Critical Apparatus for this Page
View an Image of this PageCommentary on the Text
 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Berwick
Barwicke
NGR: NU 00 0528

Not identified

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

[Back to Top]
 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Shrewsbury [Shrowesbury; Shrosbery; Shreusbury]

County town of Shropshire

OS grid ref: SJ 495 125

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
York
NGR: SE 603 523

A city and county of itself, having exclusive jurisdiction; locally in the East Riding of the county of York, of which it is the capital. 198 miles north-north-west from London. The city is the seat of the Archbishop, and comprised originally 33 parishes, reduced by amalgamation to 22; of which 33, 17 were discharged rectories, 10 discharged vicarages, and 6 perpetual curacies; all within the diocese of York.

[Back to Top]

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

[Back to Top]
544 [520]

K. Henry. 4. K. Henry charged with oppression. The Archb. of York executed. Iohn Badby.

stones in the towne of Shreusbury, there to be kept wyth armed men: And afterwards to be beheaded and quartered, commanding his head and quarters to be caried vnto diuers cities of the kingdome. Wherefore for so detestable a fact neuer heard of in any age before, we pronounce him as in the former articles excommunicate.

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaThe K. charged with euill gouernement.8. Eightly, we depose, &c. agaynst þe said Lord Henry, for that after his atteining to the crowne, he willingly ratified, allowed, and approued a most wicked statute set forth & reneued in þe parliament holden at Winchester. The which statute is directly against þe Church of Rome, the power, & principalitie therof giuen by our Lord Iesus Christ and vnto blessed S. Peter & his successors Bishops of Rome: vnto whom belongeth by full authoritie the free disposing of all spirituall promotions as wel superior as inferiour: which wicked statute, is the cause of many mischiefes vid. of simonie, periurie, adultery, incest, misorder, & disobedience, for that many Bishops, Abbots, priors, and prelats (we will not say by vertue, but rather by errour of this statute) haue bestowed þe benefices vacant vpō yong men, rude and vnworthy persons, which haue compacted with them for the same, so that scarce no one prelate is found that hath not couentanted with the partie promoted for the halfe yearely, or at the least the third part of the said benefice so bestowed. And by this meanes, the said statute is the destruction of the right of S. Peter, the Church of Rome, and England, the Cleargie and vniuersities, the mainteuance of wars, and the whole common wealth, &c.

[Back to Top]

9. Ninthly, we say and depose, &c. against the said Lord Henry, that after he had tyrannously taken vpon him the gouernement of the Realme: England neuer florished since, nor prospered, by reason of his continuall exactions of money and oppressions, yearely of the cleargie and cōminaltie: neither is it knowen how this money so extorted is bestowed, when as neither his souldiours, nor his gentlemen are payed as yet their wages and fees for their charges and wonderfull toile and labour, neither yet the poore countrey people are satisfied for the victuall taken of them: MarginaliaK. Hen. charged with oppression and periury And neuertheles, the miserable clergie, and more miserable comminaltie, are forced still to pay, by menaces and sharp threatnings. Notwithstanding he sware when he first vsurped the crowne, that hereafter there should be no such exactions nor vexations, neither of the clergie nor laitie. Wherfore, as afore, we pronounce him periured, &c.

[Back to Top]

10. In the tenth and last article, we depose, say, and openly protest by these presents, for ourselues & all our assistents in the cause of the Church of Rome and England, and in the cause of king Richard his heires, the clergie, and comminaltie of the whole Realme: that neither our entention is, was, nor shall be, in word nor deed to offend any state, either of the prelats spirituall, Lords temporall, nor commons of the realme: but rather foreseeing the perdition aud destruction of this Realme to approch, we haue here brought before you certeine articles concerning the destruction of the same, to be circumspectlie considered of the whole assembly, as well of the Lords spirituall as temporall, and the faithfull commons of England: beseeching you all in þe bowels of Iesus Christ, the righteous iudge, and for the merits of our blessed Lady the mother of God, and of S. George our defender, vnder whose displayed banner we wish to liue and die, and vnder paine of damnation, that ye will be faourable to vs and our causes which are three in number. MarginaliaThree causes declared. Wherof the first is, that we exalt vnto the kingdome the ture & lawfull heire, and him to crowne in kinglie throne with the diademe of England. And secondly, that we reuoke the Welshmen, the Irishmen, and all other our enimies vnto perpetuall peace and amitie. Thirdly and finally, that we deliuer and make free our natiue countrey from al exactions, extortiōs, & vniust paiments: Beseeching our Lord Iesus Christ to graunt his blessing, the remission of their sinnes, & life euerlasting to all that assist vs to their power in this godly and meritorious worke: and vnto all those that are against vs, we threaten the curse of almighty God by the authority committed vnto vs by Christ and his holy Church, and by these presents we pronounce them excommunicate.

[Back to Top]

These Articles being seene and read, much concourse of people daily resorted more and more to þe archbishop. MarginaliaEarle of Westmerland against the Archb. The Earle of Westmerland being then not far off, with Iohn the kings sonne (hearing of this) mustered his souldiours with all the power he was able to make, & bent toward the Archbishop: but seeing his part too weake to encounter with him, useth practise of policie, where strength would not serue. And first comming to him vnder colour of frendship dissembled, laboureth to seeke out the causes of that great stirre: To whome the Archbyshop againeanswering, no hurt to be entended thereby, but profit rather to the kyng and common wealth, and maintenance of publicke peace: but for so much as he stood in great feare, and danger of the king, he was therefore compelled so to doo: And withall shewed vnto him the contents of the Articles aforesaid, which when the Earle had read, setting a faire face vpon it, seemed highly to commend the purpose and doyngs of the Bishop: MarginaliaFalsehood in felowship promising moreouer that he would helpe also forward in that quarell, to the vttermost of his power. And required vpon the same, a day to be set, when they with equall number of men, might meete together, in some place appointed to haue farther talke of the matter. The Archbishop easilie perswaded, was content, although much against the counsaile of the Earle Marshall, and came. Where the Articles being openly published and read, the Earle of Westmerland with his companie, pretended well to like vpon the same, and to ioyne their assents together. Which done, he exhorted the Archbishop, that for so much as his garrison had bene now long in armour, and from home, he would therefore discharge the needeles multitude of his souldiers, and dismisse them home to their worke and busines, and they would together drinke and ioyne hands in the sight of the whole company. MarginaliaThe Archb. of Yorke craftely circumuented. Thus they shaking hands together, the Archbishop sendeth away his souldyers in peace, not knowing himselfe to be circumuented, before he was immediately arested by the handes of the foresayde Earle of Westmerland, and shortly after the king comming with his power to Yorke, MarginaliaThe Archb. of Yorke, L. Tho Moubray with many Yorke shire men executed. was there beheaded the monday in Whitson weeke, and with him also Lord Thomas Moubray Marshall, with diuers other moreouer of þe citie of Yorke, which had taken their parts. After whose slaughter, the King proceedeth farther to persecute the Earle of Northumberland, & Lord Thomas Bardolph. Who then did flie to Barwicke. From thence they remooued to Wales. MarginaliaThe Earle of Northūberland, L. Tho. Bar.dolfe slaine. At length within two yeares after, fighting against the kyngs part, were slayne in the field. an. 1408. MarginaliaAnno. 1408. In the which yeare, diuers other also in the Northparts, for fauouring the foresaid Lords, were likewise condemned by the kyng and put to death. MarginaliaAbbot of Hales hāgedAmong whome, the Abbott of Hales, for the like treason was hanged.

[Back to Top]

The kyng after the sheddyng of so much bloud, seeyng himselfe so hardly beloued of his subiects, thought to kepe in yet with the Clergy, & with the Bishop of Rome, seeking alwaies his chiefest stay at their hands. And therfore was compelled in all things, to serue their humour, as did appeare as well in condemning William Sawtre before, as also in other, which cōsequētly we haue now to intreat of. In the number of whom commeth now by þe course of time to write of one Iohn Badby 

Commentary  *  Close
John Badby

John Badby has the melancholy distinction of being the first person in England to be burned under the statute De heretico comburendo (1401), which established heresy as a capital crime. (William Sawtre, executed, in 1401, had to be executed by royal command as the statute had not come into force). Foxe's account of Badby is a little confusing (because Foxe had access only to one set of records), so a word of background is in order. John Badby was a craftsman of the diocese of Worcester who came to the attention of the authorities through his outspoken denial of the doctrine of transubstantiation. Badby was summoned before the bishop of Worcester in 1409 and ultimately convicted of heresy. At another time, matters might have been resolved at a local level, probably with a less lethal denouement. Unfortunately for Badby, the prince of Wales (the future Henry V) had become the dominant political figure in the kingdom and he was anxious to dispel rumours and expectations (fostered by his friendship with Sir John Oldcastle and other 'Lollard knights') that he might further the Lollard cause. He sought a means to demonstrate his orthodoxy, and the prosecution of a notorious Lollard provided one. Badby was summoned before a convocation of clergy on 1 March 1410 (not 1409, as in Foxe) and subjected to a show trial. He was condemned and on 5 March 1410 he was executed, after refusing a royal pardon.

[Back to Top]

Foxe first mentioned an unnamed 'faber' (craftsman) being burned in 1410 and also the refusal by the condemned man to accept a pardon offered by the prince of Wales, in the Commentarii (fos. 61r-62r). Foxe's source for this was College of Arms MS Arundel 7, a version of Thomas of Walsingham's Chronica majora (see Thomas of Walsingham, Historia Anglicana, ed. H. T. Riley, 2 vols., Rolls Series 28 {London, 1863-4), II, p. 282). This account was reprinted in the Rerum (p. 60) and translated in the 1563 edition. In the 1570 edition, Foxe added details taken from Archbishop Arundel's register: the articles charged against Badby at Lambeth, his answers to them, his examination by Arundel, his condemnation and even a few details about his execution - i.e., that the chancellor of Oxford presided over it and that the prior of St Batholomew the Great brought the Host to Badby at the stake. (Cf. Lambeth Palace Library, Arundel Register, II, fos.126v-127v). No further changes were made to the account of Badby in subsequent editions.

[Back to Top]

Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

a Tailor and a lay man. who by the crueltie of Thomas Arundel Archbishop, and other Prelates, was brought to his condemnation in this kings reigne, an. 1409. MarginaliaAnno. 1409. according as by their owne registers appeareth, & followeth by this narration to be seene.

[Back to Top]
¶ Iohn Badby Artificer.

MarginaliaIohn Badby martyr. Ex Regist. Tho. Arundel.IN the yeare of our Lord. 1409. on Sonday beyng the first day of March, in the afternoone: The excommunication following of one Iohn Badby Taylour, beyng a lay man, was made in a certaine house or haull within the precinct of the preaching friers in Londō, in an vtter cloister: vpon the crime of heresie & other articles, repugnant to the determinatiō of the erroneous church of Rome, before Thomas Arundel Archbishop of Canterbury and other his assistants, as þe Archbishop of Yorke, of London, of Winchester, of Oxford, of Norwich, of Salisbury, of Bath, of Bangor, Et meneuensis Episcopi, and also Edmond Duke of Yorke, Thomas Bewford, the Chauncelour of England, Lord de Roos, the clerke of the rolles, & a great numberof other Lords, both spirituall and temporall being then at the selfesame time present: Maister Morgan read the articles of his opinions to the hearers, according as it is conteined in the instrument read by the foresayd M. Morgan, the tenour whereof followeth and in effect is such.

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaThe articles read.In the name of God, Amen: Be it manifest to all men by this present publike instrument, that in the yeare after the incarnationof our Lord, according to þe course and cōputation of the Church of England, otherwise in the yere 1409. in the second indictiō, in the third yeare of the Popedome of the most holy father in Christ & Lord, Lord Gregory xj. by þe diuine permission Pope, the secōd day of Ianuary, in the Chappell Caruariæ of S. Thomas Martyr, nigh vnto the Cathedrall Church of Worcester, being situate in the said Dioces, in the presence of me the publicke Notary, and of the witnesses vnder written: the foresayd

[Back to Top]
Iohn
Go To Modern Page No:  
Click on this link to switch between the Modern pagination for this edition and Foxe's original pagination when searching for a page number. Note that the pagination displayed in the transcription is the modern pagination with Foxe's original pagination in square brackets.
Find:
Type a keyword and then restrict it to a particular edition using the dropdown menu. You can search for single words or phrases. When searching for single words, the search engine automatically imposes a wildcard at the end of the keyword in order to retrieve both whole and part words. For example, a search for "queen" will retrieve "queen", "queene" and "queenes" etc.
in:  
Humanities Research Institute  *  HRI Online  *  Feedback
Version 2.0 © 2011 The University of Sheffield