Thematic Divisions in Book 12
1. Exhumations of Bucer and Phagius along with Peter Martyr's Wife2. Pole's Visitation Articles for Kent3. Ten Martyrs Burnt at Canterbury4. The 'Bloody Commission'5. Twenty-two Prisoners from Colchester6. Five Burnt at Smithfield7. Stephen Gratwick and others8. Edmund Allen and other martyrs9. Edmund Allen10. Alice Benden and other martyrs11. Examinations of Matthew Plaise12. Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs13. Ambrose14. Richard Lush15. The Martyrdom of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper16. Rose Allin and nine other Colchester Martyrs17. John Thurston18. George Eagles19. Richard Crashfield20. Fryer and George Eagles' sister21. Joyce Lewes22. Rafe Allerton and others23. Agnes Bongeor and Margaret Thurston24. John Kurde25. John Noyes26. Cicelye Ormes27. Persecution at Lichfield28. Persecution at Chichester29. Thomas Spurdance30. Hallingdale, Sparrow and Gibson31. John Rough and Margaret Mearing32. Cuthbert Simson33. William Nicholl34. Seaman, Carman and Hudson35. Three at Colchester36. A Royal Proclamation37. Roger Holland and other Islington martyrs38. Stephen Cotton and other martyrs39. Scourging of Thomas Hinshaw40. Scourging of John Milles41. Richard Yeoman42. John Alcocke43. Thomas Benbridge44. Four at St Edmondsbury45. Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver46. Three at Bury47. A Poor Woman of Exeter48. The Final Five Martyrs49. John Hunt and Richard White50. John Fetty51. Nicholas Burton52. John Fronton53. Another Martyrdom in Spain54. Baker and Burgate55. Burges and Hoker56. The Scourged: Introduction57. Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax58. Thomas Greene59. Bartlett Greene and Cotton60. Steven Cotton's Letter61. James Harris62. Robert Williams63. Bonner's Beating of Boys64. A Beggar of Salisbury65. Providences: Introduction66. The Miraculously Preserved67. William Living68. Edward Grew69. William Browne70. Elizabeth Young71. Elizabeth Lawson72. Christenmas and Wattes73. John Glover74. Dabney75. Alexander Wimshurst76. Bosom's wife77. Lady Knevet78. John Davis79. Mistress Roberts80. Anne Lacy81. Crosman's wife82. Congregation at Stoke in Suffolk83. Congregation of London84. Englishmen at Calais85. Edward Benet86. Jeffrey Hurst87. William Wood88. Simon Grinaeus89. The Duchess of Suffolk90. Thomas Horton 91. Thomas Sprat92. John Cornet93. Thomas Bryce94. Gertrude Crockhey95. William Mauldon96. Robert Horneby97. Mistress Sandes98. Thomas Rose99. Troubles of Sandes100. Complaint against the Ipswich Gospellers101. Tome 6 Life and Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth102. The Unprosperous Queen Mary103. Punishments of Persecutors104. Foreign Examples105. A Letter to Henry II of France106. The Death of Henry II and others107. Justice Nine-Holes108. John Whiteman109. Admonition to the Reader110. Hales' Oration111. The Westminster Conference112. Appendix notes113. Ridley's Treatise114. Back to the Appendix notes115. Thomas Hitton116. John Melvyn's Letter117. Alcocke's Epistles118. Cautions to the Reader119. Those Burnt at Bristol: extra material120. Priest's Wife of Exeter121. Snel122. Laremouth123. William Hunter's Letter124. Doctor Story125. The French Massacre
Critical Apparatus for this Page
View an Image of this PageCattley Pratt ReferencesCommentary on the Text
Names and Places on this Page
Cuthbert SymsonJohn RoughRichard Cluney
 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Cuthbert Symson

(d. 1558)

Martyr. Deacon of the protestant congregation in Marian London.

Foxe describes Cuthbert Symson's character. 1563, p. 1650, 1570, p. 2228, 1576, p. 1924, 1583, p. 2031.

Rough went to Symson and they agreed to give a book containing the names of the congregation to Kate Rough. 1563, p. 1650, 1570, p. 2228, 1576, p. 1924, 1583, p. 2032.

Kate Rough dreamed she saw James Mearing's wife with a bloody banner in her hand and a fire-pan on her head. 1570, p. 2228, 1583, p. 2032.

Rough was arrested by the vice-chamberlain of the queen's house at the Saracen's Head in Islington with Cuthbert Symson and Hugh Foxe on 12 December 1557. They had pretended to be there to hear a play but were actually reading their communion books. 1563, p. 1653, 1570, p. 2231, 1576, p. 1926, 1583, p. 2034.

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Cuthbert Symson was racked and condemned. 1563, p. 1651, 1570, p. 2229, 1576, p. 1924, 1583, p. 2032.

He was put in stocks prior to his condemnation. 1563, p. 1651, 1570, p. 2229, 1576, p. 1926, 1583, p. 2032.

He had a vision in the stocks which he reported to master Austen, to his wife, and to Thomas Symson. 1563, p. 1651, 1570, p. 2229, 1576, p. 1926, 1583, p. 2032.

Cluney checked on Symson in prison prior to his condemnation. Someone else also entered his cell. 1563, p. 1651, 1570, p. 2229, 1576, p. 1926, 1583, p. 2032.

Articles were brought against him and he answered. 1563, pp. 1653-64, 1570, p. 2230, 1576, pp. 1926, 1583, p. 2032.

Roger Sergeant gave information against Cuthbert Symson. 1563, p. 1652 [incorrectly numbered as 1632], 1570, p. 2229, 1576, p. 1926, 1583, p. 2032.

Symson wrote a letter to his wife. 1563, p. 1653 [incorrectly numbered 1633], 1570, pp. 2230-31, 1576, p. 1927, 1583, pp. 2033-34.

He was burned on 28 March 1558. 1563, p. 1650, 1570, p. 2228, 1576, p. 1927, 1583, p. 2034.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Rough

(d. 1557)

Minister. Martyr. Born in Scotland. Of Stirling. (DNB)

John Rough was originally a Black Friar in Stirling for sixteen years until the time when Lord Hamilton (earl of Arran) sued the archbishop of St Andrews. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2225, 1576, p. 1921, 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

Rough was in the service of Hamilton for just one year. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2225, 1576, p. 1921, 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

Rough was sent to preach in Ayr for four years. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2225, 1576, p. 1921, 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

After the death of the David Beaton, he went to St Andrews. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2225, 1576, p. 1921, 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

He was assigned a pension of £20 by Henry VIII. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2225, 1576, p. 1921, 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

After the battle of Musselborough he went to Carlisle, then on to the duke of Somerset. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2225, 1576, p. 1921, 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

He was sent as preacher to Carlisle, Berwick and Newcastle. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2225, 1576, p. 1921, 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

He married in Newcastle. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2225, 1576, p. 1921, 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

Rough was called by the archbishop of York to the benefice of Hull, where he remained until the death of Edward VI. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2225, 1576, p. 1921, 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

He fled to Norden in Friesland upon the accession of Mary. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2225, 1576, p. 1921, 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

He came to London on 10 November 1557. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2225, 1576, p. 1921, 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

Foxe relates John Rough's sermon about and conversation with Dr Watson in which Rough berated Watson for his doctrinal beliefs. 1563, p. 1734.

Rough was betrayed by Roger Sergeant, a tailor. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2226, 1576, p. 1921, 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

Rough was arrested by the vice-chamberlain of the queen's house at the Saracen's Head in Islington with Cuthbert Symson and Hugh Foxe on 12 December 1557. They had pretended to be there to hear a play but were actually reading their communion books. 1563, p. 1653, 1570, p. 2231, 1576, p. 1926, 1583, p. 2034.

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On 15 December 1557 a letter was sent by the archbishop of York, the earl of Shrewsbury, Edward Hastings, Anthony Montague, John Bourne and Henry Jerningham (members of the privy council) to Bishop Bonner along with the examinations of John Rough. They sent Rough to Newgate. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2226, 1576, pp. 1921-22., 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

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Articles were brought against him and he answered. 1563, pp. 1647-48, 1570, pp. 2226-27, 1576, pp. 1922-23, 1583, pp. 2029-30.

Rough attended the burning of Austoo at Smithfield. On his way home he met with Master Farrar, a merchant of Halifax, who asked him where he had been. 1563, p. 1648, 1570, p. 2227, 1576, p. 1923, 1583, p. 2034.

Rough was burned at London on 22 December 1557. 1563, p. 1735, 1570, p. 2227, 1576, p. 1923, 1583, p. 2030.

He wrote a letter to his godly friends. 1570, p. 2227, 1576, p. 1923, 1583, p. 2030.

He wrote a letter to the congregation two days before he burned. 1583, pp. 2030-31.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Richard Cluney

Bonner's summoner. Keeper of Lollards Tower.

Cluney witnessed the degradation of John Hooper and John Rogers on 4 February 1555. 1563, p. 1058; 1570, p. 1681; 1576, p. 1435; 1583, p. 1508. [NB: Described as a bell ringer in 1563, p. 1058, but this was changed to summoner in later editions.]

Bonner's writ for the excommunication of John Tooley was sent to Cluney. 1563, p. 1143; 1570, p. 1757; 1576, p. 1501; 1583, p. 1582.

Robert Johnson wrote a letter to Bonner about Whittle, confirming Cluney's and Harpsfield's reports. He mentioned that Sir Thomas More's submission was read to him twice to no good effect. 1563, p. 1456, 1570, p. 2018, 1576, p. 1738, 1583, pp. 1846-47.

John Harpsfield wrote a letter to Bonner about Whittle's subscription, in which he mentioned Cluney's report. 1563, pp. 1455-56, 1570, pp. 2017-18, 1576, p. 1738, 1583, pp. 1846-47.

Margery Mearing was talking with a friend when she saw Cluney, Bonner's summoner, making his way to her house. Cluney took her away to be examined. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2228, 1576, p. 1924, 1583, p. 2031.

Cluney took William Living to his own house, robbed him, and then took him to Bonner's coalhouse and put him in the stocks. Cluney eventually brought him meat and then took him to Darbyshire who presented him with a list of names. Cluney took Julian Living to Lollards Tower. 1563, p. 1673, 1570, p. 2265, 1576, p. 1956, 1583, p. 2063.

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John Fetty was taken by Richard Tanner and his fellow constables to Sir John Mordaunt who then sent him to Cluney, Bonner's summoner, who sent him to Lollards Tower and put him in the stocks. 1563, p. 1693, 1570, p. 2257, 1576, p. 1949, 1583, p. 2056.

The chaplains had Cluney take William Fetty to his father in Lollards Tower. 1563, p. 1693, 1570, p. 2256, 1576, p. 1948, 1583, p. 2055.

The child told his father what had happened, at which point Cluney seized the child and returned him to Bonner's house. 1563, p. 1693, 1570, p. 2256, 1576, p. 1948, 1583, p. 2055.

Thomas Green was transferred quickly from Lollards Tower to the coalhouse by Cluney and then put in the stocks. 1563, p. 1685, 1570, p. 2263, 1576, p. 1953, 1583, p. 2060.

After examination, Cluney removed Green to prison again, first to the coalhouse and then the salthouse. 1563, p. 1688, 1570, p. 2263, 1576, p. 1954, 1583, p. 2061.

Cluney delivered Green to Trinian, the porter of Christ's hospital, where he was thrown into the dungeon. 1563, p. 1688, 1570, p. 2263, 1576, p. 1954, 1583, p. 2061.

After Elizabeth Young's sixth examination, Darbyshire called on Cluney to take her away. Cluney took her to the stockhouse, where she was kept in irons, and then to Lollards Tower, where she was kept in stocks and irons. 1570, p. 2273, 1576, p. 1962, 1583, p. 2069.

Alexander Wimshurst was sent to Cluney's house in Paternoster Row, where he was to be carried forward to Lollard's Tower, but Cluney, his wife and maid had no time to lock up Wimshurst as they were extremely busy. When Wimshurst was left alone in Cluney's hall, a woman came to him and told him this was his chance to escape, which he took. 1570, p. 2276, 1576, p. 1965, 1583, p. 2072.

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Edward Benet asked Story to help him out of prison, which he did, only to deliver him to Cluney who put him in stocks in the coalhouse for a week. 1570, p. 2279, 1576, p. 1968 [incorrectly numbered 1632], 1583, p. 2075.

[Foxe occasionally refers to him as 'Richard Cloney'.]

2055 [2031]

Queene Mary. John, Rough, Margaret Mearyng, Cutbert Symson Martyrs.

MarginaliaAnno 1557. March.the Gospell of the Crosse, by me preached, nor yet of my suffering: for with my bloud I affirme the same. I go before, I suffer first the bayting of the Butchers Dogges: yet I haue not done, what I should haue done: but my weaknes, I doubt not, is supplied in the strēgth of Iesus christ: and your wisedomes & learning will accept that small talent, which I haue distributed vnto you (as I trust) as a faythfull stewarde, and if what was vndone, impute that to my frayltye and ignoraunce, and with your loue couer that which is and was naked in me. God knoweth ye all are tender vnto me, my hart bursteth for the loue of you. Ye are not without your great pastor of your soule: who, so loueth you, that if men were not to bee sought out (as God be praysed, there is no want of men) he would cause stones to minister vnto you. Cast your care on that Rock, the wind of temptation shall not preuayle, fast and praye for the dayes are euill. Looke vp with your eyes of hope, for the redemption is not farre off, (but my wickednesse hath deserued that I shall not see it.) And also that which is behind of the bloud of our brethren, which shall also be layd vnder the aulter, shall crye for your reliefe. Time wil not now suffer me to write longer Letters. The spirite of God guid you in and out, rising & sitting, couer you with the shadow of his winges, defend you agaynst the tyrannye of the wicked, and bring you happely vnto the Porte of eternall felicitye, where all teares shall be wyped from your eyes, and you shall alwayes abyde wyth the Lambe.

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Iohn Rough.

¶ Margaret Mearing Martyr.

MarginaliaThe story and examination of Margaret Mearing, Martyr.IT is declared, that in the companye of Iohn Roughe, was burned one Margaret Mearyng, who, as the Register maketh mention, was at one time and day brought wyth the sayde Rough foorth to examination: where the Byshop hauynge no priuate matters to charge her withall, did the eightenth daye of December obiecte agaynste her those common and accustomable Articles mentioned before pag, 1585. To which she aunswered as followeth.

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MarginaliaHer aunsweres to the articles.FIrst, that there is here in earth a catholicke Churche and that there is the true fayth of Christ obserued, and kept in the same Church.

2 Item, that there were onely two sacramentes in the Church, namely the sacrament of the bodye and bloud of Christ, and the sacrament of Baptisme.

3 Item, that she was baptised in the fayth, & beliefe of the sayd Church, renouncing there, by her Godfathers and Godmothers, the Deuill and all his workes. &c.

4 Item, that when she came to the age of fouretene yeares, shee did not knowe what her true beliefe was, because shee was not then of discretion to vnderstande the same, neyther yet was taught it.

5 Item, that she had not gone from the catholicke fayth at any time: but she sayde that the Masse was abhominable before the sight of God, and before the sight of all true Christian people, and that it is the playne Cup of fornication, and the whore of Babilon. And as concerning the Sacrament of the aultar, she sayd she beleued there was no such sacrament in the catholicke Church. Also she sayd, that she vtterly abhorred the authoritye of the Byshop of Rome, with all the Religion obserued in the same Antichristes Church.

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6 Item, she aunswered to the sixt Article, as to the first, before specified.

7 Item, that she hath refused to come to her Parish Church, because the true Religion of Christ was not then vsed in the same: and farther sayd that she had not come vnto the Churche by the space of one yeare, and three quarters, then last paste, neither yet did meane any more to come vnto the same in these Idolatrous dayes.

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MarginaliaMargaret Mearing apprehended by Cluney.8 Item, as touching the maner of her apprehension she said that Cluney the Bishops Somner, did fetch her to the Bishop.

These aunsweres being then registered, they were agayne (with the sayd Articles). propounded agaynste her the xx. day of December, and there being demaunded if she would stand vnto those her aunsweres, she sayde: I wyll stand to them vnto the death: for the very Aungels of heauen do laugh you to scorne, to see your abhomination that you vse in the Churche. MarginaliaSentence against Margaret Mearing.After the whiche wordes the Byshop pronounced the sentence of condemnation: and then deliuering her vnto the Sheriffes, she was wyth the forenamed Iohn Roughe caryed vnto Newgate. From whence they were both together led vnto Smithfield, the xxij. day of the same Moneth of December, and there most ioyfullye gaue theyr liues for the profession of Christes

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Gospell.

MarginaliaThe Martyrdome of Iohn Rough and Margaret Mearing in Smithfield. Anno. 1557. December.When the latter end of this history of Mayster Rough, and Margarete Mearing was in finishing, there came to our hands one necessary thing of the said Margaret Mearyng, which wee thought not good to omit. 

Commentary  *  Close

In other words, Foxe obtained this story as the 1563 edition was nearing completion. This is a reminder of the steady influx of new information into Foxe's hands as his first two editions were being printed.

The matter is this. MarginaliaA note of Margaret Mearing.Mayster Rough being chiefe Pastour to the congregation in the said time of Queene Mary, as before ye haue heard (of which companye this Margaret Mearyng was one) did not well like the sayd Margaret, but greatly suspected her, as many other of them did besides, because she would often times bring in straungers among them, and in her talke seemed (as they thought) somewhat to busye. &c. Nowe, what they sawe or vnderstoode further in her, we know not, but this followed the euill suspition conceiued of her. Mayster Rough the Fridaye before hee was taken, in the open face of the Congregation, did excommunicate her out of the same company: and so seemed with the rest to exclude, and cut her of from theyr fellowship and society. Whereat she being mooued, did not well take it, nor in good part, but thought her selfe not indifferently handled amonge them. Whereupon to one of her frendes in a heate, she threatned to remoue them all. But the prouidence of God was otherwise. For the Sondaye after Mayster Rough being taken by the information of one Roger, Sergeaunt to the Bishop of London (as here after thou shalt heare) was layd prisoner in the Gatehouse at Westminster, where none of his frendes coulde come to him to visite him. MarginaliaMargaret Mearing relieueth M. Rough in prison.Then this sayd Margaret hearing therof, gotte her a basket, and a cleane shyrt in it, and went to Westminster, where she fayning her selfe to be his Sister, got into the prison to him, and did there to her power not a litle comfort him.

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Then comming abroade agayne, shee vnderstandinge that the Congregation suspected the said Sergeaunt to be his Promoter, went to his house, and asked whether Iudas dwelt not there. Vnto whom aunswere was made, there dwelt no such. No, sayd she? Dwelleth not Iudas here that betrayed Christ? His name is Sergeaunt. Whē she saw she could not speake with him, she went her way. So the Friday after, she standing at Marke lane ende in London, with an other woman, a frende of hers, sawe Cluney Boners Somner, commyng in the Streete towardes her house. Whome when she sawe, she sayed to the other woman standyng with her: whether goeth yonder fine felowe sayde she? I thinke surely he goeth to my house: and in viewing him still, at the last she saw him enter in at her doore. So immediately she went home, and asked him whome hee sought. MarginaliaThe taking of Margaret Mearing Martyr.Whereunto Cluney made answere and sayd, for you: you must go with me. Mary, quoth she, here I am: I will go with you, and comming to the Bishoppe, she was layde in prison, and the Wednesday after burnt with Mayster Rough in Smithfielde, as ye haue heard.

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Anno. 1558. 
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VIII, 454, fn 1

"In the beginning of this year, in the month of April, by virtue of a commission from Bonner, and some warrants also from the council, Dr. Chedsey and Thomas Mourton, the bishop's chaplains, and John Boswell, his secretary, went down to Colchester and Harwich, to examine the heretics in those parts of Essex, and to condemn them to be burnt; for though they burnt so many - so many, that one Dale, a promoter, told Mr. Living, a minister (and in bonds for religion), 'You care not for burning; by God's blood' (as he swore) 'there must be some other means found for you,' - yet many more remained there." Strype's "Memorials under Mary," chap. lxii., where the proceedings of this commission are, in some measure, detailed. - ED.

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¶ The Suffering & cruell tormentes of Cutbert Symson, Deacon of the Christian Congregation in London, in Queene Maries dayes, most paciently abiding the cruell rage of the Papistes for Christes sake. 
Commentary  *  Close
Cuthbert Simpson

The entire account of Simpson first appeared in the 1563 edition but it was very disorganised. Foxe's sources for this account were the official records of Simpson's trial (for the articles against him as well as the depositions of witnesses against the underground London congregation). Foxe also printed two letters by Simpson and drew heavily on the testimony of individual informants. (This is probably one reason for the disorder of this account in the first edition). In the 1570 edition, this material was re-arranged and the depositions dropped. Also dropped was an anecdote about a dream which John Rough had. There were no further changes to this account in subsequent editions.

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MarginaliaAnno. 1558. MarginaliaThe story & cruell handling of Cutbert Simson. Deacon and Martyr. March. 28.NExt after the Martyrdome of M. Rough Minister of the Congregation, aboue mentioned, succeded in like Martyrdome the Deacon also of that sayde Godly company or Congregation in London, named Cutbert Symson, being committed to the fire, the yeare of our Lord. 1558. the 28. day of March.

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This Cutbert Symson was a manne of a faythfull, and zealous hart to Christ and his true flocke, in so much that he neuer ceased labouryng, and Studying most earnestly, not onely how to preserue them without corruption of the Popish religion, but also hys care was euer vigilant, how to keepe them together wythout peryll, or daunger of persecution. The paynes, trauayle, zeale, pacience, and fidelity of this man, in caryng, and prouiding for thys Congregation, as it is not lightly to be expressed: MarginaliaThe visions sent to Gods Saintes concerning their afflictions.so is it wonderfull to beholde the prouidence of the Lord by vision, concerning the troubles of this faythfull minister, aud godly Deacon, as in this here folowyng may appeare.

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The Fridaye at nighte before Maister Rough Minister of the congregation (of whom mētion is made before) was takē, being in his bed he dreamed, that he saw 2. of the

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