleete.  

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, 584, fn 3

This letter, with the two following, are printed at the end of a work entitled "An Apologye made by the Reuerende Father and constante martyr of Chryste, John Hooper, etc., that he should be a maintainer and encorager of suche as cursed the Queene's highnes," etc. Lond. printed by W. Tisdale, 1562, 8vo. - ED.

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Whereupon the said M. Hooper sendeth aunswer againe, with a letter also of consolation sent to the sayd prisoners: the copie wherof I thought here not to ouerpasse. 
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, 585, fn 1:


{Cattley/Pratt inserts here into the text a letter entitled, 'A Letter sent to Master Hooper, concerning the taking of a godly Company in Bow-Churchyard, at their Prayer' and notes: This letter is inserted from the First Edition, page 1020: the genuine piety, combined with the perfect simplicity which it displays, cannot fail to interest the reader. - ED.}
Addenda:This and the two following Letters are in MSS. 2. 2. 16, Nos. 2, 3, 4, Emmanuel Coll. Cambridge. Foxe has been collated with that copy, which fills up "Sh." as "Shorte." This Letter is there signed "Tuus usque ad aras fidelissimus servus."

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¶ The aunswer of M. Hooper to a letter sent vnto him concerning certaine prisoners taken in Bowe churchyard. 
Commentary  *  Close
Block 37: Hooper's Answer and Letter

Foxe reprinted the letters to and from John Hooper about the arrest of Thomas Rose's congregation on 1 January 1555. All of these letters were first printed by Henry Bull in An apology made by the reverende father and constante martyr of Christe Iohn Hooper (London, 1562), STC 13742, sigs. C6r-D3v. (ECL MS 261, fols. 1r-14r form the manuscript of the book sent to Grindal for his imprimatur; ECL 261, fols. 11r-14r are the letters concerning Rose's congregation). In the 1563 edition (only), Foxe printed an anonymous letter sent to Hooper, informing him of the arrest of Rose's congregation (1563, p. 1020). This letter is in Apology, sigs. C6r-C7r and ECL MS 261, fol. 11r-v; it is not printed in other editions of the Acts and Monuments nor is it printed in the LM.

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This was followed by Hooper's brief reply to this letter (1563, p. 1020; 1570, p. 1654; 1576, p. 1411; 1583, p. 1482; cf. Apology, sigs. C7v-C8r; ECL 261, fol. 12r and LM, p. 120).

 

Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
Hooper's Answer and Letter

The glosses serve to encourage the image of a small, true church suffering under age-old papal tyranny and taking refuge in mutual comfort. Two glosses containing the term 'persecution' link the ancient sufferings with the inauguration of the most recent set in Bow churchyard: Hooper's encouragement to his flock that the church is often suffering becomes a warning to Foxe's readers. The pastoral focus of Hooper's letter is made clear. It is perhaps significant that part of a gloss referring to the addressees of the letter is dropped after 1570, as this may reflect a recognition by Foxe that the potential of the letter as a source of comfort in times of trouble went beyond its immediate, historical context.

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MarginaliaM. Hoopers aunswere to a certaine letter sent vnto him.THe grace of God be with you. Amen. I perceiue by your letter, how that vpon Newyeres day at night, there were taken a godly company of Christians, whilest they were praying. I doe reioyce in that men can be so well occupied in this perilous time, and flee vnto God for remedy by prayer, as well for theyr owne lackes and necessities, as also charitably to pray for them that persecute them. So doth the worde of God commaund all men to pray charitably for them that hate them, and not to reuile any Magistrate with wordes, or to meane him euill by force or violence. They also may reioyce that in well doyng, they were taken to the prison Wherfore I haue thought it good to send them this little writing of consolation: praying God to send them pacience, charitie & constancie in the truth of his most holy word. Thus fare you well, and pray God to send his true word into this Realme againe amongest vs, which the vngodly Bishops haue now banished. Ianua. 4. ann. 1555. 
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Addenda: ref page 585, bottom

The Emmanuel copy dates this second Letter "January 4, 1554," and then adds, "Your loving fried as you knowe, J. H."

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¶ A letter of consolation sent from M. Hooper to the godly brethren taken in Bow churchyard, in prayer, and layd in the Counter in Breadstreat. 
Commentary  *  Close

Foxe includes Hooper's letter to the imprisoned congregation, urging them to be constant unto death (1563, pp. 1021-22; 1570, pp. 1654-55; 1576, pp. 1411-12; 1583, p. 1482; cf. Apology, sigs. C8v-D3v; ECL MS 261, fols. 12v-14r and LM, pp. 121-23. ECL MS 260, fol. 225r-v and Lansdowne MS 389, fols. 3r-4v are copies of this letter).

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Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Appendix: ref page 586

Strype has given what he considers a more correct copy of this letter, in his Memorials, under Mary; Orig. No. 27. There it is dated "Jan. 4, 1554."

THe grace, fauor, consolation, and ayd of the holy ghost, be with you now and euer, So be it.

MarginaliaA letter of M. Hooper full of most heauenly consolatiō.Dearely beloued in the Lord, euer sithens your imprisonment, I haue bene maruelously mooued with great affections and passions, as well of myrth and gladnes, as of heauines & sorrow. Of gladnes in this, that I perceyued how ye be bent & geuen to prayer and inuocation of gods helpe in these darke & wicked proceedings of men agaynst Gods glory. I haue bene sory to perceiue the malice and wickednes of men to be so cruel, diuelish, & tyrannicall, to persecute the people of God for seruyng of God, saying & hearing of the holy Psalmes, and the word of eternall life. These cruell doings do declare, that the Papistes Church is more bloudy and tyrannicall, then euer was the sword of the Ethnikes and Gentiles.

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When I heard of your taking, and what ye were doing wherfore, and by whom ye were takē, I remembred how the Christians in the Primatiue Church were vsed by the crueltie of vnchristened heathens, in the tyme of Traiane the Emperour about 77. yeares after Christes ascension into heauen: MarginaliaOf this persecution, read before.and how the Christians were persecuted very sore, as though they had bene traytors and moouers of sedition. Wherupon the gentle Emperor Traiane required to know the true cause of Christian mens trouble. A great learned man called Plinius, wrote vnto him & said, it was because the Christians said certaine psalmes before day, vnto one called Christ, whō they worshipped for god. MarginaliaThe Pope worse then Traianns the Heathen Emperour.When Traiane the Emperour vnderstood it was for nothyng but for conscience & religion, he caused by hys commaundements euery where, that no man should be persecuted for seruing of God. But the Pope & his church hath cast you into prison, beyng taken euen doyng the worke of God, and one of the excellents workes that is required of Christian men: that is, to wit, whiles ye were in priaer, & not in such wicked & superstitious prayers as the papists vse, but in the same prayer that Christ hath taught you to pray. And in his name onely ye gaue God thanks for that ye haue receiued, and for his sake ye asked for such thyngs as ye want. O glad may ye be that euer ye were borne, to be apprehended whilest ye were so vertuously occupied. Blessed be they that suffer for righteousnesse sake. For if God had suffred them that tooke your bodies, then to haue taken your life also, now had ye bene following the Lamb in perpetual ioyes, away from the company and assembly of wicked men. But the Lord would not haue you sodainly so to depart, but reserueth you, gloriously to speake and maintaine his truth to the world.

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Be ye not careful what ye shall say, for God will go out & in with you, and will be present in your harts, & in your mouthes to speake his wisedome, although it seemeth foolishnes to the world. He that hath begun this good worke in you, continue you in the same vnto the end: & pray vn-

to him, that ye may feare him only, that hath power to kill both body & soule, and to cast them into hel fire. MarginaliaMath. 10. Be of good comfort. All the haires of your hed are numbred, and there is not one of them can perish, except your heauenly father suffer it to perish. MarginaliaLuke. 12.Now ye be in the field & placed in þe forefront of Christs battel. Doubtles, it is a singuler fauour of God, & a special loue of him towards you, to geue you this MarginaliaThe first onset of this persecution geuen in Bowchurchyarde.foreward & preeminence, & a signe that he trusteth you before others of his people. Wherfore (deare brethren and sisters) continually fight this fight of the Lord. Your cause is most iust and godly, ye stand for the true Christ (who is after the flesh in heauen) & for his true religion and honor, which is amply, fully, sufficiently and abundantly conteyned in the holy Testament, sealed with Christes owne bloud. How much be ye bound to God, to put you in trust with so holy and iust a cause.

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Remember what lookers vpon you haue, to see & behold you in your sight, God & all his Angels, who be ready alway to take you vp into heauen, if ye be slaine in his fight. Also you haue standing at your backes all the multitude of the faithfull, who shal take courage, strength, and desire to follow such noble & valiant Christians as you be. Be not afraid of your aduersaries: for he that is in you, is stronger then he that is in them. Marginalia1. Iohn 4.Shrinke not although it be payne to you, your paynes be not now so great, as here after your ioyes shall be. MarginaliaComfort taken out of Scriptures.Read the comfortable chapiters to the Romans. 8. 10. 15. Heb. 11. 12. And vpon your knees thanke God that euer ye were accompted worthy to suffer any thing for his names sake. Read the 2. chap. of s. Lukes gospell, & there you shal see how the shepeherds that watched vpon their sheep all night, as soone as they heard that Christ was borne at Bethlem, by and by they went to see him. MarginaliaTrue obedience putteth no doubtes.They did not reason nor debate with thēselues, who should keepe the Wolfe from the sheep in the meane time, but did as they were commanded, & committed their sheep vnto him, whose pleasure they obeyed. So let vs do now we be called, commit all other thinges to him that calleth vs. He will take heed that all things shall be well. He wil helpe the husband, he will comfort the wyfe, he will guide the seruaunts, he will keepe the house, he will preserue the goods: yea, rather then it should be vndone, he will wash the dishes, and rocke the cradle. MarginaliaAll carefulnes to be cast vpon the Lorde.Cast therfore all your care vpon God, for he careth for you.

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MarginaliaAll the strēgth of the Popes religiō standeth in outward force.Besides this, you may perceiue by your imprisonment that your aduersaries weapons against you, be nothyng but flesh, bloud, and tyrannie. For if they were able, they would maintaine their wicked religion by Gods worde: but for lacke of that, they would violently compell such as they cannot by holy Scripture perswade, because the holy word of God, and all Christes doyngs be contrary vnto them. I pray you pray for me, & I will pray for you. And although we be asunder after the world, yet in Christ (I trust) for euer ioyning in the spirite, and so shall meete in the pallace of the heauenly ioyes, after this short and transitorie life is ended. Gods peace be with you. Amen. The 14, of Ianuary. 1554. 

Commentary  *  Close

The date of the letter is given as 4 January 1555 in all manuscript versions and every printed version up to and including 1570. In 1576, p. 1412, it is changed to 14 January 1555 and the mistake is reprinted in 1583, p. 1482. Once again, we can see the pattern of careless typography in the 1576 edition going uncorrected in the 1583 edition.

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Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Addenda: ref page 587, middle

The Emmanuel MS. (also Foxe's first Edition) dates this third Letter Jan. 4, 1554. It adds a signature, "Your loving brother in Christ, John Hoper." Then follow these words - "Approbatur Edm. London. Perused by me Henry Bull, and I will further see to the correction hereof at the printer's hands." Coverdale's "Letters of the Martyrs" were originally printed (and very accurately too) from these Emmanuel MSS.

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Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
To the End of Book X

The frequent description of the martyrs-to-be as 'Preachers' or 'persecuted Preachers' points up the perversity of their destruction, given the essential importance of their defining function. The book ends with two procedural objections and a (perhaps symbolic) reference to Acts. An example of a mistake in 1570 being corrected occursin later editions

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MarginaliaIanuary. 18. Gentlemen deliuered out of the Tower by the Queenes pardon.Vpon the Friday after this following, 
Commentary  *  Close
Block 38: To the end of Book 10

Foxe returns to lost chronicle source(s) for material on the release of prisoners implicated in Wyatt's rebellion in January 1555 which he added in 1570.

being the 18. of Ianuary, all the Counsaile went vnto the Tower, & there the same day discharged and set at libertie all the prisoners of the Tower, or the most part of them, namely, the late duke of Northumberlands sonnes, Ambrose. Robert, and Henry, sir Andrew Dudley, sir Iohn Rogers, sir Iames Crofts, sir Nich. Throgmorton, sir Nicholas Arnall, sir George Harper, sir Edw. Warner, sir W. Sentlow, sir Gawen Carew, M. Gybbes, Cuthbert Vaughan, wyth many other.

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MarginaliaIanuary. 22. The Preachers called before the B. of Winchester at S. Mary Oueryes.Vpon the Tuesday folowing, being the xxij. of Ianuary, all the preachers 

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VI, Addenda: ref page 587, line 17 from the bottom

Strype specifies Bishop Hooper, Dr. Crome, Harold Tomson, Rogers, beside "divers others, to the number of eleven persons, besides two more that were not then sent for," as being "arraigned" on that occasion. Machyn, in his Diary (p. 80) says: "The xxii day of Januarii was raynyd at my lord Chansseler plasse bysyd sant Mare Overes ser John Hoper latt bysshope of Glosetur, doctur C[rome], as parsun of Wyttyngtun Colege, harold Tomson, Rogars parsun or veker of Sant Pulkers, and dyvers odur." The examination of Rowland Taylor, who was one of the number, is given at p. 685 of the same volume.

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that were in prison were called before the B. of Wincher, L. Chancellour and certain other, at the bishops house at S. Mary Oueries. From whence (after communication beyng asked whether they would conuert and enioy the Queenes pardon, or els stande to that they had taught: they all aunswered that they would stand to that they had taught) they were cōmitted to straiter prison then before they were, with charge that none should speake with them.

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MarginaliaIames George dyed in prison, and was buryed in the fieldes.Amongst the which number of prisoners, 

Commentary  *  Close

In every edition, Foxe recorded the death in prison, on 7 January 1555, of one James 'Gorge' (in 1563, p. 1022 and 1570, p. 1655) or James 'George' (in 1576, p. 1412 and 1583, p. 1482). This is almost certainly a confusion with James Gore, a Protestant who died in Colchester Castle around 7 December 1555 and whose death will be described in Book 11. None of the other contemporary lists of Marian martyrs - i.e., those of Brice, Crowley and Knox - list either a James Gorge or a James George dying at this time.

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one Iames George the same tyme died in prison, being there in bands for religion & righteousnes sake: who therfore was exempted to be buried in the popish churchyard, and was buried in the field.

MarginaliaIanuary. 23.Vpon the Wednesday folowing beyng the 23. of Ianuary, 

Commentary  *  Close

Foxe returns to his chronicle source(s) for an account of Pole's exhortation to convocation on 23 January 1555.

all the bishops with all the rest of the Conuocation house were before the cardinal at Lambeth, where he willed them to repaire euery man where his cure and charge lay, exhorting them to intreat the people and their flocke with all gentlenes, and to endeuour themselues to winne the people rather by gentlenes then by extremity & rigor,

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