Thematic Divisions in Book 12
1. Exhumations of Bucer and Phagius along with Peter Martyr's Wife2. Pole's Visitation Articles for Kent3. Ten Martyrs Burnt at Canterbury4. The 'Bloody Commission'5. Twenty-two Prisoners from Colchester6. Five Burnt at Smithfield7. Stephen Gratwick and others8. Edmund Allen and other martyrs9. Edmund Allen10. Alice Benden and other martyrs11. Examinations of Matthew Plaise12. Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs13. Ambrose14. Richard Lush15. The Martyrdom of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper16. Rose Allin and nine other Colchester Martyrs17. John Thurston18. George Eagles19. Richard Crashfield20. Fryer and George Eagles' sister21. Joyce Lewes22. Rafe Allerton and others23. Agnes Bongeor and Margaret Thurston24. John Kurde25. John Noyes26. Cicelye Ormes27. Persecution at Lichfield28. Persecution at Chichester29. Thomas Spurdance30. Hallingdale, Sparrow and Gibson31. John Rough and Margaret Mearing32. Cuthbert Simson33. William Nicholl34. Seaman, Carman and Hudson35. Three at Colchester36. A Royal Proclamation37. Roger Holland and other Islington martyrs38. Stephen Cotton and other martyrs39. Scourging of Thomas Hinshaw40. Scourging of John Milles41. Richard Yeoman42. John Alcocke43. Thomas Benbridge44. Four at St Edmondsbury45. Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver46. Three at Bury47. A Poor Woman of Exeter48. The Final Five Martyrs49. John Hunt and Richard White50. John Fetty51. Nicholas Burton52. John Fronton53. Another Martyrdom in Spain54. Baker and Burgate55. Burges and Hoker56. The Scourged: Introduction57. Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax58. Thomas Greene59. Bartlett Greene and Cotton60. Steven Cotton's Letter61. James Harris62. Robert Williams63. Bonner's Beating of Boys64. A Beggar of Salisbury65. Providences: Introduction66. The Miraculously Preserved67. William Living68. Edward Grew69. William Browne70. Elizabeth Young71. Elizabeth Lawson72. Christenmas and Wattes73. John Glover74. Dabney75. Alexander Wimshurst76. Bosom's wife77. Lady Knevet78. John Davis79. Mistress Roberts80. Anne Lacy81. Crosman's wife82. Congregation at Stoke in Suffolk83. Congregation of London84. Englishmen at Calais85. Edward Benet86. Jeffrey Hurst87. William Wood88. Simon Grinaeus89. The Duchess of Suffolk90. Thomas Horton 91. Thomas Sprat92. John Cornet93. Thomas Bryce94. Gertrude Crockhey95. William Mauldon96. Robert Horneby97. Mistress Sandes98. Thomas Rose99. Troubles of Sandes100. Complaint against the Ipswich Gospellers101. Tome 6 Life and Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth102. The Unprosperous Queen Mary103. Punishments of Persecutors104. Foreign Examples105. A Letter to Henry II of France106. The Death of Henry II and others107. Justice Nine-Holes108. John Whiteman109. Admonition to the Reader110. Hales' Oration111. The Westminster Conference112. Appendix notes113. Ridley's Treatise114. Back to the Appendix notes115. Thomas Hitton116. John Melvyn's Letter117. Alcocke's Epistles118. Cautions to the Reader119. Those Burnt at Bristol: extra material120. Priest's Wife of Exeter121. Snel122. Laremouth123. William Hunter's Letter124. Doctor Story125. The French Massacre
Critical Apparatus for this Page
View an Image of this PageCattley Pratt ReferencesCommentary on the Text
 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Angel's wife

Midwife. Of London.

Swingfield seized Angel's wife, a midwife, while she was at the labour of Mistress Walter. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1991, 1583, p. 2010.

Angel's wife was taken to Lollard's Tower, 28 weeks pregnant. She gave birth to a boy without assistance in Lollard's Tower. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1991, 1583, p. 2010.

Her friends stood surety for her but she was sent by Story to Newgate. Story had accused her of murdering a woman and her child who resided with her in her home. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1991, 1583, p. 2010.

Sir Roger Cholmley dismissed the charges against her. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1991, 1583, p. 2010.

 
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Burton

Bailiff . Of Crowland, Lincolnshire.

Burton appeared to conform under Edward VI. 1563, pp. 1735-36, 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2101.

Burton was eager to set up the mass in his parish and threatened the curate who tried to continue using the Edwardian prayer book in Mary's reign. The curate, seeing Burton's rage, reverted to saying mass instead. 1563, p. 1736, 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2101.

A crow defecated on Burton's head; its call appeared to cry 'knave, knave!' as it flew overhead. The stench of its excrement was so vile that Burton could not cease vomiting and so died. 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2101.

 
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David Woodruff

Sheriff of London (1554 - 1555) (DNB, sub 'Sir William Chester').

Together with fellow sheriff Sir William Chester, David Woodruff escorted John Rogers and John Hooper to and from various prisons during their trials and condemnations. 1563, pp. 1030 and 1056-57; 1570, pp. 1662 and 1679-80; 1576, pp. 1418 and 1433-34; 1583, pp. 1489 and 1507.

After Rogers and Hooper were degraded, they were delivered to the custody of Chester and Woodruff. 1563, p. 1058; 1570, p. 1681; 1576, p. 1435; 1583, p. 1508.

Chester and Woodruff also conveyed John Rogers to Smithfield. 1563, p. 1076; 1570, p. 1663; 1576, p. 1419; 1583, p. 1492.

Woodruff urged John Rogers, at his execution, to recant his 'abhominable doctrine'. 1570, p. 1664; 1576, pp. 1419-20; 1583, p. 1493.

Together with William Chester, he took custody of Stephen Knight, John Laurence and William Pygot and delivered them to Newgate. 1563, p. 1112; 1570, p. 1721; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, p. 1543.

Bradford was handed over to the sheriff of London [Chester or Woodruff] and taken to the Clink. He was then taken to the Counter in the Poultry, and it was intended that he be handed to the earl of Derby and burned in Manchester, but these original plans were altered and he was burned in London. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, pp. 1789-90, 1576, p. 1528,1583, p. 1611.

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Woodruff taunted Bradford at his burning and ordered Bradford's hands to be tied when he would not cease praying. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, p. 1804 [with cross-ref to p. 1664], 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1624.

He called John Rogers a heretic at his burning and said that he would never pray for him, although Rogers prayed for the sheriff. 1563, p. 1215, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1624.

In 1555 he was sheriff with William Chester. Chester would weep at the death of the martyrs, whereas Woodruff would laugh. Chester was kind, whereas Woodruff would beat the condemned. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, p. 1804, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1624.

When Woodruff went home after the burning of John Bradford, he became paralysed in his legs and arms. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, pp. 1804-05, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1624.

Denley, Newman and Packingham were handed over to the sheriffs of London to be kept until commanded by writ to be sent to their places of execution. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1572, 1583, p. 1685.

Along with Bonner, Woodruff cried for Robert Smith to be taken away at his last examination. 1563, p. 1259, 1570, p. 1874, 1576, p. 1605, 1583, p. 1694.

David Woodruff insisted that Carman's head be broken for getting his cart in the way when Woodruff's children were being brought to him. 1563, p. 1704, 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1991, 1583, p. 2010.

Woodruff was afflicted with a deadening of one side, which stayed with him for seven or eight years until he died. 1563, p. 1704, 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1991, 1583, p. 2010.

[For further evidence of Woodruff's catholic sympathies, see Brigden, London, p. 554].

[Foxe also refers to him by the variants: 'Woodriff', 'Woodrofe', 'Wodroffe' and 'Wodriffe'.]

 
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George Eagles

(d. 1557)

Martyr. Tailor. Itinerant preacher. From the Colchester area.

When charged with reading to the people in the woods, John Allerton said that he had not, save once, when he was in the company of George Eagles and Richard Roth, when Roth desired him to read something he had upon him. 1570, p. 2212, 1576, p. 1909, 1583, p. 2016.

Eagles preached during Edward VI's reign and then became itinerant during Mary's reign, which coined him the nickname of 'Trudgeover'. 1563, p. 1614, 1570, p. 2202, 1576, p. 1900, 1583, p. 2009.

John Johnson testified that he learned his heretical beliefs - denial of the eucharist and the power of a priest to absolve sin - from 'Trudgon'. He said that 'Trudgon' was a true prophet. 1563, p. 1614, 1570, p. 2202, 1576, p. 1900, 1583, p. 2009.

Eagles preached in and around Colchester during Mary's reign. 1570, p. 2202, 1576, p. 1901, 1583, p. 2009.

Spies were sent out to track down Eagles and bring him to the authorities either dead or alive. 1570, p. 2202, 1576, p. 1901, 1583, p. 2009.

Eagles' brethren hid him on several occasions, evading the authorities. 1570, p. 2203, 1576, p. 1901, 1583, p. 2009.

An edict was declared across Essex, Suffolk, Kent and Norwich, promising £20 to anyone who captured Eagles. 1570, p. 2203, 1576, p. 1901, 1583, p. 2009.

Eagles was captured in Colchester on Mary Magdalen's day 1557. 1570, p. 2203, 1576, p. 1901, 1583, p. 2009.

Eagles was committed to prison in Colchester and then, four days later, was conveyed to Chelmsford where, during his first night, he refused food and drink and kept continual prayer. 1570, p. 2203, 1576, p. 1901, 1583, p. 2009.

Eagles was indicted. 1570, p. 2203, 1576, p. 1901, 1583, p. 2009.

After his indictment, Eagles was taken to the new inn, called the Crown, in Chelmsford, by William Swallow. 1570, p. 2203, 1576, p. 1901, 1583, p. 2009.

Richard Potto, the innkeeper of the Cock Inn, tried to persuade George Eagles to ask the queen's forgiveness. 1570, p. 2203, 1576, p. 1901, 1583, p. 2009.

Eagles was drawn on a sledge to his execution. He carried with him a psalm book, from which he read aloud on the journey. 1570, p. 2203, 1576, p. 1901, 1583, p. 2010.

When Eagles was on the ladder, Potto again troubled him, begging him to ask forgiveness, but the sheriff pushed him away. 1563, 1615, 1570, p. 2003, 1576, p. 1901, 1583, p. 2010.

Eagles was executed with two thieves, one of whom asked Christ for mercy, the other rebuking such actions. These two men were hanged before Eagles suffered, the repentant man saying his prayers and passing quietly, the scoffer being unable to speak or pray prior to his death. 1563, 1615, 1570, p. 2003, 1576, p. 1901, 1583, p. 2010.

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Eagles was hanged for a time but then cut down before he was dead. 1563, 1615, 1570, p. 2003, 1576, p. 1901, 1583, p. 2010.

William Swallow, a bailiff of Chelmsford, then put Eagles on the sled, laid his neck across it, and proceeded to hack at Eagles with a blunt cleaver, hitting him many times on the shoulders, chin, mangling him, and then cut out his heart. Eagles' body was then quartered, his bowels burned, and the body parts put on fish-stalls before Swallow's door, until horses were ready to take the quarters away - one each to Colchester, Harwich, Chelmsford, and St Osyth's. His head was placed on a pole in Chelmsford market until the wind blew it down, and eventually somebody buried it in the churchyard at night. 1563, p. 1615, 1570, p. 2204, 1576, p. 1902, 1583, p. 2010.

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Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Bradford

(1510? - 1555)

Protestant divine. Martyr. Of Manchester. [DNB]

Foxe gives an account of Bradford's birth, early life and education. 1563, p. 1172, 1570, p. 1779, 1576, p. 1520 , 1583, p. 1603.

Martin Bucer exhorted Bradford to preach and join the ministry. 1563, pp. 1172-73, 1570, pp. 1779-80, 1576, p. 1520 , 1583, p. 1603.

Bradford was persuaded to enter the ministry by Ridley. Foxe provides an account of Bradford's ordination and early career under Edward. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1520, 1583, pp. 1603-04.

He was deprived under Mary. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1520, 1583, p. 1604.

On 13 August 1553 Bradford saved Bishop Bourne from a riotous crowd when the bishop preached at Paul's Cross. (1563, pp. 904-5, 1173; 1570, pp. 1570, 1780; 1576, pp. 1339, 1520; and 1583, pp. 1497 (recte 1409), 1604).

One Sunday Bradford preached at the St Mary le Bow Church in Cheapside, reproving people for their 'sedicious misdeamenour'. He was accused of sedition in 1553 and committed to the Tower. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford was committed to the Tower by the privy council on 16 August 1553 together with Thomas Becon and 'M. Vernon' [Jean Veron], (1583, p 1497, (recte 1409)). Another mention of Bradford being sent to the Tower, together with Veron and Becon, on 16 August 1553 is in 1570, p. 1634; 1576, p 1395; 1583, p. 1465.

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He was sent to the King's Bench in Southwark and later to the Counter, Poultry Street, London. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Rowland Taylor was imprisoned with him in the King's Bench. Taylor told his friends that Bradford was an angel of God sent to comfort him (1563, p. 1570; 1570, p. 1696; 1576, p. 1448; 1583, p. 1521).

In a letter William Tyms wrote to 'God's faithful servants', he named his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench as Robert Ferrar, Rowland Taylor, John Philpot, John Bradford and five other Sussex men. 1570, p. 2082, 1576, p. 1795, 1583, p. 1902.

Bradford became ill whilst incarcerated. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

He received the sacrament whilst incarcerated. 1563, p. 1173, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Foxe gives an account of Bradford's character and behaviour. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford was generous with his money towards fellow prisoners. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1780, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Foxe describes the conditions of Bradford's imprisonment. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Ridley reported to Cranmer, in a letter written in the aftermath of the Oxford disputations in April 1554, that Crome, Rogers and Bradford would be taken to Cambridge for a disputation on similar lines to that held in Oxford (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p 1394; 1583, p. 1464; not in LM). It was rumored in May 1554 that Bradford, Saunders and John Rogers would be in a disputation to be held at Cambridge (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p 1399; 1583, p. 1469). Bradford was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71.

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On 6 May 1554, John Hooper sent Robert Ferrar, John Philpot, John Bradford and Rowland Taylor a letter discussing a proposed disputation in Cambridge in which they would represent the protestants. 1570, p. 1687; 1576, p. 1440; 1583, p. 1513.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to him and his fellow prisoners Robert Ferrar, John Philpot and Rowland Taylor (1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500).

Ferrar would have taken the sacrament if not for Bradford's intervention. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford's final days and execution are described. 1563, p. 1174-75, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, pp. 1521-22, 1583, p. 1604.

Bradford was examined after the lord chancellor and his commission had finished their talk with Ferrar. 1563, p. 1185, 1570, p. 1782, 1576, p. 1522, 1583, p. 1605.

Bradford was brought to speak to Bonner by the under-marshal of the King's Bench. Talk and communication took place between the lord chancellor, Bonner and John Bradford on 22 January 1555, during which the bishop of Durham, Sir Richard Southwell, Sir Robert Rochester, and Secretary Bourne questioned Bradford's eucharistic doctrine. 1563, pp. 1185-88, 1570, pp. 1782-84, 1576, pp. 1522-23, 1583, pp. 1605-06.

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Secretary Bourne declared that Bradford had caused much trouble with letters, as had been reported to him by the earl of Derby. 1563, p. 1186, 1570, p. 1783, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

Bourne asked Bradford if the letters were seditious, but Bradford claimed they were not. 1563, p. 1187, 1570, p. 1783, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

The bishop of Worcester was present at this examination. 1563, p. 1187, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

The under-marshall was called to take watch over Bradford and was told to make sure that Bradford wrote no letters. 1563, p. 1187, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1523, 1583, p. 1606.

Bradford was examined on 29 January 1555 before Bonner. 1563, pp. 1185-92, 1570, pp. 1782-87, 1576, pp. 1524-26, 1583, pp. 1607-09.

Thomas Hussey met Bradford and spoke with him after his first examination. He told him that he could organise an escape for him, and that all those who had witnessed the examination could see that they had not reason to hold Bradford, yet Bradford did not want any assistance. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1525, 1583, p. 1609.

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During the conversation between Hussey and Bradford, Doctor Seton entered the room, and spoke a 'long sermon of my Lord Canterbury, M. Latimer, and M, Ridley'. He acknowledged that Latimer and Ridley were not able to answer anything at all at their examinations, and that Canterbury desired to confer with Durham and others, saying that Bradford should make a like suit, to which Seton received no agreement from Bradford. Seton berated Bradford for his attitude, and claimed that Bonner could be charitable. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

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Bradford was brought before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Overy's on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

Bradford's second examination took place directly after the excommunication of John Rogers. 1563, pp. 1185, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

Gardiner told Bradford that he would be handed over to the secular authorities if he did not follow the example of Barlow and Cardmaker. 1563, p. 1188, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

During Bradford's second examination, Doctor Seton described Ridley and Latimer as being unable to answer anything at all at their examinations. 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1607.

Gardiner spoke on the subject of Bradford's allegedly seditious letters, referring to a report given by the earl of Derby. Bradford claimed that he had been denied paper, pen and ink. 1563, p. 1190, 1570, p. 1786, 1576, p. 1525, 1583, p. 1609.

Bradford was taken to St Mary Overyes church and stayed there until early morning after his second examination. 1563, p. 1191, 1570, p. 1787, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

Bradford's last examination took place directly after the excommunication of Laurence Saunders. 1563, pp. 1192, 1195, 1570, p. 1787, 1576, p. 1526, 1583, p. 1609.

Mr Chamberlaine told Gardiner that Bradford had served Harrington, to which Gardiner answered that Bradford deceived Harrington out of ?7, and claimed that this was why Bradford left his service. Bradford said this was slanderous. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1788, 1576, p. 1527, 1583, p. 1610.

The bishop of London referred to Bradford's letter to Mr Pendleton as proof of his heresy. A clerk named Allen then reminded Gardiner of Bradford's letters to Lancashire. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1788, 1576, p. 1527, 1583, p. 1610.

Bradford and Gardiner debated transubstantiation and Bradford denied Christ's presence in the bread and wine. The bishops and council discussed Luther, Zwingli and Oecolampadius. A bishop asked Bradford if he received Christ's body to which he said that he did not. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1789, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1611.

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In his last examination Bradford was also questioned by the bishop of Worcester. 1563, p. 1197, 1570, p. 1789, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1611.

Gardiner excommunicated Bradford. 1563, p. 1198, 1570, p. 1789, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1611.

He was excommunicated and sentenced to death by Stephen Gardiner on 30 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p 1412; 1583, p. 1483; also see 1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1450; 1583, pp. 1523-24).

Bradford was handed over to the sheriff of London and taken to the Clink. He was then taken to the Counter in the Poultry, and it was intended that he be handed to the earl of Derby and burned in Manchester, but these original plans were altered and he was burned in London. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, pp. 1789-90, 1576, p. 1528,1583, p. 1611.

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On 4 February 1555, after the condemnation of Bradford, Bonner went to the Counter to degrade Master Taylor but spoke to Bradford first. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1612.

Rowland Taylor told Bradford that he threatened to strike Bishop Bonner as he (Taylor) was being degraded (1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1451; 1583, p. 1524).

On 4 February 1555 Bonner took Harpsfield to speak with John Bradford, who was imprisoned after his excommunication. 1563, p. 1199, 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1612.

In February 1555 Willerton, a chaplain to Bishop Bonner, went to speak with John Bradford in prison. They discussed the doctors and scripture and agreed that each would write down his own arguments over transubstantiation. Willerton sent his few sparse answers to Bradford the next morning and went to see him in the afternoon. They discussed whether or not the scriptures should be in the vernacular. Bradford gave Willerton his answers on transubstantiation and told Willerton to form his answers as reasons. 1563, pp. 1199-1200. Willerton was with Creswell, Harding, Harpsfield and others. 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1612.

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On 12 February 1555 a servant of the earl of Derby went to see Bradford in prison. He asked Bradford to tender himself, and what his answer would be if Derby petitioned the queen to have Bradford sent overseas. Bradford refused, as he believed he would only end up being burned in Paris or Louvain, instead of in England, which was where he wished to die. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, p. 1612.

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On 14 February 1555 Percival Creswell, an old acqauintance of Bradford's, went to visit Bradford in prison. He offered to make suit for Bradford. He returned later, at 11 o'clock, with another man and gave Bradford a book by More, desiring him to read it. He told Bradford that the lords of York, Lincoln and Bath wished to speak with him. Then at 3 o'clock the same day, Dr Harding, the bishop of Lincoln's chaplain, went to see Bradford in prison. Harding talked of his fear for Bradford's soul, and that he himself had spoke against Peter Martir, Martin Bucer, Luther and others for their beliefs. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, pp. 1790-91, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, pp. 1612-13.

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On 15 February 1555 Percival Cresswell and another man went to see Bradford once more. Harspfield discussed with Bradford the way to enter the kingdom of heaven and also baptism. 1563, pp. 1200-01. In 1570 the date is given as 25 February. 1563, p. 1200, 1570, p. 1791, 1576, p. 1529, 1583, p. 1613.

On 16 February 1555 John Harpsfield and two others went to see Bradford in prison, to defend the line of bishops in the catholic church. Bradford refuted the argument. 1563, pp. 1202-03, 1570, pp. 1792-93, 1576, pp. 1530-31, 1583, pp. 1614-15.

On 23 February 1555 the archbishop of York (Nicholas Heath) and the bishop of Chichester (George Day) went to the Counter to speak with Bradford. 1563, pp. 1204-08, 1570, pp. 1794-97, 1576, pp. 1532-34, 1583, pp. 1615-17.

Bradford was asked by Heath and Day to read a book that did Dr Crome good. 1563, p. 1208, 1570, p. 1797, 1576, 1524, 1583, p. 1617.

On 25 February , at about 8am, two Spanish friars visited Bradford in the Counter. One of them was the king's confessor, the other was Alphonsus, who had written against heresies. Their conversation was held in Latin. 1563, pp. 1208-11, 1570, pp. 1797-98, 1576, pp. 1534-36, 1583, pp. 1617-19.

On 25 February, at about 5pm, Master Weston visited Bradford and asked to speak with him in private. When the two men were alone, Weston thanked Bradford for his writings to him and then produced the work that Bradford had sent him. It was entitled, 'Certayne reasons againste Transubstantiation gathered by John Bradforde, and geuen to Doctour weston and others'. 1563, p. 1212. They discussed transubstantiation. 1563, pp. 1211-12, 1570, pp. 1801-02. [Note that in 1570 this meeting is dated as the afternoon of 28 March. 1570, p. 1800.]

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On 21 March 1555 Bradford talked with Dr Weston, after being told of Weston's intention to visit by the earl of Derby's servant (when master Collier, warden of Manchester, had come to dinner at the Counter). 1576, p. 1536. Bradford and Weston spoke to each other in the presence of Master Collier, the earl of Derby's servant, the subdean of Westminster, the keeper (Master Clayden), and others. 1570, pp. 1799-80, 1576, pp. 1536-37, 1583, pp. 1619-20.

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Bradford wrote his religious convictions down for Weston, and on or around 28 March 1555 Dr Pendleton, Master Colier (sometime warden of Manchester) and Stephen Beche visited Bradford in the Counter. 1563, p. 1213, 1570, p. 1800, 1576, p. 1537, 1583, p. 1620.

Bradford questioned Pendleton as to why Pendleton changed his religion. 1563, pp. 1213-14, 1570, p. 1800, 1576, p. 1537, 1583, p. 1620.

Foxe states that he omitted the talk that Bradford and Pendleton had of 'my lord of Canterbury, of Peter Martirs boke, of Pendleto[n']s letter laid to Bradford.' 1563, p. 1214, 1570, p. 1800, 1576, p. 1537, 1583, p. 1620.

Bradford's reasons against transubstantiation were given to Weston and others. 1563, pp. 1211-12, 1570, pp. 1800-01, 1576, pp. 1537-38, 1583, pp. 1620-21.

Weston told Bradford of what he had done for Grimald, who had subscribed. 1563, p. 1212, 1570, p. 1801, 1576, p. 1538, 1583, p. 1621.

On 5 April, at 2pm, Weston went to visit Bradford in the Counter. Weston had not visited him earlier due to ill health and also because he had been busy withstanding monks from entering Westminster. He also thought that Pendleton would be coming to see him. Weston told Bradford that the pope was dead and that Weston had petitioned the queen and so thought that death would not come to Bradford soon. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, pp. 1538-39, 1583, pp. 1621-22.

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As Weston left Bradford on 5 April, he sent for Master Weale. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

After Weston left Bradford on 5 April, the keeper, Master Claydon, and Steven Bech came to Bradford and spoke unkindly to him even though they had hitherto appeared to be friendly to him. 1570, p. 1802, 1576, pp. 1538-39, 1583, pp. 1621-22.

Bradford spoke to the servant of an unnamed gentlewoman, misused by her family for not going mass, who visited Bradford while he was in prison. [Note that Foxe says that the gentlewoman is still alive and so does not give her name, but simply records the conversation between the servant and Bradford.] 1570, pp. 1802-03, 1576, pp. 1539-40, 1583, pp. 1622-23.

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Bradford told the servant of the unnamed gentlewoman that he had read the work of Friar Fonse. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

The servant of the unnamed gentlewoman gave Bradford greetings from Cardmaker. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

The servant of the unnamed gentlewoman told Bradford that she saw a priest come to him in the morning and Bradford told her that he had brought a letter from a friar, to which he was replying. 1570, p. 1803, 1576, p. 1539, 1583, p. 1622.

Rowland Tayor joked to Bradford as he was about to be led away to execution (1563, p. 1080; 1570, p. 1703; 1576, p. 1454; 1583, p. 1527).

Foxe describes Bradford's behaviour at his burning at Smithfield. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, pp. 1804-05, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

Sheriff Woodruff chided Bradford at his burning. When Woodruff went home after the burning of John Bradford, he became paralysed in his legs and arms. 1563, p. 1215, 1570, pp. 1804-05, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1624.

Bradford sent Anne Smith money. 1563, pp. 1266-7, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

He was described as a faithful witness of Christ by Robert Glover in a letter to his wife.1563, pp. 1273-80, 1570, p. 1886-89, 1576, pp. 1615-19, 1583, pp. 1710-12.

Bradford was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking them for a chance to debate the rectitude of the Edwardian religious reforms. The petition is printed in 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483.

Bradford's letter to John Treves, dated February 1548. [BL Harley 416, fos.33r-34r. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Bradford's letter to John Treves, dated Christmas 1549. [BL, Harley 416, fo.37v. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Bradford's letter to an unnamed gentleman or noble, written during Lent 1549. [BL Harley 416, fo.37r. Not printed in AM or LM.]

Letters of Bradford: 1563, pp. 1176-85, 1570, pp. 1805-40, 1576, pp. 1541-75, 1583, pp. 1624-64.

Ridley and his fellow prisoners sent a letter to Bradford and his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench. 1563, pp. 1894-95, 1570, pp. 1896-97, 1576, pp. 1624, 1583, pp. 1724-25.

Ridley wrote a letter to Bradford. 1563, p. 1295, 1570, p. 1897, 1576, pp. 1624-25, 1583, p. 1725.

Ridley wrote a letter to Bradford and his fellow prisoners, in which Ridley spoke of his love for Taylor. The bearer of the letter to Bradford was Punt, who also carried Hooper's letters. 1570, pp. 1897-98, 1576, pp. 1625-26, 1583, p. 1725.

Another letter was written by Ridley to Bradford. 1570, p. 1898, 1576, p. 1626, 1583, p. 1726.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. He mentioned his imprisonment with Cranmer, Latimer and Bradford. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

Foxe includes Ridley's lamentation for a change in religion, in which he makes reference to Latimer, Lever, Bradford and Knox, as well as Cranmer and their part in the duke of Somerset's cause. 1570, pp. 1945-50, 1576, pp. 1670-78, 1583, pp. 1778-1784.

Bradford received a letter from John Careless. 1570, pp. 2104-05, 1576, pp. 1815-16, 1583, p. 1922-23.

Bradford wrote a letter to Careless. 1570, p. 2105, 1576, p. 1816, 1583, p. 1923.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Capon

(d. 1557)

Bishop of Salisbury (1539 - 1557). (DNB)

John Capon was one of the commissioners who condemned John Bradford, Laurence Saunders and Rowland Taylor to death. 1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1450; 1583, pp. 1523-24.

Cranmer was asked by Dr Capon to be a founding fellow of Wolsey's college. 1563, p. 1471, 1570, p. 2035, 1576, p. 1753, 1583, p. 1860.

John Capon examined John Maundrel, John Spicer and William Coberley. 1570, p. 2073, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1894.

The examinations of John Hunt and Richard White before the bishops of Salisbury and Gloucester (Brookes and Capon), Dr. Geffre (chancellor) took place on 26 April 1557. 1570, p. 2254, 1576, p. 1947, 1583, p. 2054.

Foxe says that John Capon died shortly before the death of Mary. [He died on 6 October 1557.] 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1990. 1583, p. 2101.

[Alias Salcot.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Rogers

(1500? - 1555) (DNB)

Martyr.

Foxe describes Rogers' life and career. 1563, pp. 1022-23; 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1484.

John Rogers preached a sermon at Paul's Cross on 6 August 1553 denouncing 'popery', for which he was placed under arrest. 1563, p. 1023; 1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1484. [NB: This contradicts the next two entries].

On 13 August 1553 Gilbert Bourne (Marian bishop of Bath and Wells) preached a sermon at Paul's Cross, praising Bonner and criticising Edward VI. This sermon incited a fanatic to throw a dagger at him and enraged the mob. John Rogers and John Bradford escorted Bourne to safety (1563, p. 905; 1570, p. 1570; 1576, p. 1339; and 1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]. The story is in Rerum, pp. 464-65, but Rogers is not mentioned in that version).

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On 16 August 1553, Rogers was placed under house arrest by the privy council (1583, p. 1497 [recte 1409]).

He was committed to Newgate on 26 January 1554 (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1467).

Ridley reported to Cranmer, in a letter written in the aftermath of the Oxford disputations in April 1554, that Crome, Rogers and Bradford would be taken to Cambridge for a disputation on similar lines to that held in Oxford (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1464).

It was rumoured in May 1554 that Rogers, together with Bradford and Saunders, would take part in a disputation to be held in Cambridge (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

Rogers was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71).

He was summoned before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Overies on 28 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

Rogers' examination took place on 29 January 1555. [BL Harley 421, fos.40r-41r. Not printed in Acts and Monuments or Letters of the Martyrs but mentioned in 1563, p. 1029 et seq.]

Bradford's second examination took place on 29 January 1555, directly after the excommunication of John Rogers. 1563, pp. 1188-92, 1570, p. 1784, 1576, p. 1524, 1583, p. 1607.

He was excommunicated and condemned to death by Stephen Gardiner on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

His examination and condemnation: 1563, pp. 1026-31; 1570, pp. 1656-62; 1576, pp. 1414-19; 1583, pp. 1484-89. He was examined and condemned with John Hooper on. 1563, p. 1056; 1570, p. 1680; 1576, pp. 1433-34; 1583, p. 1507.

Rogers was degraded, with John Hooper, on 4 February 1555. 1563, pp. 1057-58; 1570, p. 1681; 1576, pp. 1434-35; 1583, p. 1508.

Rogers' martyrdom is described. 1563, pp. 1036-37; 1570, pp. 1663-64; 1576, pp. 1419-20; 1583, pp. 1492-93.

When examined by Bonner, John Leafe (who was burned with John Bradford) denied transubstantiation and admitted to being a scholar of John Rogers, and that he believed in the doctrine of Rogers, Hooper and Cardmaker. 1563, p. 1214, 1570, p. 1804, 1576, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1623.

In a letter to his mother and others, John Bradford asked that Rogers be remembered. 1570, pp. 1805-06,1576, pp. 1541-42, 1583, p. 1624.

John Rogers' martyrdom was referred to in Bradford's letter to the university town of Cambridge. 1563, pp. 1178-80, 1570, pp. 1808-09., 1576, p. 1545, 1583, p. 1627.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

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His other writings: (1563, pp. 1031-36; 1570, p. 1663; 1576, p. 1419; 1583, pp. 1489-92).

Rogers was involved in the debate over the clerical wearing of caps. 1563, p. 1732.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Story

(1510? - 1571)

1st Regius Professor of Civil Law. Roman catholic martyr. (DNB)

John Story was one of the recipients of the proclamation from Philip and Mary authorising the persecution of protestants. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1974[incorrectly numbered 1970].

In the 1563 edition, Foxe claims that Story urged that Elizabeth be executed, maintaining that it was pointless to cut the branches off a tree and not strike at its roots (1563, p. 1004). These passages were never reprinted.

In a letter to Augustine Bernher, Bradford asked him to discover what Master G. had said to Doctor Story and others. 1570, p. 1837, 1576, p. 1572, 1583, p. 1654.

Dr Story was said by Dr Martin to have been the chief procurer of the deaths of John Warren, his wife and daughter, although he was a relative of theirs. 1563, p. 1251, 1570, p. 1869, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

When John Denley sang a psalm at his burning, Story rebuked him for it. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1598, 1583, p. 1686.

John Story is described by Foxe as one who was occupied with dispatching the godly during Mary's reign. 1563, p. 1383, 1570, p. 1952, 1576, p. 1679, 1583, p. 1786.

The first examination of John Philpot was by Cholmley, Master Roper and John Story and one of the scribes of the Arches at Newgate Hall on 2 October 1555. 1563, pp. 1388-90, 1570, pp. 1961-62, 1576, pp. 1688-89 , 1583, pp. 1795-96.

In Philpot's first examination, Story claimed that Philpot was guilty of heresy for speaking against the mass. 1563, pp. 1388-90, 1570, pp. 1961-62, 1576, pp. 1688-89, 1583, pp. 1795-96.

Philpot's second examination was before Cholmley, Roper, Story and Cook and the scribe on 24 October 1555. 1563, pp. 1390-92, 1570, pp. 1962-64, 1576, pp. 1689-91, 1583, pp. 1797-98.

During Philpot's second examination, Story demanded that Philpot be taken to Lollard's Tower, after which he was imprisoned in Bonner's coal house. 1563, pp. 1390-92, 1570, pp. 1962-64, 1576, pp. 1689-91, 1583, pp. 1797-98.

Philpot's fifth examination was before Bonner, Rochester, Coventry, St Asaph, as well as Story, Curtop, Saverson, Pendleton and others. 1563, pp. 1398-1405, 1570, pp. 1968-72, 1576, pp. 1695-98, 1583, pp. 1803-05.

Story was one of the commissioners who sent John Went, John Tudson, Thomas Brown and Joan Warren to be examined and imprisoned. 1563, p. 1453, 1570, p. 2016, 1576, p. 1737, 1583, p. 1845.

A complaint about John Tudson was sent to Story. 1563, p. 1467, 1570, p. 2029, 1576, p. 1749, 1583, p. 1857.

Cranmer was examined by Brookes, Martin and Story. 1563, pp. 1479-83, 1570, pp. 2046-47, 1576, pp. 1764-65, 1583, p. 1871.

A new commission was sent to Rome for the restoration of the pope's authority to allow the condemnation of Cranmer. Those sent were: James Brookes, Martyn and Story . 1570, p. 2047, 1576, p. 1765, 1583, p. 1871.

Story's oration against Cranmer. 1576, pp. 1769-70, 1583, pp. 1875-76.

Story said that they were true witnesses, as they swore allegience to the pope. Cranmer was was sent to Gloucester by Story. 1570, p. 2056, 1576, p. 1773, 1583, p. 1879.

Henry Adlington received a letter from John Careless, which referred to Story. 1570, pp. 2110-12, 1576, pp. 1833-34, 1583, pp. 1928-29.

Robert Farrer talked with Laurence Sheriff in the Rose tavern and suggested to Sheriff that Elizabeth had been involved in Wyatt's rebellion. Sheriff complained to Bonner about Farrer before Mordaunt, Sir John Baker, Darbyshire, Story, Harpsfield, and others. 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1988, 1583, p. 1980.

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Ralph Allerton was examined on 24 April 1557 before Bonner, Lord North, Dr Story and others. 1563, p. 1621, 1570, p. 2210-11, 1576, p. 1907-08, 1583, p. 2015-16.

A chaplain asked Thomas Green to repeat the articles of his faith before Story. 1563, p. 1688, 1570, p. 2263, 1576, p. 1953, 1583, p. 2061.

Story questioned Green on the mass and the church fathers. 1563, p. 1688, 1570, p. 2263, 1576, p. 1954, 1583, p. 2061.

Green appeared again before Story. 1563, p. 1688, 1570, p. 2263, 1576, p. 1954, 1583, p. 2061.

Story commanded Green be whipped 100 times, although this was objected to, at which point Story said he would have Green's tongue cut out if he could. 1563, p. 1688, 1570, p. 2263, 1576, p. 1954, 1583, p. 2062.

Elizabeth Young's eighth examination was before Bonner, the dean of St Paul's and Story. 1570, pp. 2273-74, 1576, pp. 1962-63, 1583, pp. 2069-70.

Alexander Wimshurst was carried before Story and Cook who asked him where his whore was. Wimshurst defended his wife's honour and her whereabouts. 1570, p. 2276, 1576, p. 1965, 1583, p. 2072.

Edward Benet asked Story to help him out of prison, which he did, only to deliver him to Cluney who put him in stocks in the coalhouse for a week. 1570, p. 2279, 1576, p. 1968 [incorrectly numbered 1632], 1583, p. 2075.

Richard Waterson was examined by Story, when he was told that £40 would release him from punishment. This was reduced to £10 but eventually a warrant was made to Richard Grafton who was forced to watch the beating of Gye upon a cross at Bridewell. 1563, p. 1730 [incorrectly numbered 1703], 1583, p. 2144.

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John Story had accused Angel's wife of murdering a woman and her child who resided with her in her house. He sent her to Newgate. Sir Roger Cholmley dismissed the charges against her. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1991, 1583, p. 2010.

At Elizabeth's accession Story was committed to ward but he managed to escape overseas, where he met with the duke of Alva in Antwerp. 1583, p. 2153.

Parker, a merchant, was sent to apprehend Story and return him to England. 1583, p. 2153.

Parker told Story that a ship had come from England and that he might like to peruse the merchandise on board. Story suspected nothing, was caught and returned to England. 1583, p. 2153.

In prison, Story refused to agree to the act of supremacy and was subsequently hung, drawn and quartered as a traitor. 1583, p. 2153.

Foxe refers to his death. 1563, p. 1706.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Mistress Walter

Of London.

Swingfield seized Angel's wife, a midwife, while she was at the labour of Mistress Walter. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1991, 1583, p. 2010.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Mrs Swallow

Wife of William Swallow, bailiff of Chelmsford.

She married Swallow shortly after the death of George Eagles and was taken ill with the falling-sickness. 1570, p. 2204, 1576, p. 1902, 1583, p. 2010.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Reginald Pole

(1500 - 1558)

Archbishop of Canterbury (1555 - 1558) and cardinal. [DNB] Papal legate (1554 - 1557) [Hillerbrand, Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation; T. F. Mayer, Reginald Pole, Prince and Prophet (2000)]

On 7 November 1554, two ambassadors were sent abroad. The rumour was that they were sent to escort Pole to England (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1473).

Pole landed at Dover on 21 November 1554 and on the same day an act was passed in parliament repealing the act of attainder passed against him in Henry VIII's reign (1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, p. 1475; cf. the account of this in 1563, p. 1008). Another notice of the act of attainder against Pole being repealed (1570, p. 1654; 1576, p. 1411; 1583, p. 1481).

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Pole arrived at Lambeth on 24 November 1554 (1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, p. 1475).

He arrived at parliament on 27 November 1554 and made an oration there, praising England's previous catholic fidelity, deploring the reformation and extolling papal power (1563, pp. 1008-10; 1570, pp. 1647-49; 1576, pp. 1405-7; 1583, pp. 1476-78).

He pronounced a papal absolution in parliament on 28 November 1554 (1563, pp. 1010-11; 1570, p. 1649; 1576, p. 1407; 1583, pp. 1477-78).

Reginald Pole sent a letter to Pope Julius III on 30 November 1554 announcing the restoration of catholicism in England. 1563, pp. 1013-14 [in Latin, only in this edition, pp. 1012-13] ; 1570, pp. 1650-51; 1576, p. 1408; 1583, pp. 1478-79; also see 1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1476; 1583, p. 1559.

He was present at Stephen Gardiner's Paul's Cross sermon of 2 December 1554 (1563, p. 1018; 1570, p. 1651; 1576, p. 1408; 1583, p. 4179 [recte 1479]).

He absolved convocation on 6 December 1554 for their perjuries, heresies and schisms (1570, p. 1652; 1576, p. 1409; 1583, p. 4179 [recte 1479]).

As legate to Julius III, Pole reconciled England to Rome and absolved the English. 1563, pp. 1083-84; 1570, p. 1707; 1576, p. 1457; 1583, p. 1531.

In an attempt to reinstate catholicism at the University of Cambridge, a commission under the direction of Cardinal Pole ordered the condemning and burning of the bones and books of Phagius and Martin Bucer. Members of the commission were Cuthbert Scott, Nicholas Ormanet, Thomas Watson, John Christopherson and Henry Cole. Ormanet was chosen because he had the trust of Pope Julius III. 1563, pp. 1537 [recte 1549]-1558 [recte 1570]

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Thomas Causton appealed his conviction to Pole. 1563, p. 1107; 1570, p. 1719; 1576, p. 1468; 1583, p. 1541.

Robert Ferrar appealed his conviction to Pole. 1563, p. 1099; 1570, p. 1724; 1576, p. 1472; 1583, p. 1555.

The examination of Ridley and Latimer by White (Lincoln) and Brookes (Gloucester) was held on 30 September 1555. White and Brookes received their commission from 'Cardinall Poole'. 1563, pp. 1297-98, 1570, pp. 1903-09, 1576, pp. 1631-39, 1583, pp. 1757-60.

William Stannard, Thomas Freeman and William Adams were condemned to be burned 13 June 1556 but Cardinal Pole sent dispensation for their lives. 1563, pp. 1525-26, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, p. 1798, 1583, p. 1916.

Pole chose Cuthbert Scot, Nicholas Ormanet, Thomas Watson, John Christopherson and Henry Cole to be a persecutors of the University of Cambridge. 1563, p. 1537, 1570, p. 2142, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1956.

Peter Martyr's wife was reburied in Richard Marshall's dunghill after Cardinal Pole ordered him to oversee the exhumation of her body. 1563, p1559., 1570, p. 2153, 1576, p. 1859, 1583, p. 1968.

Reginald Pole died the day after Queen Mary. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2298, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2136.

[Not related to David Pole.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Richard Potto

(d. 1558)

Inn-keeper of the Cock Inn, Chelmsford.

Richard Potto tried to persuade George Eagles to ask the queen's forgiveness. 1570, p. 2203, 1576, p. 1901, 1583, p. 2009.

When Eagles was on the ladder, Potto again troubled him, begging him to ask forgiveness, but the sheriff pushed him away. 1563, 1615, 1570, p. 2003, 1576, p. 1901, 1583, p. 2010.

After the death of George Eagles, Potto fell into dispute with some of his neighbours and then fell ill early in Elizabeth's reign. He lay in his bed, foaming at the mouth, unable to speak or comprehend anything for three or four days, after which he died. 1563, 1615, 1570, p. 2003, 2303, 1576, p. 1901, 1583, p. 2010.

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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Richard [or Rafe] Larden [or Lardyn or Lurdane]

(d. 1562)

Of Colchester.

Richard Larden betrayed George Eagles to the authorities. 1563, p. 1615, 1570, p. 2204, 1576, p. 1902, 1583, p. 2010.

He was arrested on a felony in 1561 and brought before the sessions at Colchester. He was condemned to be hanged. 1563, p. 1615, 1570, p. 2204, 1576, p. 1902, 1583, p. 2010.

At the bar he said his condemnation was just, as he now knew Eagles to have been an honest man. 1563, p. 1615, 1570, p. 2204, 1576, p. 1902, 1583, p. 2010.

Lardyn was attached, arraigned and hanged for felony. 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1990. 1583, p. 2100.

[Nephew of Benjamin Clere. See Thomas S. Freeman, 'Fate, Faction and Fiction in Foxe's Book of Martyrs', Historical Journal, 43.3 (2000), pp. 610-11.]

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Sir Roger Cholmley

(d. 1565)

Lord chief justice of King's and Queen's Bench (1552 - 1553), privy councillor (under Mary) and MP [Bindoff, Commons; Hasler, Commons; DNB]. Judge, lieutenant of the Tower. Son of Sir Richard Cholmley [DNB]

Sir Roger Cholmley persuaded the royal guard to support Northumberland against Mary (1570, p. 1568; 1576, p. 1337; 1583, p. 1407).

He was sent to the Tower, with Sir Edward Montagu, on 27 July 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

He was released from the Tower together with Sir Edward Montagu on 7 September 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

Sir Roger Cholmley was one of the recipients of the proclamation from Philip and Mary authorising the persecution of protestants. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1974[incorrectly numbered 1970].

Cholmley participated in a debate/dinner conversation between Nicholas Ridley and John Feckenham and Sir John Bourne, on the nature of the eucharist, held while Ridley was a prisoner in the Tower (1563, p. 931; 1570, p. 1591; 1576, pp. 1357-58; and 1583, p. 1428).

Cholmley came to William Flower at the stake and urged Flower, on pain of damnation, to recant his heretical beliefs. 1563, p. 1733; 1570, p. 1749; 1576, p. 1493; 1583, p. 1577.

George Tankerfield was sent into Newgate by Roger Cholmey and Dr Martin. 1563, p. 1251, 1570, p. 1869, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

Philpot's first examination was before Cholmley, Roper, Story, and one of the scribes of the Arches at Newgate Hall, 2 October 1555. 1563, pp. 1388-90, 1570, pp. 1961-62, 1576, pp. 1688-89, 1583, pp. 1795-96.

Cholmley was one of the commissioners who sent John Went, John Tudson, Thomas Brown and Joan Warren to be examined and imprisoned. 1563, p. 1453, 1570, p. 2016, 1576, p. 1737, 1583, p. 1845.

A complaint about John Tudson was made to Cholmley. 1563, p. 1467, 1570, p. 2029, 1576, p. 1749, 1583, p. 1857. [Foxe erroneously calls him 'Sir Richard Cholmley'.]

Cuthbert Symson was brought before Cholmley, examined and racked. 1563, p. 1651, 1570, p. 2229, 1576, p. 1924, 1583, p. 2032.

Cholmley sent to Newgate 27 prisoners who were members of an illegal conventicle in Islington. 1563, p. 1659, 1570, p. 2235, 1576, p. 1930, 1583, p. 2037.

Thomas Hinshaw was taken by the constables of Islington to appear before Master Cholmley, who sent him to Newgate. 1563, p. 1690, 1570, p. 2242, 1576, p. 1937, 1583, p. 2043.

Robert Farrer, haberdasher of London, had two daughters, one of whom was delivered to Sir Roger Cholmley for a sum of money, to be at his commandment, the other sold to Sir William Godolphin, who took her to Boulogne as his lackey, dressed in men's clothing. 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1988, 1583, p. 2294.

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The lord mayor of London and Chomley examined Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax. 1563, p. 1683, 1570, p. 2060, 1576, p. 1952, 1583, p. 2058.

Elizabeth Young's fourth examination was before Bonner, Roger Cholmley, Cooke, Dr Roper of Kent, and Dr Martin. 1570, pp. 2270-71, 1576, pp. 1959-60, 1583, pp. 2066-67.

Tingle was a prisoner in Newgate. His keeper realised that Edward Benet had a New Testament and sent him to Cholmley, who imprisoned him in the Compter for 25 weeks. 1570, p. 2279, 1576, p. 1968 [incorrectly numbered 1632], 1583, p. 2075.

Benet was apprehended again in Islington and sent before Cholmley but was cut off from the rest. 1570, p. 2279, 1576, p. 1968 [incorrectly numbered 1632], 1583, p. 2075.

John Story had accused Angel's wife of murdering a woman and her child who resided with her in her house. He sent her to Newgate. Sir Roger Cholmley dismissed the charges against her. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1991, 1583, p. 2010.

[Also referred to as 'Lorde Chiefe Baron' or 'Chomley']

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Swingfield

(d. 1558?)

Alderman's deputy. Of London.

Swingfield seized Angel's wife, a midwife, while she was at the labour of Mistress Walter. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1991, 1583, p. 2010.

Swingfield died about ten weeks after Angel's wife was dismissed. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1991, 1583, p. 2010.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Nightingale

(d. 1555)

Rector of Crundale, Kent, from before 1533 to his death early in 1555 [See Valor Ecclesiasticus, sub Crundale].

Thomas Nightingale received pardon and then was struck down suddenly and died in the pulpit. 1570, p. 2303, 1576, p. 1994, 1583, p. 2103.

Nightingale died suddenly, on 3 March 1555, extolling the restoration of catholicism in England. 1563, p. 1113; 1570, pp. 1730-31; 1583, pp. 1560-61.

[NB: Foxe was correct about the date of Nightingale's death. His successor, Dr John Porter, was appointed in March 1555; see LPL, Register N, fol. 84v].

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Geffre [or Geoffrey or Jeffrey]

D. C. L. (1540) [Foster]. Chancellor of Salisbury (1554 - 1558). [Fasti]

William Geffre took part in the examination of John Maundrel, John Spicer and William Coberley. 1570, p. 2073, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1894.

He presented articles against John Maundrel, John Spicer and William Coberley. 1570, p. 2073, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1894.

He was assisted in the questioning of John Maundrel, John Spicer and William Coberley by the sheriff, John St John, and the priests of Fisherton Anger. 1570, p. 2073, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1894.

William Cobberley was held in the stocks until the service he was trying to disrupt in Keevil was over, handed over to a justice and then transported to Salisbury to appear before John Capon and William Geffre. 1570, p. 2073, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1894.

Julins Palmer's second examination at Newbury was before Dr Geffre (chancellor of Salisbury), John Winchcomb, esquire, Sir Richard Abridges, Sir William Rainford [in 1576 and 1583], and the parson of Englefield. 1570, pp. 2121-23, 1576, pp. 1844-46,1583, pp. 1938-40.

William Holcot was charged with treason by Cole and Geffre for supporting Cranmer. 1583, p. 2135.

The examinations of John Hunt and Richard White before the bishops of Salisbury and Gloucester (Brookes and Capon), Dr. Geffre (chancellor) took place on 26 April 1557. 1570, p. 2254, 1576, p. 1947, 1583, p. 2054.

A beggar was sent to Geffre to be whipped for not attending mass in Collingborough. 1570, p. 2265, 1576, p. 1955, 1583, p. 2062.

Geffre died not long after the death of Mary. 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1991, 1583, p. 2101.

His death prevented his examination of 90 people who had been expected to appear before him. 1563, p. 1706, 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1990. 1583, p. 2101.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Hummerston

(d. 1574)

Of Dunwich, Suffolk. JP (1573 - 1574), MP (1571, 1572). (Hasler)

William Fenning , the vicar of Wenhuston, Suffolk, was presented before Justice William Hummerston for defaming the women of his parish and was forced to apologise publicly in his own church. 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2101.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Swallow

Bailiff of Chelmsford.

After his indictment, George Eagles was taken to the new inn, called the Crown, in Chelmsford, by William Swallow. 1570, p. 2203, 1576, p. 1901, 1583, p. 2009.

William Swallow, a bailiff of Chelmsford, took George Eagles to his place of execution on a sled, laid his neck across it, and proceeded to hack at Eagles with a blunt cleaver, hitting him many times on the shoulders, chin, mangling him, and then cut out his heart. Eagles' body was then quartered, his bowels burned, and the body parts put on fish-stalls before Swallow's door, until horses were ready to take the quarters away - one each to Colchester, Harwich, Chelmsford, and St Osyth's. His head was placed on a pole in Chelmsford market until the wind blew it down and eventually somebody buried in the churchyard at night. 1570, p. 2204, 1576, p. 1902, 1583, p. 2010.

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Swallow became ill after the death of Eagles. His hair fell out, his eyes closed so that he could hardly see, and his finger- and toe-nails fell off. 1570, p. 2204, 1576, p. 1902, 1583, p. 2010.

Swallow married shortly after the death of Eagles. His wife was taken ill with the falling-sickness. 1570, p. 2204, 1576, p. 1902, 1583, p. 2010.

Note that in 1563, p. 1704, the death of Swallow is referred to but his name is not given in the text. He is only described here as the 'bewrayer of George Eagles'.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Chelmsford
Chelmesford, Chelmisford, Chelmsford, Chelmsforde, Chemlford, Chemsford
NGR: TL 710 070

A parish in the hundred of Chelmsford, county of Essex. 29 miles north-east by east from London. The living is a rectory in the jurisdiction of the Commissary of Essex and Hertfordshire

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Crowland (Croyland) Abbey

[Crouland]

South Holland, Lincolnshire

OS grid ref: TF 245 105

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Crundale, Kent
Crondall, Crondel, Crowdall
NGR: TR 074 495

Identified as Crundale in Kent, by Margaret Aston

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Wensthaston
Wensthaston
NGR:

Unidentified

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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2124 [2100]

Q. Mary. Gods punishment vpon persecutors and contemners of the Gospell.

MarginaliaAnno 1558.in the sayd Countie of Suffolke. Whose testimonies were receiued as truth, although this good man Iohn Cooper had said what he could to declare himselfe innocent therein, but to no purpose God knoweth. For his life was determined, as in the ende appeared by sir Celement Hyghams woordes, who said he should not escape, for an example to all heretickes, as in deede hee throughly performed. For immediatly he was iudged to be hanged, drawn, and quartered, which was executed vpon him shortly after, to the great griefe of manye a good heart. Heere good Cooper is bereft of his life, and leaues behinde him aliue his wife and 9. children with goodes and cattell, to the value of 3. hundred markes, the which substance was al taken away by the sayd sir Henry Doyel Sheriffe, but his wife & pore children left to the wide world in their cloathes, and suffered not to enioy one pennie of that they had sore laboured for, vnlesse they made frendes to buy it with money, of the sayd Sheriffe so cruel and greedy was he and his officers vpon such things as were there left.

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Wel, now this innocēt man is dead, his goods spoiled, his wife and children left desolate and comfortlesse, and all things is hushte, and nothing feared of any parte, yet the Lord who surely doth reuenge the guiltles bloud, would not stil so suffer it, but began at the length to punish it him selfe. MarginaliaThe iudgement of God vpon Grimwood.For in the haruest after, the sayde Grimwood of Hitcham one of the witnesses before specified, as hee was in his labour staking vp a goffe of corne,  

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VIII, Appendix: ref page 631, line 9

Or Golfe. "A rick of corn in the straw laid up in a barn is called in Norfolk, according to Forby, a goaf; every division of the barn being termed a goaf-stede:to goave signifies to stow corn therein. Palsgrave gives 'goulfe of corne, so moche as may lye bytwene two postes, otherwyse a baye.'" Promptorium Parvulorum, Edit. by Way, p. 202, and note.

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hauing hys health, and fearing no pearill: sodenly his bowels fell out of hys body, and immediately most miserably he died: suche was the terrible Iudgement of God, to shewe his displeasure against this bloudy act, and to warne the rest by these hys iudgements to repentance. The Lorde graunt vs to honour the same for his mercies sake. Amen.

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This foresaid Fenning, who was the procurer of this tyrannie against him, is yet aliue, and is nowe a minister, which if he be, I pray God he may so repent that fact, that he may declare himselfe hereafter, such a one as may well aunswere to his vocation accordingly.

But since we haue heard that he is no chaungeling but continueth still in his wickednes, & therfore presented before the woorshipfull Mayster Humerston Esquire and Iustice of Peace & Coram for that he had talke with some of his friendes (as he thoughte) how many honest women (to their great infamy) were in the Parish of Wensthaston wherein he is now Vicare resident, wherfore he was commaunded the next sonday ensuing, to aske all the Parish forgiuenes vpō his knees openly in seruice tyme, which he did in Wensthaston Church beforesayd, & moreouer the abouesayd Fenning is reported, to be more lyke a shifter then a Minister.

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MarginaliaA terrible example of Gods seuere punishment vpon one Nightingall Parson of Crondall in Kent.To these examples also may be added þe terrible iudgment of God vpon the Parson of Crondall in Kent, who vpon Shrouesonday hauing receiued the Popes Pardon from Cardinal Poole, came to his Parish, and exhorted þe people to receiue the same, as he had done himselfe: saying þt he stoode now so cleare in cōscience as whē he was first borne, & cared not now if he should dye the same houre in þe clearenes of conscience: whereupon being sodenly stricken by the hand of God, & leaning a little on the one syde, immediately shronke down in the Pulpit, & so was found dead, speaking not one word more. Read before pag. 1560.

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Not long before þe death of Queene Mary dyed Doctour Capon Bishop of Salisbury. MarginaliaD. Geffrey Chauncellour of Salisbury.About the which tyme also followed the vnprepared death of Doctour Geffrey Chancellour of Salisbury, who in the midst of his buildings, sodainly being taken by the mighty hand of God, yelded his lyfe, which hadde so little pittye of other mens lyues before. Concerning whose crueltye partly mention is made before pag. 2055.

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As touching moreouer this foresayde Chauncellour here is to be noted, that he departing vpon a Saterday, þe next day before the same, he hadde appoynted to call before him. 90. persons and not so fewe, to examine them by Inquisition, had not the goodnes of the Lord, and his tender prouidence, thus preuented him with death, prouiding for his poore seruauntes in tyme.

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And now (to come from Priests to Lay men) we haue to finde in them also no lesse terrible demonstrations of Gods heauy iudgement vpon such as haue beene vexers and persecutours of his people.

MarginaliaM. Woodroffe a cruell Sheriffe, plagued.Before in the story of M. Bradford. 1624. mention was made of Maister Woodroffe, who being thē Sheriffe, vsed much to reioyce at the death of the poore Saints of Christ, and so hard he was in his office, that when Mayster Rogers was in þe cart going toward Smithfield, and in the way his childrē wer brought vnto him, þe people making a lane for them to come: Maister Woodroffe bad the car-

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mans head should be brokē for staying his cart. But what happened? He was not come out of his office the space of a weeke, but he was stricken by the sodaine hand of God, the one halfe of his body in suche sorte þt he lay benummed and bedred, not able to moue himself but as he was lifted of other, and so contynued in that infirmity the space of 7. or 8. yeares tyll his dying day, pag. 1624. MarginaliaRead before pag. 1624.

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MarginaliaThe bewrayer of George Eagles, plagued.Lykewise touching Rafe Lardyn 

Commentary  *  Close

This account, and the background to it, are described in Thomas S. Freeman, 'Fate, Faction and Fiction in Foxe's "Book of Martyrs"', Historical Journal 43 (2000), pp. 601-23.

the betrayer of George Eagles, is is thought of some, that þe sayd Rafe afterward was attached himselfe, arraegned, and hanged.

Who being at the barre, had these woordes before the Iudges there, and a great multitude of people. This is most iustly fallen vpon me (saythe he) for that he hadde betrayed the innocent bloud of a good & iust man George Eagles, who was here condemned in the time of Queene Maryes raygne thorough his procurment who sold hys bloud for a little money. Not much vnlyke stroke of these seuerally, was shewed vpon W. Swallow of Chemlford, & his wife, also vpon Rich. Potto, & Iustice Browne cruel persecutors of þe sayd George Egles, concerning whose story Reade before, pag. 2009.

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Amonge other persecutours also came to our handes þe cruelty of one Maister Swingfield an Aldermans Deputye about Thamis streete, who hearing one Angelles wyfe, a midwyfe that kepte her selfe from their Popishe Church, to be at the labour of one Mistres Walter at crooked Lane ende, tooke three other with him, and besette the house about, and tooke her and caryed her to Boners officers, bigge with childe, 28. weekes gone, who layd her in Lollardes Tower, where as the same daye shee came in, thorough feare and a fall at her taking, she was deliuered of a man childe, & could haue no woman with her in that needefull tyme. Lying there 5. weekes, she was deliuered vnder suertyes by friendship, and Doctor Story hearing thereof charged her with fellony, and so sent her to Newgate. The cause was for that she had a womā at her house in her labour that dyed, and the child also, 

Commentary  *  Close

The syntax of this passage is confusing: Foxe is saying that it was Angel's wife who was arrested.

and so he charged her with their death.

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MarginaliaGods punishment vpon M. Swingfield and other which bewrayed one Angels wyfe.But when Syr Roger Cholmley hearde her tell her tale, he deliuered her: and not much more then 10. weekes after, if it were so long, dyed the sayd Maister Swingfield, and the other three that came to take her.

Because some there be, and not a few, which haue such a great deuotion in setting vp þe Popish Masse, I shal desire thē to marke well this story following. MarginaliaA story of Burton Bayliffe of Crowland, how he was plagued for setting vp Masse.There was a certain Bailiffe of Crowlād in Lincolnshire named Burton, who pretending an earnest frendship to the Gospel in king Edwards dayes, in outward shew at least (although inwardly he was a Papist or Atheist, and wel knowen to be a man of a wicked & adulterous life) set forth the kinges proceedinges lustely, till the time that king Edward was dead and Queene Mary placed quietly in her estate.

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Then perceiuing by the first proclamation concerning Religion, how the world was lyke to turne, the Bailiffe turned his Religion likewise: and so he moued the Parish to shew themselues the Queenes friendes, & to set vp the Masse speedely. Neuertheles the most substauntiall of the Parish, marueling much at the Bailiffes inconstant lightnes, considering also his abominable lyfe, and hauing no great deuotion vnto his request: knowing moreouer that their duty & frendship to the Queene stoode not in setting vp þe Masse, spared to prouide for it, as lōg as they might: but the Bailiffe called on them still in the Queenes name.

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MarginaliaBurton earnest in setting vp the Masse.At last, when he saw his wordes were not regarded. & purposing to wynne his spurres by playing the man in þe Masses behalfe and the Queenes, he got him to the church vpon a sunday morning, & when the Curate was beginning the Englishe seruice, according to the Statute sette forth by King Edward the vj. the Bailiffe commeth in a great rage to the Curate & sayth: Syrrha will you not say Masse? buckle your selfe to Masse you knaue, or by Gods bloud I shall sheathe my dagger in your shoulder. The poore Curate for feare setled himselfe to Masse.

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Not long after this, the Bailiffe rode from home vpō certaine busines, accompanyed with one of his neighbors and as they came ryding togeather vpon the Fennebanke homeward agayne, a Crowe sitting in a willow tree tooke her flighte ouer hys head, singing after her woonted note, knaue, knaue, & withall let fall vpon his face, so that her excrements ran from þe top of his nose down to his beard.

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The poysoned sent & sauour whereof so noyed his stomacke, that he neuer ceased vomiting vntil he came home, wherwith his hart was so sore & his body so distempered: that for extreme sicknes he got him to bed, and so lying, he was not able for the stincke in his stomacke and paynefull vomiting, to receaue any reliefe of meate or drinke, but cryed out still, sorowfully complayning of that stincke, &

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wyth
BBBBB.ij.
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