Thematic Divisions in Book 12
1. Exhumations of Bucer and Phagius along with Peter Martyr's Wife2. Pole's Visitation Articles for Kent3. Ten Martyrs Burnt at Canterbury4. The 'Bloody Commission'5. Twenty-two Prisoners from Colchester6. Five Burnt at Smithfield7. Stephen Gratwick and others8. Edmund Allen and other martyrs9. Edmund Allen10. Alice Benden and other martyrs11. Examinations of Matthew Plaise12. Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs13. Ambrose14. Richard Lush15. The Martyrdom of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper16. Rose Allin and nine other Colchester Martyrs17. John Thurston18. George Eagles19. Richard Crashfield20. Fryer and George Eagles' sister21. Joyce Lewes22. Rafe Allerton and others23. Agnes Bongeor and Margaret Thurston24. John Kurde25. John Noyes26. Cicelye Ormes27. Persecution at Lichfield28. Persecution at Chichester29. Thomas Spurdance30. Hallingdale, Sparrow and Gibson31. John Rough and Margaret Mearing32. Cuthbert Simson33. William Nicholl34. Seaman, Carman and Hudson35. Three at Colchester36. A Royal Proclamation37. Roger Holland and other Islington martyrs38. Stephen Cotton and other martyrs39. Scourging of Thomas Hinshaw40. Scourging of John Milles41. Richard Yeoman42. John Alcocke43. Thomas Benbridge44. Four at St Edmondsbury45. Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver46. Three at Bury47. A Poor Woman of Exeter48. The Final Five Martyrs49. John Hunt and Richard White50. John Fetty51. Nicholas Burton52. John Fronton53. Another Martyrdom in Spain54. Baker and Burgate55. Burges and Hoker56. The Scourged: Introduction57. Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax58. Thomas Greene59. Bartlett Greene and Cotton60. Steven Cotton's Letter61. James Harris62. Robert Williams63. Bonner's Beating of Boys64. A Beggar of Salisbury65. Providences: Introduction66. The Miraculously Preserved67. William Living68. Edward Grew69. William Browne70. Elizabeth Young71. Elizabeth Lawson72. Christenmas and Wattes73. John Glover74. Dabney75. Alexander Wimshurst76. Bosom's wife77. Lady Knevet78. John Davis79. Mistress Roberts80. Anne Lacy81. Crosman's wife82. Congregation at Stoke in Suffolk83. Congregation of London84. Englishmen at Calais85. Edward Benet86. Jeffrey Hurst87. William Wood88. Simon Grinaeus89. The Duchess of Suffolk90. Thomas Horton 91. Thomas Sprat92. John Cornet93. Thomas Bryce94. Gertrude Crockhey95. William Mauldon96. Robert Horneby97. Mistress Sandes98. Thomas Rose99. Troubles of Sandes100. Complaint against the Ipswich Gospellers101. Tome 6 Life and Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth102. The Unprosperous Queen Mary103. Punishments of Persecutors104. Foreign Examples105. A Letter to Henry II of France106. The Death of Henry II and others107. Justice Nine-Holes108. John Whiteman109. Admonition to the Reader110. Hales' Oration111. The Westminster Conference112. Appendix notes113. Ridley's Treatise114. Back to the Appendix notes115. Thomas Hitton116. John Melvyn's Letter117. Alcocke's Epistles118. Cautions to the Reader119. Those Burnt at Bristol: extra material120. Priest's Wife of Exeter121. Snel122. Laremouth123. William Hunter's Letter124. Doctor Story125. The French Massacre
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2153 [2130]

Queene Mary. A treatise of M. Nich. Ridley agaynst worshipping of Images.
¶ Probations out of the Fathers, Councels, and histories.

FIrst it is manifest, that in the primitiue church images were not commonly vsed in Churches, Oratories, and places of assembly for religion: but they were generally detested and abhorred, in so much, that the want of imagerie was objected to the christians for a crime.

Origen reporteth that Celsus obiected the lacke of Images, lib. 4. contra Celsum.

Arnobius saith also, that the Ethnikes accused þe christians that they had neither altars nor images.

Zephirus in his Commentarie  

Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VIII, Appendix: ref page 704, line 9

"Tertulliani Apologeticum doctissimis commentariis illustrasse refert Nigrius (Hist. Scripp. Florent.) quæ in lucem prodiere cum Tertulliano ipso Basileæ, 1550. Insuper Jo. Alb. Fabricius Biblioth. Latin. ii. 271, elegantem Tertulliani Edit. recenset Parisiis apud A. Wechelium, 1566, duobus voll., quæ integras B. Rhenani notas singulis libris præmissas exhibet, et Apologetico adjunctum Francisci Zephyri Florentini commentarium, sive paraphrasim antea non editam." - Bandini's "Juntarum Tyhpogr. Annales," pars i. pp. 141, 142. The quotations on this page from Augustine are made rather loosely.

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vpon the Apologie of Tertuallian, gathereth thus of Tertullians wordes: Qui locus persuadendi frigeret penitus, nisi perpetuò illud teneamus: Christianos tunc temporis odisse maximè statuas cum suis ornamentis, &c. 
Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
Nicholas Ridley in a treatise, citing Zephirus on Tertullian.
Foxe text Latin

Qui locus persuadendi frigeret penitus, nisi perpetuo illud teneamus: Christianos tunc temporis odisse maxime statuas cum suis ornamentis, &c.

Foxe text translation

Which place of persuasion were very cold, and to no purpose at all, except we hold this alwayes, that Christians in those dayes did hate most of all Images with their trimme decking and ornaments.

Actual text of Zephirus

That is to say, Which place of persuasion were very cold, and to no purpose at all, except we hold this alwayes, that Christians in those dayes did hate most of all Images with their trimme decking and ornaments.

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Irenæus, lib. 1. cap. 24. reprooueth the heretikes called Gnostici, for that they caried about þe image of Christ made in Pilates tyme after his owne proportion (whiche were much more to be estemed then any that can be made now) vsing also for declaration of their affection towardes it, to set garlands vpon the head of it.

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Lactantius affirmeth plainly: Non est dubium, quin religio nulla sit, vbicunq; symulachrum est: 

Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
Nicholas Ridley in a treatise, citing Lactantius, lib. Diuin. instit. 2. cap. 19.
Foxe text Latin

Non est dubium, quin religio nulla sit, vbicunque symulachrum est.

Foxe text translation

It is not to be doubted that there is no religion wheresoeuer is any Image.

Actual text of Lactantius, lib. 2. de origine erroris. cap. 19. in Migne, P.L. Vol. 006. Col. 0344B

Quare non est dubium quin religio nulla sit, ubicumque simulacrum est.

[Accurate citation]

lib. Diuin. instit. 2. cap. 19. That is to say: It is not to be doubted þt there is no religion wheresoeuer is any Image. If Christians thē had vsed images, he would not haue made his proposition so large.

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S. Augustine De ciuitate Dei, lib. 4. cap. 31. commendeth Varro the Romaine in these wordes. Quum Varro existimauerit castius sine symulachris obseruari religionem, quis non videt, quantum appropinquauerit veritati? 

Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
Nicholas Ridley in a treatise, citing St. Augustine, De ciuitate Dei. lib. 4. cap. 31.
Foxe text Latin

Quum Varro existimauerit castius sine symulachris obseruari religionem, quis non uidet, quantum appropinquauerit veritati?

Foxe text translation

When as Varro thought religion might bee kepte more purely without Images, who doth not see how neare he came to the truth?

Actual text of St. Augustine De ciuitate Dei. lib. 4. cap. 31. in Migne, P.L. Vol. 041. Col. 0138

[Varro...] castiusque existimat sine simulacris observari religionem, quis non videat quantum propinquaverit veritati?

[Accurate citation fromcastiusin Line 1]

That is to say, when as Varro thought religion might bee kepte more purely without Images, who doth not see how neare he came to the truth? So that not onelye by M. Varroes iudgement, but also by S. Augustines approbation, the most pure and chast obseruation of religion, and nerest the truth, is to be without Images.

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The same S. Augustine in Psal. 113. hath these words: Plus valent symulachra ad curuandam infœlicem animam, quā ad docendam. 

Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
Nicholas Ridley in a treatise, citing St. Augustine, in Psal. 113.
Foxe text Latin

Plus valent symulachra ad curuandam infoelicem animam, quam ad docendam.

Foxe text translation

Images haue more force to bow downe and crooke the sillie soule, then to teach it.

Actual text of St. Augustine, Enarrat. in Psal. 113. Sermo II. 6: in Sancti Aurelii Augustini Enarrationes in Psalmos CI - CL, Turnholti 1956, p. 1645

Plus enim ualent simulacra ad curuandam infelicem animam [quod os habent, etc.]

[Accurate citation]

That is to say, Images haue more force to bowe downe and crooke the sillie soule, then to teach it.

And vpon the same Psalme he mooueth this question: Quiuis puer imò quis bestia scit non esse Deum quod vident, cur ergo spiritus sanctus toties mouet cauendum quod omnes sciunt? 

Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
Nicholas Ridley in a treatise, citing St. Augustine, in Psal. 113.
Foxe text Latin

Quiuis puer imo quis bestia scit non esse Deum quod vident, cur ergo spiritus sanctus toties mouet cauendum quod omnes sciunt?

Foxe text translation

Euery child, yea euery beast knoweth that it is not God which they see, why then doth the holy ghost so oft geue warnyng to beware of that thyng which all do know?

Actual text of St. Augustine, in Psal. 113

Quis puer [interrogatus non hoc certum esse respondeat ] Cur ergo tantopere Spiritus sanctus curat scripturarum plurimis locis haec insinuare atque inculcare uelut inscientibus, etc.

[The exact text is not evident in sermo II of Augustine on Psalm 113, but the context is definitely indicated in this extract from Section 3 on p. 1643 of Turnholti 1956 – see previous note]

That is to say, Euery child, yea euery beast knoweth that it is not God which they see, why then doth the holy ghost so oft geue warnyng to beware of that thyng which all do know? S. Augustines answer.

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Quoniam quum ponuntur in templis, & semel incipiunt adorari a multitudine, statim nascitur sordidissimus affectus erroris. 

Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
Nicholas Ridley in a treatise, citing St. Augustine.
Foxe text Latin

Quoniam quum ponuntur in templis, & semel incipiunt adorari a multitudine, statim nascitur sordidissimus affectus erroris.

Foxe text translation

For when they are set in Churches, & begin once to be worshipped of the multitude or common people, straightway springeth vp a most filthy affection of errour.

Actual text of St. Augustine, Enarrat. in Psal. 113. Sermo II. 3: in Sancti Aurelii Augustini Enarrationes in Psalmos CI - CL, Turnholti 1956, p. 1643

… ] cum adorari atque honorari a multitudine coepit, parit in unoquoque sordidissimum erroris affectum, [

[Although Foxe's Latin text is not an exact quotation from thissermo, it is clear from the overall context that Ridley is citing thissermoon Psalm 113]

That is to say: For when they are set in Churches, & begin once to be worshipped of the multitude or common people, straightway springeth vp a most filthy affection of errour.

This place of S. Augustine doth wel open how weak a reason it is to say, Images are a thyng indifferent in chambers and in churches. For the alteration of the place, maner, and other circumstances, doth alter oftentimes the nature of the thyng. It is lawfull to buy and sell in the market, but not so in churches. It is lawfull to eate and drinke but not so in Churches. And therfore sayth Saint Paule, Annon habetis domos ad edendum ac bibendum? An ecclesiam Dei contemnitis? 

Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
Nicholas Ridley in a treatise, I Corinthians 11. (10). 22.
Foxe text Latin

Annon habetis domos ad edendum ac bibendum? An ecclesiam Dei contemnitis?

Foxe text translation

Haue you not houses to eat and drinke in? Do you contemne the church of God?

Actual text of I Corinthians 10. (11). 22 (Vulgate)

numquid domos non habetis ad manducandum et bibendum aut ecclesiam Dei contemnitis

[While clearly this passage in Corinthians is being cited, it would appear that either Foxe has a Latin text other than the Vulgate, or he is translating into Latin from the Greek text]

That is to say, Haue you not houses to eat and drinke in? Do you contemne the church of God?

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Many other actions there bee which are lawfull and honest in priuate place, which are neither comely nor honest, not onely in churches, but also in other assemblies of honest people.

Tertullian sayeth he vsed sometymes to burne frankincense in his chamber, which was then vsed of Idolaters, and is yet in the Romish Churches, but hee ioyneth withall: Sed non eodem ritu, nec eodem habitu, nec eodem apparatu, quo agitur apud Idola. 

Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
Nicholas Ridley in a treatise, citing Tertullian.
Foxe text Latin

Sed non eodem ritu, nec eodem habitu, nec eodem apparatu, quo agitur apud Idola.

Foxe text translation

But not after such a rite or ceremonie, nor after such a fashion, nor wyth such preparation or sumptuousnesse, as it is done before the Idols.

Actual text of Tertullian, de corona militis. lib. 10. in Migne, P.L. Vol. 002, Col. 0090B

sed non eodem ritu, nec eodem habitu, nec eodem apparatu, quo agitur apud idola.

Accurate citation – see below Line 86, where the expression is couched in the positive]

That is to say, But not after such a rite or ceremonie, nor after such a fashion, nor wyth such preparation or sumptuousnesse, as it is done before the Idols.

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So that Images placed in Churches, and set in honorabili sublimitate, 

Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
Nicholas Ridley in a treatise, citing St. Augustine.
Foxe text Latin

in honorabili sublimitate.

Foxe text translation

in an honourable place of estimation.

Actual text of St. Augustine, Letters. quaestio tertia. De sacrificiorum distinctione in Migne, P.L. Vol. 033. Col. 0377

cum his locantur sedibus, honorabili sublimitate.

[Accurate citation]

that is to say, in an honourable place of estimation, as S. Augustine sayth, and especially ouer the Lordes table, which is done (vsing the words of Tertullian) eodem ritu, & eodem habitu, 
Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
Nicholas Ridley in a treatise, citing Tertullian.
Foxe text Latin

eodem ritu, & eodem habitu

Foxe text translation

after the same manner and fashion [which the Papists did vse]

Actual text of Tertullian: de corona militis. lib. 10. in Migne, P.L. Vol. 002, Col. 0090B

sed non eodem ritu, nec eodem habitu.

[Presumably the same citation as above on Line 77, but this time couched in the positive]

that is, after the same maner and fashion which the Papists did vse, especially after

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so long continuance of abuse of Images, and so many beyng blinded with superstitious opinion towardes them, cannot be counted a thing indifferent, but a most certaine ruine of many soules.

Epiphanius in his Epistle to Iohn bishop of Hierusalem (which epistle was translated out of the Greeke by S. Hierome, beyng a likelyhoode that S. Hierome misliked not the doctrine of the same, doth write a facte of hys owne, which doth most clearely declare the iudgement of that notable learned Bishop concernyng the vse of Images, his words are these: Quum venissem ad villam quæ dicitur Anablatha, 

Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
Nicholas Ridley in a treatise, citing Epiphanius.
Foxe text Latin

Quum venissem ad villam quae dicitur Anablatha, vidissemque ibi praeteriens lucernam ardentem, & interrogassem quis locus esset, didicissemque esse Ecclesiam, & intrassem vt orarem: inueni ibi velum pendens in foribus eiusdem ecclesiae tinctum atque depictum, & habens imaginem quasi Christi vel sancti cuiusdam, non enim satis memini cuius fuit, cum ergo hoc vidissem in Ecclesia Christi contra authoritatem scripturarum, hominis pendere imaginem, scidi illud, &c. Et paulo post. Et praecepi in ecclesia Christi istiusmodi vel a quae contra religionem nostram veniunt non appendi, &c.

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Foxe text translation

When I came to a village called Anablatha, & sawe there as I passed by, a candle burnyng, & enquiring what place it was, and learning that it was a church, & had entred into the same to pray, I found there a vaile or cloth hanging at the dore of the same church, died and painted, hauing on it the image of Christ as it were, or of some Saint (for I remember not well whose it was) Then when I sawe this, that in the Church of Christ against the authoritie of the scriptures the image of a man did hang, I cut it in pieces, &c. And a little after. And commaunded that such maner of vailes or clothes which are contrary to our religion, be not hanged in the church of Christ.

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Actual text of Epiphanius, Epistolae secundum ordinem temporum ad amussim digestae in Migne, P.L. Vol. 022, Cols. 0526-7: epistola li s. epiphanii ad joannem Episcopum Jerosolymorum A Hieronymo Latine reddita

[et] venissem ad villam quae dicitur Anablatha, vidissemque ibi praeteriens lucernam ardentem, et interrogassem, quis locus esset, didicissemque esse ecclesiam, et intrassem ut orarem: inveni ibi velum pendens in foribus ejusdem ecclesiae tinctum atque depictum, et habens imaginem quasi Christi, vel sancti cujusdam; non enim satis memini, cujus imago fuerit. Cum ergo hoc vidissem, [et detestatus essem in ecclesia Christi contra auctoritatem Scripturarum hominis pendere imaginem,] scidi illud, etc. [praecepere] in ecclesia Christi istiusmodi vela, quae contra religionem nostram veniunt, non appendi. etc.

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[Accurate citation]

vidissemʠ ibi præteriens lucernam ardentem, & interrogassem quis locus esset, didicissemʠ esse Ecclesiam, & intrassem vt orarem: inueni ibi velum pendens in foribus eiusdem ecclesiæ tinctum atq; depictum, & habens imaginem quasi Christi vel sancti cuiusdam, non enim satis memini cuius fuit, cum ergo hoc vidissem in Ecclesia Christi contra authoritatem scripturarum, hominis pendere imaginem, scidi illud, &c. Et paulò post. Et præcepi in ecclesia Christi istiusmodi vel a quæ contra religionem nostram veniunt non appendi, &c. That is to saye: When I came to a village called Anablatha, & sawe there as I passed by, a candle burnyng, & enquiring what place it was, and learning that it was a church, & had entred into the same to pray, I found there a vaile or cloth hanging at the dore of the same church, died and painted, hauing on it the image of Christ as it were, or of some Saint (for I remember not well whose it was) Then when I sawe this, that in the Church of Christ against the authoritie of the scriptures the image of a mā did hang, I cut it in pieces, &c. And a little after. And commaunded that such maner of vailes or clothes which are contrary to our religion, be not hanged in the church of Christ.

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Out of this place of Epiphanius diuers notes are to be obserued.

First, that by the iudgement of this ancient Father, to permit Images in Churches, is against the authoritie of the scriptures, meanyng agaynst the second commaundement, Thou shalt not make to thy selfe any grauen Image, &c.

Secondly, that Epiphanius doth reiect not only grauen and molten, but also painted Images: for so much as he cut in pieces the Image painted in a vaile hangyng at the church dore, what would he haue done, if he had found it ouer the Lordes table?

Thirdly, that he spareth not the Image of Christ, for no doubt that Image is most perillous in the Churche of all other.

Fourthly, that he bid not onely remooue it, but with a vehemencie of zeale cut it in pieces, followyng the example of the good king Ezechias, who brake the brasen serpent, and burnt it to ashes.

Last of all that Epiphanius thinketh it the duetie of vigilant bishops to be carefull that no such kind of paynted Images be permitted in the church.

Serenus bishop of Massilia, broke downe Images, & destroied them when he did see them begin to be worshipped, Greg. in Regist. epist. 109.

Experience of the tymes since hath declared whether of these two sentences were better. For since Gregories time the Images standyng in the Westchurch, hath bene ouerflowed with Idolatry, notwithstanding his or other mens doctrine. Whereas if Serenus iudgement had vniuersally taken place, no such thyng had happened. For if no Images had bene suffred, none could haue bene worshipped, and consequently no idolatry committed by thē.

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¶ To recite the processe of histories and councels about the matter of Images, it woulde require a long discourse, but it shall be sufficient here briefly to touch a few.

IT is manifest to them that read histories, that not onely Emperors, but also diuers and sundry Councels in the East church haue condemned and abolished images both by decrees and examples.

Petrus Crinitus de honesta disciplina, lib. 9. cap. 9. ex libris Augustatibus, hæc verba transcripsit. Valens, & Theodosius Augusti Imperatores præfecto prætorio ad hunc modum scripserit. 

Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
Nicholas Ridley in a treatise, citing Petrus Crinitus, de honesta disciplina. lib. 9. cap. 9 ex libris Augustatibus.
Foxe text Latin

Valens, & Theodosius Augusti Imperatores praefecto praetorio ad hunc modum scripserit. Quum sit nobis cura diligens in rebus omnibus superni numinis religionem tueri. Signum saluatoris Christi nemini quidem concedimus coloribus lapide aliaue materia fingere, insculpere aut pingere, sed quocunque reperitur loco tolli iubemus, grauissima poena eos mulctando qui contrarium decretis nostris, & imperio quicquam tentauerint.

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Foxe text translation

Valens and Theodosius the Emperours, wrote to the high Marshall or Lieuetanant, in this sort. Where as wee are very carefull that the religion of almighty God should be in all thinges kept. We permit no man to cast, graue, or paint the Image of our Sauiour Christ, either in colors, stone, or other matter: but wheresoeuer it be found, wee commaund it to be taken away, punishing them most greuously that shall attempt any thing contrary to our decrees and Empire.

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Actual text of Petrus Crinitus, de honesta disciplina. lib. 9. cap. 9.

[Not in Migne, but see Portuguese website at:

[Sed libitum est] verba ex libris Augustalibus [referre quo id totum melius innotescat, quoniam et] Valens et Theodosius Augusti Imper. praefecto praetorio ad hunc modum scripserunt : Cum sit nobis cura diligens in rebus omnibus superni numinis religionem tueri, signum Salvatoris Christi nemini quidem concedimus coloribus lapide aliave materia fingere, insculpere aut pingere, sed quocumque reperitur tolli iubemus, gravissima poena eos mulctando, qui contrarium decretis nostris et imperio quicquam tentaverint.

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[Accurate citation, except for omission oflocoon line 11]

Quum sit nobis cura diligens in rebus omnibus superni numinis religionem tueri. Signum saluatoris Christi nemini quidem concedimus coloribus lapide aliáue materia fingere, insculpere aut pingere, sed quocūq; reperitur loco tolli iubemus, grauissima pœna eos mulctando qui contrarium decretis nostris, & imperio quicquam tentauerint. That is to say, Petrus Crinitus  
Cattley Pratt  *  Close
Cattley/Pratt, VIII, 705, fn 3

He was a Florentine of the name of Ricci, or, as he denominated himself according to the custom of the times, P. Crinitus. "Scripsit libros de Poetis Lat., qui unâ cum opere ejus 'De honestâ disciplinâ' excudi solet. Basil. 1532. Paris. 1520." See "Supplementum ad Vossium," Hamb. 1709, p. 768. He did not excel as a writer in the judgment of Vossius, "De Hist. Lat." p. 673, edit. 1651. - ED.

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in his booke of honest discipline, the 9. booke, the 9. chapiter, wrote out of the Emperours bookes, these wordes. Valens and Theodosius the Emperours, wrote to the high Marshall or Lieuetanant, in this sort. Where as wee are very carefull that the religion of almighty God should be

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