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Berwick
 
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Berwick
Barwicke
NGR: NU 00 0528

Not identified

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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741 [717]

K. Edw. 4. Troubles in K. Edw. time. The burning of I. Goose. Duke of Clarence his death.

King Richard 2. or else thirdly for the cruell slaughter of Humfrey the good Duke of Gloucester his vncle: whereof sufficiently hath bene said before.

MarginaliaA sore heresy preched at Pauls crosse.During the time of these doings, being about þe yeare of our Lord 1465. There was here in England a certaine Frier Carmelite, who about the tearme of Michaell the Archangel preached at Paules in London, that our Lord Iesus Christ, being heere in this present worlde, was in pouertie, and did beg. MarginaliaContention in the churche, whether Christ was a begger or not. To whose opiniō and doctrine, the prouinciall of that order semed also to incline, defending þe same both in his reading and preaching, with other Doctours moe and brethren of þe same order: vnto whom also adioined certaine of the Iacobites, and stifly did take their partes. On þe cōtrary side, many doctours & also lawyers, both in their publicke lectures & preaching, to the vttermost of their cunning, did withstād their assertion, as being a thing most pestiferous in the Church to be heard. Such a bitter cōtention was among them, that the defendent part was driuen for a while to keepe silence. MarginaliaTimes compared.Much like to those times I might well resemble these our dayes now present, with our tumultuous contention of formes and fashions of garments. But I put my selfe here in Pythagoras schoole, and keepe silence with these Friers. In the story moreouer it foloweth, that this beggerly questiō of the begging Friers, whether Christ did begge, or no, went so far, þt at length it came to þe Popes eares, Paulus 2. who was no beggar ye may be sure. After that, the fame of this doctrine, mounting ouer the Alpes, came flieng to the court of Rome, which was about þe Assumption of the virgin Mary, þe yeare next folowing, an. 1465. it brought with it such an euill smell to þe fine noses there, that it was no neede to bid them to stirre: for begging to them was worse thē hie heresie. Wherfore the holy father pope Paulus the 2. to represse the sparkles of this doctrine, which otherwise perhaps might haue set his whole kitchin on fire, taketh þe matter in hand, & eftsoones directeth downe his Bull into England, insinuating to the Prelates here, Marginalia

Ex hist. Scala mundi. fol. vlt.

The Popes determined solutiō, that Christ was no beggar.

Hæresim illam pestiferè asserentem, quod Christus publice mendicauit, esse antiquitus a Romanis pontificibus, cum suis Concilijs damnatam, & eam pro damnata, vndique declarandam, & conculcandam, &c. That is, that this heresie, which pestiferously doth affirme that Christ did openly begge, was condemned of old time by the Bishops of Rome, and his Councels, and that the same ought to be declared in all places for a damned doctrine, and worthy to be troden downe vnder all mens feete, &c. This was in the same yeare when Prince Edward, King Edwards sonne was borne in the Sanctuary at Westminster an. 1465.

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MarginaliaK. Edward vanquished 9 battailes, being himselfe present at them all.As touching the rest of the doings and affaires of thys king (which had vāquished hetherto ix. battailes, himselfe being present) how afterward he, through the incitemēt of Charles duke of Burgoine his brother in law, vētred into France with a puissant army, MarginaliaCharles Duke of Burgoyne fayled hys promise with the kyng.& how the Duke fayled him in his promise, also how peace betwene þe two kings was at length cōcluded in a solēne meeting of both þe sayd kings together MarginaliaPeace betweene the two kinges, bought with the French kyngs money. (which meeting is notified in stories, by a white doue sitting the same day of meeting, vpō the top of king Edwards tent) also of þe mariage promised betwene þe yong Dolphin & Elizabeth K. Edwards eldest daughter, but afterward broken of the French kings part: MarginaliaMariage betwene the Frēch kings sonne, and K. Edwards daughter, made and broken. moreouer as touching the death of the duke of Burgoine slaine in war, & of his daughter Mary, neece to King Edward, spoiled of here lands & possessions wrōgfully, by Lewes þe French king, & maried after to Maximilian: furthermore, as touching the expeditiō of king Edward into Scotlād, by reason of King Iames, MarginaliaKing Iames of Scotland goeth from his promise of mariage. breaking promise in marieng with Cecilie the ij. daughter of king Edward, & of driuing out his brother, & how þe matter was composed there, & of the recouery againe of Barwicke: MarginaliaBarwick recouered. of these (I say) & such other things mo, partly because they are described sufficētly in our cōmon english stories, partly also because they be matters not greatly perteining to the Church, I omit to speake, making of thē a supersedeas. Two things I finde here among many other, specially to be remembred. 

Commentary  *  Close
John Goose and George of Clarence

Foxe relates two incidents from Edward IV's reign before returning to deal with events on the Continent. The first of these incidents was the burning of John Goose, a Lollard, in London in 1473. Although Foxe states that he derived this account 'Ex Polychro' (i.e., from a continuation of Ranulph Higden's Polychronicon), this cannot be correct, as none of the continuations of the Polychronicon extend further than 1461. In actual fact, Foxe is drawing his account of Goose, on virtually a word-for-word, basis from Robert Fabyan's chronicle. Foxe's interest in Goose is obvious, any pre-Reformation martyr was another proof that the true church existed before Luther. At first glance, Foxe's reasons for including the execution of George, Duke of Clarence are less obvious. But the reason was that one explanation for Clarence's downfall - that Edward IV believed a prophecy that someone whose name began with the letter 'G' would reign after him , thus usurping his son's throne - provided a foundation for a moralizing lecture on discerning true from false prophecies. Foxe derived his account of Clarence's death from Polydore Vergil's Anglica Historia and, possibly, Thomas More's History of King Richard III.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

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MarginaliaAnno. 1473.The first is concerning a godly and constant seruant of Christ, named Iohn Goose 

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Although Foxe did not kow this, Goose had already abjured and he was being burned as a relapsed heretic (J. A. F. Thomson, The Later Lollards, 1414-1520 [Oxford, 1965], pp. 72-3).

, MarginaliaIohn Goose Martyr. which in the time of this king was vniustly condemned and burnt at the tower hill. an. 1473. in the moneth of August. Thus had England also his Iohn Hus, as well as Boheme. MarginaliaIohn Goose in English, is as much as Iohn Hus in the Bohemian tongue Wherein moreouer this is to be noted, that since the time of King Richard 2. there is no reigne of any King to be assigned hetherto, wherin some good mā or other hath not suffred the paines of fire, for þe Religion & true testimonie of Christ Iesus. Of this said Iohn Goose, or Iohn Hus 
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'Hus' means goose in Czech and this enables Foxe to equate John Goose with Jan Hus.

, this moreouer I find in another English monumēt 
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I.e. a written record, in this case, Robert Fabyan's chronicle (see Robert Fabyan, The Chronicle of Fabian [London, 1559], STC 10664, p. 507). Although Foxe declares that he is drawing his account from Ranulph Higden's Polychronicon, this is an error.

recorded, that the sayd Iohn being deliuered to Robert Belisdone, one of þe Shi-riffes, to see him burnt the after noone: the Shiriffe like a charitable man, had him home to his house, and there exhorted him to deny (sayth the story) his errours. But the godly man after long exhortation heard, desired the Shriffe to bee content, for he was satisifed in his conscience. Notwithstādyng this he desired of the Shiriffe, MarginaliaIohn Goose taketh his dynner before hee went to Martyrdome.for Gods sake to geue him some meate, saying that he was very sore hungered. Then the Shiriffe commaunded him meate: whereof he tooke and did eate, as he had bene toward no maner of daunger: and sayd to such as stoode about him: I eate now a good and a competent dinner: for I shall passe a litle sharpe shower, ere I goe to supper 
Commentary  *  Close

This is a martyrological trope, but Foxe is not putting words into Goose's mouth. The London chronicler Robert Fabyan has Goose making the same comment (see The Chronicle of Fabian [London, 1559}, STC 10664, p. 507).

. And when hee had dyned, he gaue thankes, and required that he might shortly be lead to the place, where hee should yeld vp his spirite vnto God. Ex Polychron.

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¶ The burnyng of Iohn Goose.
woodcut [View a larger version]
Commentary on the Woodcuts  *  Close
John Goose 'or John Huss' was burned at Tower Hill in 1473. Foxe says little of the charges against him, merely recounting how Goose was given a meal at the house of the sheriff, Robert Belisdon, prior to his death in the afternoon. It is unclear why this particular martyr warranted an illustration, unless on account of his name. 'Thus had England also its John Huss as well as Bohemia'. CUL copy: Goose is dressed in white and has light brown hair and beard. Note that the additional details added to those praying around Goose's pyre are rather clumsily executed, They appear as if they are wearing blusher and lipstick, since the colour is so startling. WREN: the same details and poor quality details appear in this copy also.

The second thyng herein to be noted, MarginaliaThe vnworthy death of the Duke of Clarence.is the death of George Duke of Clarence, the kynges second brother: Of whom relation was made before, how he assisted K. Edward, his brother, agaynst the Earle of Warwicke at Barnet field, and helped him to the crowne, and now after all these benefites, was at lēgth thus requited, that (for what cause it is vncertaine) he was apprehended and cast into the Tower, where he beyng adiudged for a traytor, MarginaliaThe Duke of Clarēce drowned in a butte of Malmesey.was priuely drowned in a but of Malmesey. What þe true cause was of his death, it can not certainely be affirmed. 

Commentary  *  Close

The reasons for Clarence's execution (on the orders of his brother, Edward IV) are obscure; for a discussion of these see Charles Ross, Edward IV (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1974), pp. 239-45. Foxe is taking his account almost entirely from Polydore Vergil, Anglica historia (Basel, 1555), p. 537. Vergil, however, does not blame Edward's queen, Elizabeth Woodville, for Clarence's death. Foxe probably took this suggestion from Thomas More's History of King Richard III, (See The History of King Richard III, ed. Richard S. Sylvester, in The Complete Works of St. Thomas More, vol. II [New Haven and London, 1962], p. 7).

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MarginaliaThe causes of his death expended.Diuers coniectures and imaginations there be diuersly put forth. Some partly impute it to the Queenes displeasure. Other suppose it came for taking part in the cause of his seruaunt, which was accused and cōdemned for poysonyng, sorcery, or inchantmēt. An other fame there is, which surmiseth the cause hereof to rise vpō the vayne feare of a foolish Prophecie, commyng no doubt (if it were true) by the craftie operation of Sathan, MarginaliaThe mischiefe that Sathan worketh by false prophesies. as it doth many tymes elles happen among infidels and gentiles, where Christ is not knowen: where among high Princes and in noble houses, much mischief groweth, first murther and parricide, & thereby ruine of auncient families, and alteration of kingdomes. The effect of this Prophecie (as the fame goeth) was this, that after kyng Edward, should one reigne, whose name should beyng with G. 
Commentary  *  Close

This prophecy was almost certainly invented after Richard III usurped the the throne. Richard had been the duke of Gloucester, so his name also began with a 'G'.

MarginaliaThe prophesie of G. And because the name of the Duke of Clarence, beyng George, began with a G. therfore he began to be feared, and afterward priuely (as is aforesayd) was made away.

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MarginaliaProphesies not rashly to be beleeued.¶ By these experimentes and mischieuous endes of such Prophecies, and also by the nature of them, it is soone to be seene, from what fountaine or author they proceede: that is (no doubt) from Sathā, the auncient enemy of mākynd, and Prince of this world: agaynst whose deceitfull delusions, Christen men must be well instructed, neither to maruell greatly at them, though they seeme straunge, nor yet to beleue them, though they happen true. MarginaliaSathan can say truth for a wicked end.For Sathā being the Prince of this world, in such thyngs worldly can foresee what will follow, and cā say truth for a mis-

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