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Abingdon
Abyngdon
NGR: SU 495 795

A borough, having separate and exclusive jurisdiction, locally in the hundred of Harmer, county of Berkshire, of which it is the chief town. 6 miles south from Oxford, 26 miles north west by north from Reading. The town comprises the parishes of St. Helens and St. Nicholas, both in the Archdeaconry of Berkshire, Diocese of Salisbury. The living of St. Helens is a vicarage, with the sinecure rectory of St. Nicholas annexed.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Bruges [Burges; Burburgh]

Belgium

Seat of the counts of Flanders; cathedral city

Coordinates: 51° 13' 0" N, 3° 14' 0" E

 
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Calais

[Calyce; Calice; Calis; Callis]

Pas-de-Calais, France

Coordinates: 50° 56' 53" N, 1° 51' 23" E

 
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Colchester
Colchester, Colchestre
NGR: TM 000 250

A borough, having separate jurisdiction, locally in the Colchester division of the hundred of Lexden, county of Essex. 22 miles north-east by east from Chelmsford. The town comprises the parishes of All Saints, St. James, St. Martin, St. Mary at the Walls, St. Nicholas, St. Peter, St. Rumwald and Holy Trinity within the walls; and St. Botolph, St. Giles, St. Leonard and St. Mary Magdalene without the walls; all in the archdeaconry of Colchester and Diocese of London

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Culham [Colnham]

nr Abingdon, Oxfordshire

OS grid ref: SU 505 955

 
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Dover
Douer
NGR: TR 320 414

One of the Cinq Ports, a borough and a market town, having separate jurisdiction; locally in the Lathe of St Augustine, eastern division of the County of Kent. 16 miles south east by south from Canterbury. Dover formerly consisted of the parishes of St James the Apostle, St John, St Martin the Greater, St Martin the Less, St Mary the Virgin, St Nicholas and St Peter - all subsequently merged into St James and St Mary. The living of St Mary is a perpetual curacy in the peculiar jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Canterbury, and in the patronage of the parishioners. The living of St James is a discharged rectory in the jurisdiction and patronage of the Archbishop

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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536 [512]

K. Ric. 2. Notes of parliaments. Tho. Arundell proued a traytor, and banished out of the realme.

MarginaliaEx. 3. Anno. Reg. Rich. 2.Moreouer, in the thyrd yeare of kyng Richard the second, the Prelates and Clergie made their protestation in this Parliament, expressely agaynst a certaine new graūt, to wit, their extortions: MarginaliaHere note well a straunge proceeding. That the same neuer should passe with their assent and good will, to the blemishyng of the liberties of the Churche, if by that worde extortion, they ment any thyng largely to proceede against Ordinaries & others of the Church. But if they ment none otherwise to deale hereafter therin, thē before that þe time had bene done then would they consent. Wherunto it was replied for the king, that neither for the same their sayd protestation, or other wordes in that behalfe, MarginaliaBut marke the straunge euent. the king woulde not stay to graunt to his Iustices in that case and all other cases, as was vsed to be done in times past, and was bound to doe by vertue of his othe done at his coronation.

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MarginaliaTit. 44.Futhermore, in the fourth yeare of the sayd king Richard 2. it was requested, that prouision might be had agaynst the popes collectors, for leuying of the first fruits of ecclesiasticall dignities within the realme.

MarginaliaTit. 46.Item, that all Priors Aliens might be remoued out of their houses, and licensed to depart, & neuer to reuert. And that English men may be placed in their liuings, answering the king as they did.

MarginaliaEx. 9. Anno eiusdem Regis. Tit. 4.And in the 9. yeare of the foresayd king, touching matter of the Staple: the speaker of the Parliament pronounced, that he thought best the same were planted within the realme, considering that Calis, Bruges, and other towns beyond the seas, grew very rich therby, and good townes here very much decayed, and so much for the common profite. Touching the king, he affirmed that the subsidie & custome of wool more yelded to the king whē the staple was kept in England by one thousand markes yearely, then it did now being holden beyond the seas.

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MarginaliaTit. 36.Item: that inquisition and redresse might be had against such religious persons, as vnder the licence to purchase 10. li. yearly, do purchase 80. li. or 100. li.

MarginaliaTit. 44.Item, that all Clarkes aduaunced to any ecclesiasticall dignitie or liuing by the king, will graunt to the king the first fruites of their luinges, none otherwise then they would haue done to the Pope being aduaunced by him.

MarginaliaTit. 26.In the 11. yeare of K. Richard. 2. it was put vp by the petitions of the commons, that suche impositions as are gathered by the popes bulles of Volumus and imponimus of the translations of B. B. and such like might be imployed on the kinges warres agaynst the schismatickes of Scotland. And that such as bring into the realme the like bulles and nouelries may be reputed for traytors.

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MarginaliaAn 13. Regis Rich. 2. Tit. 24.In the 13. yeare of his raigne, followed an other parliamēt, in which although the archbish. of Canterbury and Yorke, for them and the whole Clergie of their prouinces, made their solemne protestations in opē Parliament, that they in no wise ment or would assent to any statute or law made in restraynt of the popes authoritie, but vtterly with stood the same, willing this protestation of theirs to be enrolled: yet the sayd protestation of theirs at that time took no great effect.

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MarginaliaTit. 34.Item, in the same Parliament was put vp by publike petion, that the popes collector should be commaunded to auoyd the Realme within 40. dayes, or els to be taken as the kinges enemy, and that euery such collector from hence forth, may be an Englishman and sworn to execute the statutes made in this Parliament.

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MarginaliaEx titu. 9.Moreouer in the sayd Parliament, the yere abouesayd of the king: the 26. of Ianuary, M. Iohn Mandour Clark was charged openly in the parliament, that he should not passe, ne send ouer to Rome, ne attempt or doe any thinge there touching the Archdeaconry of Durham in preiudice of the king or of hys lawes, or of the party presented thereto by the king, on perill that might ensue.

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MarginaliaEx an. 14. Regis Richardi secundi. tit. 6.The next yeare following whiche was the 14. of thys kinges raigne, it was enacted first touching the staplers, that after the feast of the Epiphany next ensuing, that þe staple should be remoued from Calice into England, in suche places as are contayned in the statue made in 27. Edw. 3. the which statute should be fully executed: and further, that euery Alien that bringeth merchaundise into the Realme, should finde sufficient surety to buy and cary awaye commodities of the Realme, to halfe the value of his sayd merchaundise.

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MarginaliaTit. 24. Against vsury.Item, in the same parliament petition was made, that agaynst the horrible vice of vsury then termed shifts, practised as well by the clergie as laitie, þe order made by Iohn Notte, late Mayor of Londō, might be executed throughout the Realme.

MarginaliaEx. tit. 29.Moreouer in the 15. yeare of the raigne of the foresayde king it was accorded: for þt syr W. Brian knight, had purchased from Rome a Bull directed from the Archbshop ofCant, and Yorke, to excommunicate suche as had broken vp his house, and had taken away diuers letters, priuilegies, and charters. The same Bull being red in the parliament house, was adiudged preiudicial to the kings crown and in derogation of the lawes, for the whiche hee was by the king and assent of the Lordes committed to the Tower, there to remayne at the kinges will and pleasure.

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MarginaliaVide articulum. Tit. 29.In the sayd Parliament also, W. Archb. of Canterbury maketh his protestation in the open parliament, saying, that the pope ought not to excommunicate any bishop, or to entermeddle, for, or touching anye presentment to anye ecclesiasticall dignitie recorded in any the kinges courtes. He further protested, that the pope ought to make no translation, to any Byshopricke, within the realme against the kinges will: for that the same was to the destruction of the realme and crowne of England whiche hath alway bene so free, as the same hath had none earthly soueraigne, but onely subiecte to God in all thinges touching regalties, and to none other. The which protestation he prayed might be entred.

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MarginaliaExn An. 17. Reg. Rich. 2. Titul. 33.In the 17. yeare of the raygne of the king aforesayd, it was desired that remedy might be had, agaynst suche religious persons as caused their villains or vnderlinges to mary free women inheritable, wherby the lands came to those religious mens handes by collusion.

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Marginalia43.Item, that sufficient persons might be presented to benefices who may dwell on the same so as theyr stocke for want therof do not perish.

Marginalia46.Item, that remedy might be had agaynst the Abbotes of Colchester and Abinton, who in the townes of Colchester and Colnham clayme to haue sanctuary.

MarginaliaEx an. 20. Reg. Rich. 2. tit. 22.To come to the parliament holden in the 20. yeare of this kinges raigne, we finde moreouer in the sayd rolles: MarginaliaHere the Archb. of Cant. goeth contrary to himselfe. how that the Archb. of Cant. and York, for themselues and the clergy of their prouinces, declared to the king in open parliamēt, þt forasmuch as they were sworn to þe pope and see of Rome, if any thing were in the parliament attempted in restraynt of the same, they woulde in no wise assent therto, but verily withstand the same, the which theyr protestation they require to be enrolled.

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MarginaliaTitul. 32.Vpon the petition of the begging Friers there at large it was enacted: that none of that order shoulde passe ouer the seas, without licence of his soueraigne, nor that he shoulde take vppon him no order of M. of Diuinitie, vnlesse he were first apposed in his Chapter prouinciall, on payne to be put out of the kinges protection.

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MarginaliaTit. 36.Item, that the kings officers for making arests or attachementes in Churchyardes, are therefore excommunicated, wherof remedy was required.

MarginaliaEx 21. an. Reg. Rich. 2. titul. 15.In the yeare of the same kinges raygne. 21. the Parliment being holden at Westminster, we find how the commons in full Parliament, accused Thomas Arundell arch bishop of Caunterbury, for that he as Chauncellor procured, and as chiefe doer executed the same commission, made trayterously in the tenth yeare of the king. And also that he the sayd Archbishop procured the Duke of Gloucester and the Earles of Arundell and Warwicke, to encroch to themselues royall power, and to iudge to death Simon de Burley, and sir Iohn Berners without the kings assent. Wheron, the Commons required that the same archbish. might rest vnder safe keeping: wherunto, for that the same impeachementes touched so great a person, they would be aduised.

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MarginaliaEx tit. 16.Item, the 25. day of September, the Commons prayed the king to geue iudgement agaynst the sayd Archbishop, according to his desertes. The king aunswered, that priuately the sayd Archbishop had confessed to him, howe he mistooke himselfe in the sayd Commission, and therefore submitted himselfe to the kings mercy. Wherfore, the king Lordes and sir Thomas Percy, proctor for the clergie: adiudged the facte of the sayd Archbishop to be treason, and hymselfe a traytour, MarginaliaTho. Arundell Archb. of Cant. proued a traitour by parliament. and therfore it was ordered: that the sayd Archbishoppe shoulde be banished, his temporalties seased, his landes and goodes forfeyted, as well in vse as in possession.

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MarginaliaEx tit. 17.The king further prescribed, that the sayd Archbishop shoulde take hys passing on Friday within 6. weekes of Michaelmas, at Douer, towardes the parts of Fraunce.

Thus hauing hitherto sufficiently touched and comprehended such thinges as haue happened in the raygne of this king, necessary for the Church to knowe, by course of story: we come nowe to the 22. yeare of King Richardes raygne, which is the yeare of our Lord, 1399. 

Commentary  *  Close
Deposition of Richard II

Although the Acts and Monuments was an ecclesiastical history, Foxe devoted a great deal of space to the fall, deposition and death of Richard II. Foxe stated his reasons for this apparent disgression - to satisfy the curiosity of his readers and to provide a cautionary example for other monarchs to heed. (One can readily assume that the second reason was more pressing with Foxe than the first). Perhaps above all, Foxe wanted his readers (especially those of high rank) to remember the most fundamental lesson to be drawn from the fall of Richard: that it was caused by God's anger with Richard because the king did not sufficiently protect the Lollards. (The warning to Elizabeth, at a time when Foxe and other Protestants were urging her to protect Protestants in the Netherlands and France, and also to reform the English church thoroughly, is unspoken but unmistakeable). But Foxe pointed to other secondary reasons (often with strong didactic overtones) for Richard's downfall. One was Richard's reliance on evil counsellors and favourites, which led to quarrels with his nobles. Another was Richard's bad relations with the citizens of London, which Foxe attributed, in part, to their support for Wiclif and his followers. A third reason was the suspicion and fear that followed Richard's murder of his uncle Thomas of Woodstock. Foxe cites Fabyan's chonicle, the 'chronicle of S. Albans' and, rather airily, 'the kings records' and 'other histories at large'. In actual fact, apart from one item taken from Fabyan's chronicle (that Thomas Percy, earl of Worcester and other members of Richard's household deserted the king; see The chronicle of Fabian (London, 1559, STC 10664, p. 345), all of Foxe's account is taken from what he calls the chronicle of St. Albans. This is College of Arms Arundel MS 7 (see Thomas of Walsingham, Historia Anglicana, ed. H. T. Riley, 2 vols., Rolls Series 28 [London, 1863-4], II, pp. 140-1, 148-50, 152-3, 156, 160, 165-7, 172-4, 207-11, 213, 223-5,227-8, 232-5, 237 and 245-6).

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

In the which yeare happened the strange and also lamentable deposing of this king Richaxd the second aforesayd, from hys kingly scepter. Straunge, for that the like example hathe not

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