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K. Henry. 5. The Bohemians. Articles against the Bohemians. Pope Martine hatched.

reward for betraieng the innocent bloud. Wherein it is not to be doubted, but that his light fee, and quid vultis mihi dare in this world, will haue an heauie reward hereafter in the world to come, vnlesse he repented. &c.

MarginaliaAn. 5. Henr. 5 act. 17.Furthermore, in the sayde Parliament, Act. 17. it was enacted, that the Church and all estates should enioy all their liberties, which were not repealed, or repealeable by the common lawe: meaning belike, the excluding of the iurisdiction of the Popes foreine power, which hath alwaies by the common lawe bene excluded out of thys Realme.

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MarginaliaAn. 5. Henr. 5. act. 17.In the same Parliament also a greeuous complainte was made (by the Bishops no doubt) against insurrections. In the ende, they suspected that they were the Lollards, hereticks, and traitours, with a request that commissions might at all times be graunted to inquire of them. Whereunto aunswere was made, that the statutes therefore made, should be executed, &c. Thus the Cleargy Tanquam leones rugientes, ceased not to roare after Christian bloud: And whosoeuer was else in fault, still the Clergy cried: crucifie Christ, and deliuer vs Barrabas: MarginaliaAll the blame laide to the Lollardes.For then all horrible facts and mischieues, if anye were done, were imputed to the poore Lollards.

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And now from our English matters, to returne againe to the story of the Bohemians, from whence wee haue a little digressed, when as the newes of the barbarous cruelty exercised at Constance against Iohn Hus, & Hierome of Prage, were noised in Boheme, the nobles and gentlemen of Morauia and Boheme, such as fauoured the cause of Iohn Hus, gathering themselues together in the zeale of Christ: 

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Hussite Wars

Those who continue to insist that one of the purposes of the Acts and Monuments was to present England as the elect nation, might do well to examine Foxe's glorification of the Hussites. With the possible exception of Thomas Cromwell, there is no magistrate or secular leader whom Foxe admired as much as the Hussite military commander, Jan Ziska. Foxe's account of the Hussites allowed him to stress two themes important to him: that the False Church, led by the Papacy, was unrelenting in its determination to eradicate the True Church and that God could be counted on to protect his people. With the exception of Zisca's epitaph, which was taken from Matthias Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis [Strassburg, 1562], p. 499, all of Foxe's account of Zisca and of the Hussite wars in the 1563 edition is taken from Aeneas Sylvius Picclomini's Historia Bohemica (Basel, 1489), sigs. c8v-e2v. In the 1570 version, Foxe reprinted most of this material, although he deleted material which had been included in the first edition but was now considered too embarrassing: among them a description of the Adamites (radical sectarians who renunciation of worldly goods allegedly extended to nudity) and Picclomini's descriptions of massacres perpetrated by the Hussites. In the 1570 edition, Foxe added two documents. One was a bull of Martin V ordering prosecution of the followers of Wiclif and Hus. Foxe stated that he received a copy of this bull from Richard Hakluyt the elder, the cousin of the Richard Hakluyt who compiled The Principal Navigations. The other document was a manifesto sent by the Hussites to European rulers in an effort to garner support. Foxe states simply that this document came 'ex vetustissimo codice manuscripto'. The account of the Hussite wars in the 1570 edition was reprinted without change in subsequent editions of the Acts and Monuments.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

first sent their letter vnto the Councell, expostulating with them, for the iniurie done to those godly men, as is before expressed, page. 602. for the which letter they were all cited vp to the Councell. Vnto this letter Sigismund the Emperour maketh aunswere againe in þe name of the whole Councell: first, excusing himselfe of Husses death, which he saide was against his safeconduict, and against his will: Insomuch that he rose in anger from the Councell, and departed out of Constance, as is before remembred. Secondly, he requireth them to be quiet, and to conforme themselues peaceably vnto the order of the Catholicke Church of Rome, &c.

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Also the Councell hearing or fearing some stirre to rise among the Bohemians, did make lawes and Articles whereby to bridle them, to the number of xxiiij.

MarginaliaArticles decreed in the Councell of Constance agoinst the Bohemians.FIrst, that the King of Bohemia shall be sworne to giue obedience, and to defend the liberties of the Churche of Rome.

That all Maisters, Doctours and Priestes, shall bee sworne to abiure the doctrine of Wickleffe, and Husse, in that Councell condemned.

That all they which being cited, would not appeare, should also be sworne to abiure: and they whiche woulde not appeare, contemning the censure of the keyes, should haue processe against them, and be punished.

That all such lay men as had defended the causes of Iohn Wickleffe and Iohn Husse, should sweare to defend them no more, and to approoue the doings of that Councell, and the condemnation of Iohn Husse.

That all such seculare men as had spoiled the Cleargie, should be sworne to restitution.

That Priestes being expelled from their benefices, should be restored againe.

That all prophaners of Churches should bee puuished after the Canonicall sanctions.

That such as had bene promoters in the Councell against Iohn Husse, should be permitted safely to returne into Boheme againe, and to enioy their benefices.

That the reliques and treasure taken out of the Church of Prage, should be restored fully againe.

That the vniuersitie of Prage should be restored againe and reformed, and that they which had bene the disturbers thereof, should be really punished.

That the principall heretickes and doctors of that secte, should be sente vp to the sea Apostolique, namely, MarginaliaThe fauorers of I. Hus in Boheme.Ioannes Iessenetz, Iacobellus de Misna, Symon de Tysna, Symon de Rochinzano, Christiannus de Brachatitz, Ioannes Cardinalis, Zdenko de loben, The prouost of Alhalowes, Zaislaus de Suiertitz, and Michael de Czisko.

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That all secular men which communicated vnder both kinds, should abiure that heresie, and sweare to stoppe the same heereafter.

That they which were ordeined Priestes by the suffragane MarginaliaThis suffragane was a good man and helde with Iohn Hus. of the Archbishop of Prage, taken by þe Lord Zenko, should not be dispensed with, but sent vp to the Sea Apostolicke.

MarginaliaWicklieffes bookes translated by I. Hus and Iacobellus, into the Bohemiā speach.That the treatises of Iohn Wickliffe, translated into the Bohemian tongue by Iohn Husse, and Iacobellus, should be brought to the Ordinary.

That the treatises of Iohn Husse condemned in the Councell, should also be brought to the Ordinarie.

That all the tractations of Iacobellus De vtraque specie, de Antichristo (wherein he calleth the Pope Antichrist) Et de remanentia panis post consecrationem, should likewise be brought and burned.

That all songs and balates made to the preiudice of the Councell, and of the Catholike persons of both states, should be forbid to be soong in Cities, townes and villages, vnder great and extreame punishment.

That none should preach the word without the licence of the Ordinarie, or of the parson of that place.

That Ordinaries and Prelates, hauing iurisdiction, should not be stopped in their iurisdiction, by the secular power, vnder paine of excommunication.

That all and singular parsons shall be commaunded to obedience, vnder paine of excōmunication: and that whosoeuer knoweth any person to fauour any Wicleuistes or their doctrine, or that keepeth company with suspect persons, he shall present the same to his Diocesans or his officials.

That the confederacie of the seculars made betweene themselues, or any of the spiritualtie, to the preiudice of the foresaid Councell, MarginaliaConcilium malignantium. and of the Apostolicke sea & Church of Rome, in the fauour of Iohn Hus, Hierome of Prage, and other in the said Councell cōdemned, shalbe dissolued.

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That the rites and ceremonies of Christian Religion, touching Gods seruice, Images, and worshipping of reliques, shall be obserued, and transgressours of the same be punished.

That all and singular, either spirituall or secular that shall preach, teach, holde, or maintaine the opinions and Articles of Iohn Wickliffe, Iohn Hus, and Hierome, in this Councell condemned, and conuict of the same, shall be holden for heretickes, and falling in relapse, shall bee burned.

That all secular persons being monished and charged by the Ordinaries, shall be bound to geue their aide and furtherance vnto them, touching the premisses.

The Bohemians, notwithstanding these cruell Articles, contemning the vaine deuises of these Prelates and fathers of the Councell, ceased not to proceede in their league and purpose begon, ioyning themselues more strongly together.

In this meane time it hapned, that during this Councell of Constance, after the deposing of Pope Iohn, MarginaliaDeposing of Pope Iohn. 23. and spoiling of his goodes, which came to 75. thousand poūds of golde and siluer, as is reported in the story of Sainct Albans, MarginaliaEx bist. Albani. Pope Martin vpon the day of S. Martin, was elected. Concerning whose election, great preparation was made before of the Councell, so that beside the Cardinals, fiue other Bishops of euery nation should enter into the conclaue, who there together should be kept wyth thin diet, till they had founded a Pope. At last, when they were together, they agreed vpon this man, MarginaliaThe election of Pope Martine. and not tarieng for opening of the dore, like mad men, for hast, brast open an hole in the wall, crieng out, habemus papam, Martinum, we haue a Martine Pope. The Emperour hearing thereof, with the like hast, came apace, and falling downe, kissed the new Popes feete. MarginaliaThe Emperour kisseth the popes feete. Then went they all to the Church together, and sang, Te Deum.

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The next day following, this Martine MarginaliaPope Martind. was made priest (which before was but a Cardinall Deacon) and the next day after was consecrate Bishop, and sang his first masse, whereat was present 140. mitred Bishops. After thys, the next morow, the new holy Pope ordeined a generall procession, where a certaine Clarke was appointed to stand with flaxe and fire, who setting the flaxe on fire, thus said: Ecce pater sancte, sic transit gloria mundi. i. behold holye father, thus vadeth the transitorie glory of this worlde. MarginaliaThe coronation of pope Martine.Which done, the same day the holy father was brought vp vnto an high scaffold (saith the story) I will not say to an high mountaine, where was offered to him all the glory of the world, &c. there to be crowned for a triple Kyng. This done, the same day, after dinner, the new crowned Pope was with great triumph brought through þe middest of the Citie of Constance, where all the Bishops and Abbots followed with their miters. The Popes horsse was all trapt with red skarlet downe to the ground. MarginaliaMeretrix equitans super bestiam Apocalip. The Cardinals horses were all in white silke, the Emperour on the right side, and prince Electour on the left, playeng both the Popes footemen, went on foote, leading the Popes horse by the bridle.

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