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Bingen am Rhein [Bringa]

Mainz-Bingen, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Coordinates: 49° 58' 1" N, 7° 53' 42" E

 
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Mainz

(Maguntiacum) [Mentz; Moguntia; Moguntina]

Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Coordinates: 50° 0' 0" N, 8° 16' 16" E

Cathedral city; seat of the prince-elector of Mainz

 
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Paris

Coordinates: 48° 52' 0" N, 2° 19' 59" E

Capital of France; cathedral city; university town

 
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Prague (Praha) [Parga]

Bohemia, Czech Republic

Coordinates: 50° 5' 0" N, 14° 25' 0" E

444 [420]

K. Edward 3. Learned men against the Pope. Martyrs before Wickliffe.

about this time 

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Foxe drew his account of Nilus from Matthias Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis (Strausburg, 1562), p. 520.

: He wrote a long worke agaynst the Latins 
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I.e., against the Roman Catholics.

that is, agaynst such as tooke part and held with the Church of Rome. His first book being written in Grecke, was after translated into latin, & lately now into english, in this our time 
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Foxe is referring to Nilus Cabislas, A briefe treatise, conteyning a playnedeclaration of the popes usurped primacy…, trans. T. Gressop (London, 1560), STC4325. This is a translation of Nilus Cabislas, De primatu papae. Flacius did not mention this translation; this citation is Foxe's insertion into the text.

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. In the first chap. of his book, he layeth all the blame and fault of the dissention & schisme betwene the East and the West Church vpon the Pope. He affirmed that the Pope onely would commaund what him listed, were it neuer so contrary to al the olde & auncient canōs. That he would heare and folow no mans aduise: that he would not permit any free coūcels to be assēbled. &c. And that therfore it was not possible, that the cōtrouersies betwene the Greeke Church and Latine Church, should be decided and determined.

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In the second chap. of his book, he purposedly maketh a very learned disputation. For first he declareth that he no whit at all by Gods commaūdement, but onely by humain law, hath any dignity, more thē hath other bishops: which dignity, the Councels, the fathers, & the Emperors haue graunted vnto him: Neither did they graūt the same for any other consideration more, or greater ordinaunce: then for that the same City then had the Impery of all the whole world: and not at all for that that Peter euer was there, or not there.

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Secondarily he declareth, that the same premacy or prerogatiue is not such and so great as he and his Sicophāts do vsurpe vnto thēselues. Also he refuteth the chiefest propositions of the Papistes one after an other. He declareth that the Pope hath no dominion more thē other Patriarches haue, and that he himselfe may erre as well as other mortall men: and that he is subiect both to lawes & councels, as well as other Bishops. That it belonged not to him, but to the Emperor, to call generall councels: & that in Ecclesiasticall causes he could establish and ordeine no more then all other Bishops might. And lastly, that he getteth no more by Peters succession, then that he is a Byshop as all other Bishops after the Apostles be. &c.

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MarginaliaIacobus Misuēsis and Militzius. I can not among other, folowing here the occasion of this matter offered, leaue out þe memory of Iacobus Misuensis, who also wrote of the comming of Antechrist 

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Apparently through inadvertance, the following two paragraphs were repeated after having been printed just a few pages earlier. The material in these paragraphs was taken from Matthias Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis(Strausburg, 1562), p. 524.

. In þe same he maketh mentiō of a certayn learned man, whose name was Militzius, which Militzius (sayth he) was a famous and worthy preacher in Parga 
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This account of Militizius and of the papal bull denouncing him comes from Matthias Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis (Strausburg, 1562), pp. 525-6.

. He liued about þe yere. 1366 
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This is Foxe's mistake. Flacius declared that Militizius lived two hundred years before Hus, which would place him in the early thirteenth century.1366 was the date of Gregory XI's bull denouncing Militizius' heresies.

. long before Husse, and before Wickliffe also. In the same his writings he declareth, how þe same good man Militzius was by the holy spirit of God incited, and vehemently moued to search out of þe holy Scriptures the maner and comming of Antechrist: and found that now in his time he was all ready come. And the same Iacobus sayth, that the sayd Militzius was constrayned by the spirite of God to go vp to Rome, & there publickely to preach. And that afterward before þe Inquisitour he affirmed the same. That the same mighty and great Antechrist, the which the Scriptures made mention of, was already comen.

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He affirmed also, that the Church by the negligence of the Pastors, should become desolate: and that iniquitye should abound, that is, by reason of Mammon 

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I.e., money or wealth. See Matthew 6:4 and Luke 16.

, master of iniquitie. Also, he sayde that there were in the Church of Christ idols, which should destroy Ierusalem, and make the tēple desolate, but were cloked by hypocrisy. Further, that there be many whych deny Christ, for that they keepe silence: neither do they heare Christ, whome all the world should know and cōfesse his verity before men, which also wittingly do detaine the verity and iustice of God.

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MarginaliaMilitzius persecuted by the Pope. There is also a certaine Bull of Pope Gregory 11. to the Archbishop of Praga: wherin he is commanded to excommunicate and persecute Militzius and his auditours. The same Bull delareth, that he was once a Chanon of Praga, but afterward he renounced his Canonship, & began to preache: who also for that he so manifestly preached of Antichrist to be already come: was of Iohn Archbishop of Praga put in prison, declaring what hys errour was. To wit, howe he had his company or cōgregation to whō he preached, and that amongst the same were certain conuerted harlots, which had forsaken their euill life, and did liue godly and well: whych harlots he accustomed in hys sermons to preferre before all the blessed virgins that neuer offended. He taught also openly, that in the Pope, cardinals, Bishops, prelates, priests, & other religious men: was no truth, neither that they taught the way of truth, but that onely he, & such as held with him, taught the true way of saluation. His Postill in some places is yet to be sene. They alledge vnto him certaine other inconuenient articles, which notwtstanding I thinke, the aduersaries to depraue him with all, haue slanderously inuented against hym. He had as appeared by the foresaid Bull, very many of euery state and condition, aswel rich as pore, that cleaued vnto him.

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MarginaliaHenricus de Hassia. About the yeare of our Lorde 1371. liued Henricus de Iota, whom Gerson doth much commend, and also his companiō Henricus de Hassia, an excellent learned and famous man 

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Henricus de Hassia is Henrich of Hesse (also known as Heinrich ofLangenstein, a fourtheenth-century German theologian and mathematician. Henricus de Iota is a virtually unrecognizable variant of Pierre d'Ailly, the famous fourteenth-century French theologian and philosopher. (Henricus is simply a mistake. 'Iota' is the Greek letter equivalent to 'I', which is roughly how Pierre's surname is pronoun-ced). Both men were hardly heterodox, but they were outspoken critics of ecclesiast-ical corruption and d'Ailly was a leading concialarist. Foxe took his accounts ofLangenstein and d'Ailly from Matthias Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis (Strausburg, 1562), p. 530.

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. An Epistle of this Henricus de Hassia, which he wrote to the Bishoppe of Normacia, Iacobus Cartsiensis 
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Jacobus Carthusianus is one of the names by which Jacob ofJüterbogk, a fifteenth century theologian and canonist, was known. The book Foxe is citing is Jacob's De erroribus et moribus Christianorum (Lubeck, 1488). Jacob was rector of the University of Erfurt but he was not a bishop.

inserted in his booke De erroribus Christianorum. In the same Epistle, the author doth greatly accuse the spirituall men of euery order. yea and the most holyest of all other the Pope himselfe, of many and great vices. He sayd, that the Ecclesiasticall gouernors in the primitiue Church, were compared to the sunne shining in the day time, and the politicall gouernors, to the Moone, shyning in the night. But the spirituall men he said, that now are, do neuer shine in the day time, nor yet in þe night time, but rather with theyr darcknes do obscure both the day and night, that is: with theyr filthy liuing, ignorance, and impiety. He citeth also out of the prophesy of Hildegaris these words: Therfore doth þe deuill in himselfe speake of you Priests: Dainty bankets & feasts, wherin is all voluptuousnes do I finde amongst these men: In so much that mine eies, mine eares, my belly, and my vaynes, be euen filled with the froth of them, & my brestes stand astrut with the riches of them. &c. Lastly, saith he, they euery day more and more as Lucifer did, seek to climbe higher and higher: til that euery day with hym more and more, they fall deeper and deeper.

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MarginaliaThe citizens of Mogūtia. About the yeare of our Lord. 1390 

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The following examples of the persecution of members of the True Church (as Foxe saw it) came from Bale, Catalogus, pp. 207, 259, 359 and 500.

. there were burned at Bringa 36. Citizens of Moguntina, for the doctrine of Waldenses, as Brushius affirmeth: which opiniō was no thing contrary to that they held before, wherein they affirmed the Pope to be that great Antechrist, which should come: Vnlesse peraduenture the Pope seemed then to be more euidently conuicted of Antechristianity thē at any other time before, he was reueled to be.

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MarginaliaA briefe rehearsall of suche as were put to death for holding against the Byshop of Rome before the time of Wickliffe. For the like cause, many other beside these, are to be found in storyes, which susteined the like persecutiō by the Pope, if leysure would serue to peruse all that might be searched. As where Masseus recordeth of diuers to the nūber of 140. which in the prouince of Narbone chose rather to suffer whatsoeuer greuous punishment by fire, thē to receiue the decretals of the Romish Church, contrary to the vpright truth of the Scripture.

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What should I here speake of the 24. which suffered at Paris, an. 1210? Also in the same author is testified that an. 1211. there were 400. vnder the name of heretiques burned 80. beheaded: Prince Americus hanged, and the Lady of the Castle stoned to death.

Moreouer, in the Chronicles of Houedon, and of other writers be recited, a maruelous nūber, which in the countryes of Fraunce were burned for heretiques. Of whom, some were called Publicans, some Catharits, some Paterines, and other by others names. What their assertions were, I finde no certayne report worthy of credit.

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MarginaliaEckhardus a Frier burned. In Tritenius is signified of one Eckhardus 

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In 1329, Pope John XXII condemned seventeen of Eckhart's teachings as heretical and eleven as suspicious. But Eckhart was never condemned as a heretic.

a Dominican Frier, who not long before Wickliffes tyme, was condemned and suffered for heresy at Hedelberge, an. 2330. who as he diffreth not much in name, may he be supposed to be the same, whom other do name Beghardus, and is sayd to be burned at Erphord.

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Of Albingenses because sufficient mētion is made before of whom a great number were burned about the time of king Iohn, I passe them ouer.

MarginaliaAn Heremit disputing against the Popes sacrament. Likewise I let passe the heremite, of whom Iohn Bacon maketh relation, in hys 2. Dist. Quæst. 1. Who disputing in Paules church, affirmed that those Sacraments, which were then vsed in þe church, were not instituted by Christ, An. 1306. MarginaliaRanulphus.Peraduenture it was the same Ranulphus, mētioned in the floure of hystories, & is sayd to die in prison: for the time of them doth not much differ.

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In Boetius, why the Pope should so much commend a certaine king, because for one man, he had slaine 400. cutting away the genitals from the rest, I can not iudge, except the cause were that, which the Pope calleth heresie.

But to let these things ouerpasse that be vncertayne, because neither is it possible to comprehēd all them which haue wtstand the corruption of the popes sea: neyther haue we any such firme testimony left of their doings, credibly to stay vpon: we wil now (Christ willing) cōuert our story, to thyngs more certaine & vndoubted, grounding vpon no light reportes of feble credit, nor vpō any fabulous legendes wythout authority: MarginaliaEx Archiuis Regia Maiestatis.But vpon the true and substantial copies of the publique recordes of the Realme, remaining yet to be sene vnder the kinges most sure & faithfull custody. Out of the which records 

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Parliament Rolls

This section of the Acts and Monuments consists almost entirely of extracts taken from the Parliament Rolls in the Tower Records, of legislation enacted in the reign of Edward III curtailing papal jurisdiction over the English Church. (SeeRotuli Parliamentorum, ed. J. Strakey et al., 6 vols [London, 1783], II, pp. 143-5, 153-4, 162-3, 225, 228, 283-5, 289-90, 337-9 and 363-70). Foxe's purpose in presenting these documents was to demonstrate that papacy had placed an intolerablefinancial burden on the English and also to present Edward III as an examplar of the good monarch who fought papal attempts to 'usurp' royal power.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

, such matter appeareth against the Popish church of Rome, and against hys vsurped authority, such open stāding & crying against the sayd sea, & that not priuely, but also in open parliament, in the daies of this king Edward the third: that neyther wil

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