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Adrian I

(d. 795) [Kelly]

Pope (772 - 95) Offered resistance to the Lombards with the aid of Charlemagne.

Adrian was a supporter of images, writing a book in support of their use and calling a synod to oppose Felix and others who spoke against them. He clothed the body of St Peter in silver and covered the altar of St Paul with gold cloth. 1570, p. 174, 1576, p. 131, 1583, p. 130.

Empress Irene had Pope Adrian exhume the body of Constantine Copronymus and burn it. She had the ashes thrown into the sea because Constantine had opposed the adoration of images. 1570, p. 176; 1576, p. 133; 1583, p. 132.

Adrian favoured the mass of St Gregory over that of St Ambrose. He called a council that ordained that Gregory's mass should be used universally, and Charlemagne executed the decree. 1570, p. 174, 1576, p. 131, 1583, p. 130.

After the death of Carloman, the brother of Charlemagne, Carloman's wife and children went to Pope Adrian I for protection. He turned them over, with Desiderius, king of the Lombards, to Charlemagne, who kept them in captivity in France. 1570, p. 175; 1576, p. 132; 1583, p. 131.

Charlemagne confirmed the donations to the papacy of his father and added more. He received from Pope Adrian I the title of patrician of the Romans. 1570, p. 174, 1576, p. 132, 1583, p. 131.

Charlemagne sent a letter to King Offa, praising Pope Adrian I. 1570, p. 175; 1576, p. 132; 1583, p. 131

Adrian was said to have granted to Charlemagne the right to choose and ordain the bishop of Rome. 1563, p. 10; 1570, p. 5; 1576, p. 4; 1583, p. 5

King Offa of Mercia established an archbishopric in Lichfield, with the agreement of Pope Adrian. 1570, p. 173, 1576, p. 130, 1583, p. 129.

 
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Ambrose (St Ambrose)

(c. 340 - 397) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Bishop of Milan (374 - 397); doctor of the church

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 15, 20, 56, 91, 128, 131, 146; 1576, pp. 12, 16, 35, 63, 92, 95, 102, 108; 1583, pp. 12, 16, 35, 63, 91, 94, 101, 107.

 
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Cenwulf of Mercia

(d. 821) [ODNB]

King of the Mercians (796 - 821)

Distant relative of his predecessor Ecgfrith, son of Offa; it is possible that Offa had had closer relatives killed.

Cenwulf went to war against the men of Kent. 1570, p. 154; 1576, p. 115; 1583, p. 114.

Cenwulf had Eadberht III Præn bound and taken prisoner into Mercia. Cenwulf later built a church at Winchcombe, invited Eadberht into it, and restored him to his throne. 1570, p. 173; 1576, p. 131; 1583, p. 130.

Cenwulf, according to a story, was beheaded while hunting by his sister and his tutor. 1570, p. 154; 1576, p. 115; 1583, p. 114.

 
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Constantine I

(271x273 - 337) [H. A. Pohlsander www.roman-emperors.org]

Roman emperor in the West (306 - 37); defeated Maxentius, rival emperor, in 312

Sole Roman emperor (324 - 37)

Constantine took three legions with him out of Britain, thereby weakening its defence. 1570, p. 148; 1576, p. 109; 1583, p. 108.

Maximian plotted to have Constantine killed; the plot was detected by Fausta, Constantine's wife and daughter of Maximian. 1570, p. 118; 1576, p. 85; 1583, p. 84.

The citizens and senators of Rome appealed to Constantine to rid them of Maxentius. 1570, p. 118; 1576, p. 85; 1583, p. 84.

Constantine, preparing for battle against Maxentius and fearing his magical powers, saw the sign of a cross in the sky. He then had a dream with a vision of the cross and of Christ. He took a cross into battle with him as a standard and defeated Maxentius at Milvian Bridge. 1570, p. 119; 1576, p. 86; 1583, p. 85.

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After the defeat of Maxentius, Constantine no longer sacrificed to the Roman gods, but he deferred baptism to his old age. He issued edicts restoring church goods and bringing Christians back from exile. 1570, pp. 139-41; 1576, pp. 103-04; 1583, pp. 101-03.

Constantine wrote to Anulinus, his proconsul in Africa, instructing him to restore goods to the Christian churches and to ensure that Christian ministers were freed from public duties. 1570, p. 141, 1576, p. 104, 1583, p. 103.

Constantine wrote to Pope Miltiades, instructing him to set up a synod to examine the cause of Cæcilian of Carthage, and sent letters to other bishops, issuing instructions and encouraging the ending of schisms. 1570, p. 141, 1576, p. 104, 1583, p. 103.

Initially Constantine and Licinius were on good terms, and Constantine gave Lucinius his sister in marriage. 1570, p. 122; 1576, p. 88; 1583, p. 87.

Licinius and Constantine issued a joint edict authorising freedom of worship for Christians. But Licinius began to turn against Constantine and the Christians, instigating a new, more surreptitious persecution. 1570, pp. 120-21, 122; 1576, pp. 86-87, 88; 1583, p. 86, 87.

Constantine defeated Licinius. 1570, p. 39; 1576, p. 31; 1583, p. 31.

He wrote to Alexander of Alexandria and Arius, urging them to end their disagreement. 1570, p. 142, 1576, p. 104, 1583, p. 103.

Constantine built churches and schools and provided books of scripture. 1570, pp. 142-43, 1576, p. 105, 1583, pp. 103-04.

Constantine wrote a letter to Shapur II, asking him to treat the Christians in Persia well. 1570, p. 137; 1576, p. 100; 1583, p. 99.

Constantine renounced the Roman gods and was baptised. 1563, p. 8.

Constantine fulfilled St Cyprian's vision of a time of peace for the church. 1570, p. 144; 1576, p. 106; 1583, p. 105.

 
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Constantine II

(d. 768 or later) [Kelly]

Brother of Duke Toto of Nepi; layman

Antipope (767 - 68); deposed; blinded by the Lombards while prisoner in the monastery of San Saba

Constantine's deposition and blindness are mentioned by Foxe, who describes him as the brother of Desiderius. Constantine's successor, Stephen III, decreed that thereafter no layman should be pope. 1570, p. 174; 1576, p. 131; 1583, p. 130.

 
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Constantine V Copronymus

(718 - 775) [S. Tougher, www.roman-emperors.org]

Son of emperor Leo III; crowned by his father in 720

Byzantine emperor (741 - 75); iconoclast; persecuted monks

Constantine was excommunicated by Pope Paul I for breaking images. 1570, p. 174; 1576, p. 131; 1583, p. 130.

Empress Irene had Pope Adrian exhume the body of Constantine Copronymus and burn it. She had the ashes thrown into the sea because Constantine had opposed the adoration of images. 1570, p. 176; 1576, p. 133; 1583, p. 132.

 
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Cuthred of Kent

(d. 807) [ODNB under Rulers of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms]

King of Kent (798 - 807)

Cuthred was pleased when his predecessor, Eadberht Præn, was released by Cenwulf of Mercia. 1570, p. 173; 1576, p. 131; 1583, p. 130.

 
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Desiderius (Daufer, Didier)

(d. c. 786)

King of the Lombards (757 - 74); father-in-law of Charlemagne, but repudiated wife

In conflict with the papacy; surrendered to Charlemagne in 774; exiled to the abbey of Corbie

Pope Stephen III called on Charlemagne for help against the Lombards; Charlemagne defeated Desiderius and took over the rule of the Lombard kingdom. 1570, p. 174; 1576, p. 131; 1583, p. 130.

After the death of Charlemagne's brother Carloman, his wife and children went to Pope Adrian I for protection. He turned them over, with Desiderius, king of the Lombards, to Charlemagne, who kept them in captivity in France. 1570, p. 175; 1576, p. 132; 1583, p. 131.

 
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Eadberht Præn

(fl. 796 - 98) [ODNB]

King of Kent (796 - 98)

Priest; captured by Cenwulf of Mercia in 798. He was blinded and had his hands cut off

Ecgberht was said to have been taken prisoner to Mercia by Offa or Cenwulf. 1570, p. 173; 1576, pp. 129, 130; 1583, pp. 129, 30.

Cenwulf had Eadberht III Præn bound and taken prisoner into Mercia. Cenwulf later built a church at Winchcombe, invited Eadberht into it, and restored him to his throne. When he was released, Cuthred, king of Kent, and all the Kentish people celebrated. 1570, p. 173; 1576, p. 131; 1583, p. 130.

 
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Ecgfrith of Mercia

(d. 796) [ODNB]

Son of Offa of Mercia; consecrated during his father's lifetime in 787

King of the Mercians (796)

Ecgfrith reigned only four months. Alcuin said that he died, not for his own offences, but because his father had spilled much blood to guarantee his inheritance. 1570, p. 173; 1576, p. 131; 1583, p. 130.

 
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Felix

(fl. late C8) [Catholic Encyclopedia sub Adoptionism]

Bishop of Urgel, in Catalonia; condemned in letters by Pope Adrian I, in a treatise by Alcuin, and at the Council of Frankfurt in 794 for repudiating images and regarding Christ as the adoptive son of God

Adrian I was a supporter of images, writing a book in support of their use and calling a synod to oppose Felix and others who spoke against them. 1570, p. 173, 1576, p. 130, 1583, p. 129.

 
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Gregory I (the Great) (St Gregory)

(c. 540 - 604) [Kelly]

Monk; abbot of St Andrew's, Rome. Pope (590 - 604) Wrote Dialogues, Homilies, Pastoral Care, Moralia

Gregory objected to the title 'universal patriarch', assumed by John IV Nesteutes, and refused the title 'universal pope', used in letters from Eulogius, patriarch of Alexandria. 1563, p. 9; 1570, p. 16; 1576, p. 13; 1583, p. 13.

Gregory saw English slave children in the market and remarked on their beauty. He wished to go as a missionary to England, but was not allowed by Pope Pelagius and the Romans. 1570, p. 155; 1576, p. 116;1583, p. 115.

Gregory sent Augustine as a missionary to England. 1563, p. 16.

After Augustine and the other missionaries had set out on their journey, they turned back through fear. Gregory sent them back with letters of encouragement and help. 1570, p. 155; 1576, p. 116;1583, p. 115.

After Augustine had converted King Æthelbert of Kent, Gregory ordered that he be consecrated bishop. Augustine sent his colleague Laurence to Rome to report on their progress and to deliver a set of questions for Gregory, to which he sent back answers. 1570, pp. 156-58; 1576, pp. 117-19;1583, pp. 116-18.

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Gregory sent more missionaries, along with books, implements and letters and pallium for Augustine. He also sent letters to Mellitus and King Æthelberht. 1570, pp. 158-59; 1576, p. 119;1583, p. 118.

Emperor Maurice had granted John IV Nesteutes, patriarch of Constantinople, the title of universal patriarch. John was in conflict with Gregory I over the title. Gregory wrote to Maurice about the matter. 1570, pp. 16, 161; 1576, pp. 13, 121; 1583, pp. 13, 120.

Gregory was the first pope to use the title 'Servus servorum Dei' (servant of the servants of God). 1570, p. 161; 1576, p. 121;1583, p. 120.

Foxe says Gregory I commended Serenus for removing images from churches. 1563, p. 3.

 
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Jacobus de Voragine (Giacomo de Vararazze)

(c. 1230 - 1298) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Italian chronicler; Dominican provincial of Lombardy (1267 - 86)

Archbishop of Genoa (1292 - 98); wrote the Golden Legend (legendary lives of the saints)

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 98, 174; 1576, pp. 69, 131; 1583, pp. 69, 130.

 
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Johannes Nauclerus

(c. 1425 - 1510)

German humanist historian; DCL 1450; taught at the University of Basel; rector of the University of Tübingen 1477; chancellor of the university; judge of the Swabian League (1502 -13); wrote World Chronicle

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 64, 78, 83, 96, 143, 174; 1576, pp. 37, 53, 57, 67, 106, 131; 1583, pp. 37, 53, 57, 67, 105, 130.

 
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Paul I

(d. 767) [Kelly]

Brother of Pope Stephen II

Pope (757 - 767); continued Stephen's policy of support for Pippin the Short; in conflict with Lombard king Desiderius

Emperor Constantine V Copronymus was excommunicated by Paul I for breaking images. Paul clothed the body of the daughter of St Peter richly. 1570, p. 174; 1576, p. 131; 1583, p. 130.

 
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Stephen II

(d. 757) [Kelly]

Pope (752 - 57); travelled to Gaul to obtain help from Pippin the Short against the Lombards; anointed Pippin, his wife and his sons

In gratitude for Stephen's anointing, Pippin granted the exarchate of Ravenna and other areas of Italy to the see of Rome. 1570, p. 173; 1576, p. 131; 1583, p. 130.

 
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Stephen III

(c. 720 - 772) [Kelly]

The layman antipope Constantine II was deposed in 768

Pope (768 - 72); in conflict with the Lombard king Desiderius

Stephen decreed that henceforward no layman should be pope. He condemned the iconoclast seventh Council of Constantinople as heretical. Stephen called on Charlemagne for help against the Lombards. 1570, p. 174; 1576, p. 131; 1583, p. 130.

 
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William Durandus

(c. 1237 - 1296) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

French canonist; liturgical writer; papal secretary to Gregory X; dean of Chartres 1279; papal governor of Romagna

He is mentioned by Foxe; 1570, p. 174; 1576, p. 131; 1583, p. 130.

 
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Winchcombe

[Wincombe]

Gloucestershire

OS grid ref: SP 022 283

153 [130]

King Offa. King Kenulphus. The first planting of Popish Masse.

king of Northūberland aboue mentioned, although some storyes deny that he was a Monke.

MarginaliaEgfretus King of Mercia. After Offa king of Mercia, when he had raigned xxxix. yeares succeded his sonne Egfretus, who raigned but foure monthes: of whome thus writeth the foresayd Alcuinus: MarginaliaAlcuinus Osberto patritio. Non arbitror quòd nobilissimus iuuenis Egfretus, propter peccata sua mortuus sit: Sed quia pater suus, pro confirmatione regni eius multum sanguinem effudit, &c. That is: This noble yong man died not so much for offences of his owne, as for that his father had spilled much bloud, to confirme him in his kingdome.

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MarginaliaThe fathers fault punished in the childe. Egbert King of Kent taken prisoner. Next to which Egfretus, succeeded Kenulphus in the said kyngdome of Mercia, which Kenulphus keping and retaining the hatred of Offa his predecessor against the Cantuarites, made warre against them: where he tooke Egbert their king otherwise called Wren, whom he bound and led prisoner to Mercia. Notwithstanding, shortly after being mollified with princely clemency in the towne of Winchcombe, where he had builded the same tyme a church: vpō the day when he should dedicate the same in the presence of xiij. bishops, and of Cutbert, whom he had placed in þe same kingdom of Caunterbury before, and x. Dukes, and many other great estates. MarginaliaA princely example of clemency in a noble king. Kyng Kenulphus brought the sayd Egbert king of Kent out of prison into the Church, where he enlarged him of imprisonment, and restored hym to his place agayne. MarginaliaThe Church of Winchcombe builded by K. Kenulphus. Egbert King of Kent released out of prison. At the sight whereof, not onely Cutbert the foresayd king reioyced, but also all the estates and people beyng there present, made such an exclamation of ioy and gladnes, that the church, (and not onely the Church, but also the streetes) range withall. At which tyme such boūtifulnes of gifts and iewels was then bestowed, that from the highest estate to the lowest, none departed without somthing geuē, according as to euery degree was thought meete. Although Fabian referreth this story to king Offa, yet causes there be, why I assent rather to Malmesbury and to Polychronicon, MarginaliaA place of Fabian doubted. which attribute the same to Kenulphus the second king of Mercia, after Offa.

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A little before in speaking of certain bishops of Rome, mention was made of Pope Constantine the first, Pope Gregory the second, Pope Gregory the third, & of Pope Zachary, which deposed Childerike, & set vp Pipinus the French king, &c. Next after this Zachary, in order followed Pope Stephen the second, MarginaliaPope Steuen the second. to whom the foresayd Pipinus to gratifie agayne the sea of Rome for this their benefite shewed to him, gaue and contributed to the said sea of Rome, the exarchat or Princedome of Rauenna, the kingdome of the Lombardes, and many other great possessions of Italie, with all the Cities thereto adioyning vnto the borders of Venice. MarginaliaThe donation of Pipinus falsely taken to be the donation of Constantine. And this donation of Pipine, no doubt if the truth were rightly tried, should be found to be the same, which hitherto falsly hath bene thought to be the donatiō of Constantine. For els how could it be, that the exarchate of Rauenna could belong all this while to the Emperours of Constantinople, if Constantine before had geuen it and all Italy from the Empire to the sea of Rome?

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To this Pipinus, as witnesseth Polychronicon, MarginaliaEx polycr. lib. 5. . cap. 25. was sent first into France, the inuention of the Organs out of Grecia, by Constantine Emperour of Constant. 757.

MarginaliaPope Paule the first. Images agayne mayntayned by the Pope agaynst the Emperour. Next to this Stephen the ij. succeeded Paule the first, who following his predecessors, thundred out great excōmunications against Constantinus the Emperor of Constantinople, for abrogating and plucking downe Images set vp in Temples. Notwithstandyng this Constantine neglecting the Popes vaine curses perseuered in his blessed purpose, in destroying Idolatry till the end of his lyfe. Then came to be Pope, Constantinus the second a lay man, and brother to Desiderius the king of Lombardy: for the which cause he was shortly deposed, and thrust into a monastery, hauing his eyes put out. MarginaliaA lay man pope who was deposed, and had hys eyes put. out.

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MarginaliaPope Steuen the third. The counsell of Constantinople the 7. condemned of the Pope, for condemning Images. The pope also ordayned Gloria in Excelsis to be song in the masse at S. Peters altar by the Cardinals. In whose stead succeeded Stephen the iij. who ordained that after that, no lay man should be Pope: condemnyng moreouer the councel of Constantinople the vij. for heretical, because in that councell the worshipyng of Images was reprooued and condemned. Contrary to the which Councell, this Pope not only maintained the filthy Idolatry of Images in Christian Temples, but also aduaunced their ueneration, commaunding them most Ethnically to be incensed, &c. At this tyme Carolus Magnus called Charles the great a little before mentioned, began to raign, by whom this Pope caused Desiderus the Lombard king, to be depriued,

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MarginaliaPope Hadrian the first. Images agayne mayntayned by the Pope to be mens Kalenders. Then in this race of Popes, 

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The material here is particularly interesting because it indicates Foxe's engagement with the Golden Legend, a source that he had specifically singled out for ridicule in his prefatory letter 'ad doctorem lectorem'. Foxe singled out the passage concerning the introduction of the Gregorian Missel (Jacobus De Voragine, The Golden Legend: Readings on the Saints, William G. Ryan (ed. & trans.), 2 vols. (Princeton, 1993), vol. 1, p. 183) and singled it out for harsh commentary: 'I neede not admonish thee to smell out the blinde practices of these night crowes, to blinde the worl with foreged inuencions, in steede of true stories'.

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after this Stephen the iij. commeth Hadrianus the first, who likewise followyng the steps of his forefathers the Popes, added and attributed to the veneration of Images more then all the other had done before, writing a booke for the adoration and the vtilitie proceding of them, commaunding them to be takē forlay mens Calenders, holdyng moreouer a Synode at Rome against Felix, and all other that spake against the setting vp of such stockes and Images. And as Paul the first, before him made much of the body of Petronilla S. Peters daughter: so this Hadrian clothed the body of S. Peter all in siluer, MarginaliaThe body of S. Peter clothed in siluer. and couered the aulter of S. Paule with a Palle of gold, This Pope Hadrian was he, whome we declared in the former part of this treatise, to ratifie and confirme by reuelation the order of S Gregories Masse, aboue the order of S. Ambrose masse, for vnto this time which was about the yeare of our Lord, 780. MarginaliaThe order of the Romish masse book when it came in. the Liturgie of S. Ambrose was more vsed in the Italian churches. The story whereof, because it is registred in Durandus, Nauclerus, and Iacobus de Voragine, I thought here to insert the same, to this especiall purpose, for the Reader to vnderstand the tyme, when this vsuall Masse of the Papists began first to be vniuersall & vniforme, & generally in churches to be receaued. Thus it foloweth in the story by the foresayd authors set forth. Iacobus de Voragine in the life of Pope Gregory the first telleth a tale concerning this matter. MarginaliaEx Durando Nauclero. Iacob de Voragine, in vita. Greg.

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In tymes past (saith he) when the seruice which Ambrose made, was more frequented and vsed in Churches, then was the seruice which Gregory had appointed, the bishop of Rome then called Adrian, gathered a Councell together: in the which it was ordained, that Gregories seruice should be obserued and kept vniuersally: which determination of the Councell, Charles the Emperor did diligētly put in executiō while he ran about by diuers Prouinces, & inforced all the Clergy, partly with threatnings, and partly with punishments, to receiue that order. And as touching the bookes of Ambrose seruice, he burnt them to ashes in all places, and threw into prison many priests that would not consent and agree to the matter. Blessed Eugenius the Bishop comming vnto the Councell, found that it was dissolued iij. dayes before his comming. Notwithstanding through his wisedome, he so perswaded the Lord Pope, that he called agayne all the Prelates that had bene present at the Councell, and were now departed by the space of three dayes. Therfore when the Councell was gathered agayne together, in this all the fathers did consent and agree, that both the Masse bookes of Ambrose and Gregory should be layd vpon the aulter of blessed Peter the Apostle, and the church dores diligently shut, and most warily sealed vp with the signets of many and diuers bishops. Againe, that they should all the whole night geue themselues to prayer, that the Lord might reueale, open & shew vnto them by some euident signe or token, which of these two seruices he would haue vsed in the Temples. Thus they doing in all pointes as they had determined, in the morning opened the church dores, and founde both the Myssals or Masse bookes open vpon the aulter: or rather, as some say, they found Gregories Masse booke vtterly plucked asunder one piece from an other, and scattered ouer all the church. MarginaliaEt tamen ipsis commentum placet. Terens. As touching Ambrose booke, they only found it open vpō the aulter in the very same place where they before laid it. MarginaliaNote well the practise of Prelates in planting their popish masse. This miracle Pope Adrian like a wyse expounder of dreames, saith, that as the leaues were torne and blown abroad all the church ouer, so should Gregories booke be vsed throughout þe world. Wherupō they thought themselues sufficiently instructed and taught of God, that the seruice which Gregory had made, ought to be set abroad & vsed throughout the world, and that Ambrose his seruice should onely be obserued and kept in his owne church of Mediolanum, where he sometyme was bishop.

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Thus hast thou heard (brother Reader) the full and whole narration of this misticall miracle, with the Popes exposition vpon the same, which semeth to be as true, as that which Daniell speaketh of, how the Idoll Bell did eate vp all the meate that was set before him all the night, Daniel 14. Concerning the which miracle, I need not admonish thee to smell out the blind practises of these nightcrowes, to blind the world with forged inuentiōs in stead of true stories. Albeit to graunt the miracle to be most true & vnfallible, yet as touching the exposition thereof, another man beside the Pope, percase might interprete this great miracle otherwise, as thus: That God was angry with Gregories booke, and therfore rent it in pieces, and scattred it abroad, and the other as good, lay sound vntouched, and at the least so to be preferred. Notwithstanding, whatsoeuer is to bee thought of this miracle with the exposition therof, thus the matter fell out, that Gregories seruice had only the place, and yet hath to this day in the greatest part of Europe, þe seruice of Ambrose beyng excluded. MarginaliaGregories masse taketh place in Europe. And thus much touching the great act of Pope Adrian, for the setting vp of the Masse. By the relation wherof, yet this knowledge may come to the Reader, at least to vnderstand, how that commonly in christen nations abroad, as yet no vni-

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