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683 [659]

K. Hen. 6. The martyrdome of W. Taylour. The displing of I. Florence.

Abraham, Isaac, and Iacob, which were deade. &c. And furthermore passing from the testimony of Hierome, and alledging the examples of Steuen, sayeth: Quod nunc magis exauditur pro veneratoribus suis, quam tunc exauditus est pro lapidatoribus. And at length he commeth to this cōclusion, proouing by S. Austen, in this maner: MarginaliaAug. super. Psal. 21.Ne igitur cum impijs & idolatris in veteri testamento, in circuitu ambulemus, nunquam deueniendo ad centrum, sanū est quod faciamus secundum consilium Apostoli sic dicentis: Accedamus cum fiducia ad thronum gratiæ eius, vt misericordiam consequamur & gratiam inueniamus in auxilio oportuno. &c. That is. And therfore least we runne about in circles with the wicked, and wyth the idolaters of the old Testament, and neuer come to the center, therfore it is wholesome & good counsaile, that we followe the minde of the Apostle, saying: Let vs resorte wyth boldnes vnto the throne of his grace in time of oportune helpe. &c.

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Thus much out of the foresayde wryting of W. Tailor I haue excerped, to the intent that the indifferent reader, vsing his iudgement herein, may see how litle matter was in this, wherefore he should be condemned by the Papists. And yet notwythstanding the same wryting being deliuered by the archbishop, Marginalia4. articles by the 4. orders of Friers laid against W. Taylour.to the four orders of Friers of London to be examined, was founde erroneous and hereticall in these poyntes.

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1. First, that euery prayer, which is a petition of some supernaturall gift or free gift, is to be directed onely to God.

2. Item, that prayer is to be directed to God alone.

3. Item, to pray to any creature is to commit idolatry.

4. Also, an other opiniō there was much like to the other, to make vp the fourth, so that although all these opinions agreed in one, yet to make vp a number euery order of the foure sortes of Friers, thought to finde out some matter to offer vp to the Archb. against him, least one order shoulde seeme more cunning or pregnant in finding out more, then could an other: or els perchaunce least any of them should seeme to fauor the party, in bringing nothing against him, as the rest had done.

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The burning of William Tailour, Priest.
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In Foxe's first edition the story of William Tayler (or Taylor) opens the 'The thirde part or section of this Ecclesiasticall history'. William Taylor, 'a persistent and, in the end at least, fearless follower of Lollard views', was burned for heresy after a long heretical career. We know about his opinions not only from the record of proceedings against him in Archbishop Chichele's register and reports in Thomas Netter's Doctrinale, but also (unusually) from the survival of one of his sermons. Taylor was a native of Worcestershire and sometime principal of St Edmund's Hall, Oxford, who was cited and arrested for heresy on several occasions, the first being for a sermon he preached at Paul's Cross in 1406. He admitted in 1420, when arrested in Bristol, that he had been excommunicate for about fourteen yerars. His long, persistent careeer of heretical sympathies was finally terminated in March 1423, when he was burned at Smithfield as a relapsed heretic. It was his writings that incriminated him, the authorship of which he neither confessed nor denied to be in his own handwriting when examined. Foxe stated that his writings were so 'indifferent' that he deemed them not worthy of such a severe judgement against the man. In 1563 Taylor was represented by one of the vivid group of woodcuts that proved problematical because of their size. It showed a martyr chained to the stake with raised arms and the words 'Lord help me and forgeve them' in a bandarole. In and after 1570 he was illustrated by one of the new small woodcuts. . CUL copy: the martyr is depicted as wearing a white shroud. Although balding, his hair and beard are coloured in light brown. WREN copy: in this copy Tailor's hair and beard are greying slightly.

When the Saterday was come, which was the 20. day of February, vppon the which day the 4. orders were appoynted to declare theyr censure vppon the Articles in the chapiter houses of Paules, first appeareth Frier Tylle, for the Blacke Friers, then Frier Winchelsey: then Frier Low: After Frier Ashwel, eche Frier for his order seuerally bringing his heresy, as is aboue specified.

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Thus the verdict of these 4. orders being geuen vp to the Archb. and seuerally, eche order comming in with hys heresye, which was the 20. day of February. Hereuppon commeth downe a wryt from the king, directed to the lord Maior and Sheriffes of London. De heretico comburendo, dated the 1. day of March. Anno 1. of his raigne. The copie whereof remaineth in the recordes of the Tower, beginning thus. Rex Maiori & vicecomitibus. Wherupon the saydWilliam Tailour condemned as a relapse, first was disgraded, MarginaliaW. Taylour disgraded. and after to be burned, and so was committed to the seculare power. Who then being had to Smithfield, the 1. day of Marche, with Christian constancie, after long imprisonment, MarginaliaW. Taylour Martir, burned in Smithfield.there did consummate his Martyrdom. 1422.

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The maner of his disgrading was all one with the disgrading of Iohn Hus before: for the Papistes vse but one forme for all men. MarginaliaThe popes maner of degradation.First disgrading them from Priesthode, by taking from them the chalice and patine. From deaconship, by taking from them the gospell booke and tunicle. From Subdeaconship, by taking from them the Epistle booke and Tunicle. From Accoluteship, by taking from them the Cruet and Candlesticke. From an Exorciste, by taking away the booke of Exorcismes or Graduall. From the Sextonship, by taking away the churchdoore key and surplis. And likewise from Benet, in taking away the surplis, and first tonsure. &c. Al which they orderly accomplished vpon this godly Martyr, before his burning.

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Iohn Florence a Turner.

IHon Florence MarginaliaIohn Florence a Turner. a Turner, dwelling in Shelton, in the Diocesse of Norwich, was attached for that he helde and taught these heresies heere vnder wrytten (as they called them) cōtrary to þe determination of the Church of Rome.

In primis, that the pope and Cardinals haue no power to make or constitute any lawes.

Item, that there is no day to be kept holy, but onely the Sonday which God hath halowed.

Item, that men ought to fast no other time, but of the Quatuor temporum.

Item, that Images are not to be worshipped, neyther that the people ought to set vp any lightes before them in the Churches, neither to go on pilgrimage, neither to offer for the dead, or with women that are purified.

Item, MarginaliaHe meaneth they should not claime such tithes by any exaction.that Curates should not take the tithes of theyr parishioners, but that such tithes shuld be deuided amōgst the poore parishioners.

Item, that al such as sweare by their life or power, shal be damned, except they repent.

The displing of Iohn Florence.
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As recorded by Foxe, John Florence was a turner of Shelton in the Norwich diocese,who denied the authority of the Pope, and held controversial views on saints' days. After examination he had to do penance in Norwich Cathedral. This case is among the examples that show how Foxe's record supplements the extant evidence of the Norwich Heresy Trials 1428-31 edited by Norman Tanner. Florence's name does not appear in these proceedings, but as Foxe includes information that is not otherwise known (for instance about Hugh Pye) it seems that he had access to records now no longer extant. The name 'Boner' on the scourger holding the flail points to this small cut being prepared with an eye more on Marian prosecutions than the punishment of Wycliffites. This woodcut was later reused . It is possible that the decision to reuse it ensured that its banderole remained blank. (For example, compare 1570, p.782 and p.786 with 1576, p. 636 and p. 640.) CUL copy: Florence is depicted naked, save for a white sheet about his midriff. Note that there are flecks of pinkish red on his back, displaying detail not provided by the original illustration. The empty scroll in the top left of the image is edged with purple. Note that, although black ink is used to add detail to the picture where the paint might have obscured it, the word 'So[m]ner' is not detailed with ink, despite its being somewhat obscured by the blue colour of the man's garments. WREN copy: provides the same detail, although the blank scroll is covered over with blue, in an attempt to erase it. Note that the marginal note accompanying the description of 'the displaying' states that the rod used was white yet there is no effort made to ensure that the rod depicted is indeed white in either the CUL or WREN copy.

MarginaliaAnno. 1424.Vpon Wensday, being the second day of August in the yeare of our Lorde 1424. the sayde Iohn Florence personally appeared before William Bernam, Chauncellour to William byshoppe of Norwich, whereas he proceding against him, obiected the first article touching the power of the Pope and Cardinals: to which Article the sayde Iohn Florence answered in thys manner. If the pope liued vprightly as Peter liued, he hath power to make lawes: otherwise, I beleeue hee hathe no power. But being afterward threatned by the iudge, he acknowledged that he had erred, and submitted himsclfe to the correction of þe church, and was abiured, taking an othe that from that time forward he should not hold, teach, preach, or willingly defend

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