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Florence (Firenze)
 
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Florence (Firenze)

[Florentia]

Tuscany, Italy

Coordinates: 43° 46' 13" N, 11° 15' 17" EE

Historic republic; cathedral city

755 [731]

K. Heu. 7. Ioan Boughton martir. A Priest. Babram. An olde man martirs. Hieronymus.

of Christes church began also to muster & to multiply likewise here in Englād, as by these historyes here consequent may appeare. 

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These histories of English martyrs are all derived from London Guildhall MS 3313 (now printed as The Great Chronicle of London), which belongedto John Stow and possibly was loaned by him to Foxe (certainly Foxe consulted the work at some point). Foxe attributes this work (probably correctly) to the chronicler Robert Fabyan.

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For not long after the death of this Weselus in the yeare of our Lorde 1494. MarginaliaAnno. 1464. and in the 9. yeare of the reigne of K. Henry 7. the 28. of Aprill, was burned a very old woman named Ioane Boughton widow, MarginaliaIoane Boughton mother to the lady Young martir. and mother to the Lady Young, which Ladye was also suspected to be of that opinion which her mother was. 
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There is actually no evidence that Lady Jane Young, the wife of Sir John Young, a wealthy draper and Lord Mayor of London, was ever burned.Andrew Hope has argued that Joan Baker confused Jane Young with her motherJoan Boughton, who was burned at Smithfield on on 28 April 1494. It is true,however, that Jane Young was herself suspected of heresy. (See Andrew Hope,'The lady and the baliff: Lollardy among the gentry in Yorkist and early TudorEngland' in Lollardy and the Gentry in the Middle Ages, ed. Margaret Aston and Colin Richmond [Stroud, 1997], p. 260 and J. A. F. Thomson, The Later Lollards,1414-1520 [Oxford, 1965}, pp. 156-7).

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Her mother was of foure score yeares of age or more, & held 8. of Wickleffes opinions (which opiniōs my author doth not shew) for the which she was burnt in Smithfield the day abouesayd. My author sayth, she was a Disciple of Wickleffe, whome she accompted for a Sainct, and helde so fast and firmly viij. of his x. opinions, that all the Doctours of Lōdon coulde not turne her from one of them, and when it was told her that she shoulde be brent for her obstinacie & false beliefe, shee set nothing by theyr manacing wordes, but defied them, for she sayde she was so beloued of God, and hys holy aungels, that she passed not for the fire, & in the midst therof she cryed to God to take her soule into his holy handes. 
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See The Great Chronicle of London, ed. A. H. Thomas and I. D. Thornley (London, 1938), pp. 252-3. It should be noted that Foxe is putting apositive spin on the account in The Great Chronicle, whose author regarded Joan Boughton as a deluded heretic.

The night following that she was burnt, the most parte of her ashes were had awaye of suche as had a loue vnto the doctrine that she dyed for. 
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The Great Chronicle records that Boughton's ashes were removed'and kepyd ffor a precious Relyk, In an erthyn pott' (The Great Chronicle of London,ed. A. H. Thomas and I. D. Thornley [London, 1938], p. 253). Foxe is careful todisguise the suggestion that her remains were regarded as relics.

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MarginaliaAnno. 1497.Shortly after the martyrdome 

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The following accounts of Londoners punished for heresy are drawn from The Great Chronicle of London, ed. A. H. Thomas and I. D. Thornley (London, 1938), pp. 261, 262 and 264.

of this godly aged mother in the yeare of our Lord, 1497. and the 17. of Ianuary, 
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I.e., 17 January 1497.

being Sonday, two men, the one called Richard Milderale, MarginaliaRichard Milderale. and the other Iames Sturdy, MarginaliaIames Sturdye. bare Fagots before the procession of Paules, and after stoode before the preacher in the time of hys Sermon. And vpon the sonday following, stood other two men at Paules crosse all the sermon tyme: the one garnished with paynted & written papers, the other hauing a Fagot on hys necke. After that in Lent season vppon Passion Sonday, one Hugh Glouer MarginaliaHugh Glouer. bare a Fagot before the procession of Paules, & after wyth the Fagot stoode before the preacher all the sermon while at Paules crosse. MarginaliaFour other beare fagotsAnd on the sonday next following foure men stoode, and did there open penaunce at Paules as is aforesayd, in the sermon time many of their bookes were burnt before them at the Crosse.

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MarginaliaAnno. 1498.FVrthermore the next yeare following, whiche was the yeare of our Lord. 1498. 

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Actually 1499; Foxe was misled by the author of the Great Chroniclereckoning years by the Lord Mayor's term of office which began in the spring. This account is from The Great Chronicle of London, ed. A. H. Thomas and I. D. Thornley(London, 1938), p. 286.

in the beginning of Maye, the king then being at Canterbury, was a priest burnt, MarginaliaA priest burnt. which was so strong in his opinion that all the clerkes & doctors then there beyng, coulde not remoue him from his fayth: whereof the king beyng enformed, caused the sayd priest to be brought before hys presence, who by hys perswasions caused him to reuoke, and so he was burnt immediately.

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MarginaliaThe Quene was remoued to Calis at the beheading of her cousin Edward Plātagenet.IN the same yeare aboue mentioned, which was the yere of our Lord. 1499. 

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Actually 1500; Foxe was misled by the author of the Great Chroniclereckoning years by the Lord Mayor's term of office which began in the spring.

after the beheading of Edward Plantagenet Earle of Warwicke, and sonne to the Duke of Clarence, the king and Queene being remooued to Calys, a certayne godly man and a constant Martyr of Christ, named Babram 
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Actually Mary of Burgundy died in 1482.

in Northfolke, was brent in the moneth of

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MarginaliaBabram brent in Northfolke Martir.The burning of Babram.
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Brabam was martyred in Norfolk, his story first being recounted by Fabian. It is not clear why this particular martyr warranted an illustration.

Iuly, as is in Fabian recorded after þe copy, whiche I haue written. 

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Foxe is referring to the Great Chronicle, which he believed was written by the chronicler Robert Fabian. These histories of English martyrs are all derived from London Guildhall MS 3313 (now printed as The Great Chronicle of London), which belonged to John Stow and possibly was loaned by him to Foxe (certainly Foxe consulted the work at some point). Foxe attributes this work (probably correctly) to the chronicler Robert Fabyan.

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Albeit in the book of Fabian printed, his burning is referred to the next yeare following, which is, an. 1500. 
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Foxe is referring to the version of Fabian.s chronicles in print, incontrast to the Great Chronicle, which Foxe believed was written by Fabian, butwhich was in manuscript. These histories of English martyrs are all derived from London Guildhall MS 3313 (now printed as The Great Chronicle of London), which belonged to John Stow and possibly was loaned by him to Foxe (certainly Foxe consulted the work at some point). Foxe attributes this work (probably correctly) to the chronicler Robert Fabyan.

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Ex Fabiano, & alio scripto codice.

MarginaliaAn olde man burned.ABout which yere likewise or in the yere next folowing þe xx. day of Iuly, was an old mā burnt in Smithfield 

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This is from The Great Chronicle of London, ed A. H. Thomasand I. D. Thornley (London, 1938), p. 294. The execution of an unnamed old man at Smithfield is recorded in a number of sources (e.g., The Great Chronicle of London, ed. A. H. Thomas and I. D. Thornley [London, 1938], p. 294 and Fabyan's Chronicle, ed. H. Ellis [London, 1911], p. 687). None of the surviving sources supply the details of the man's attempted escape and injury, so it must be assumed that whatever the source that Cary supplied to Foxe was, it was subsequently lost.

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MarginaliaAnno. 1499.IN the same yeare also, which was of the Lord. 1499. fell the martyrdome 

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Foxe had an account of Savanorola in his Commentari (fo. 177r-v)but this account is conflated from two sources. The first is the admiring accountof Philippe de Commynes, whose praise of Savanorola as a prophet who foresawthe future and who was dedicated to the reform of the Church, helped establishSavanorola as a proto-Protestant to the Reformers (see Philippe de Commynes,De Carlo Octavo…et bello Neapolitano Commentarii [Paris, 1561], pp. 105-7). The other source was the account of Savanorola in Matthias Flacius,Catalogus testium veritatis (Basel, 1562), p. 565.

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and burning of Hieronimus Sauonarola, MarginaliaHieronimus Sauonarola, with two fryers Martirs. a man no lesse godly in hart, then constant in his profession. Who being a Monke in Italy, & singularly well learned, preached sore agaynst the euill lyfe & liuing of the spiritualty and specially of hys own order, complayning sore vpō thē, as the springes and authors of all mischieues & wickednes. Wherupō by þe helpe of certeine learned men he begā to seek reformatiō in hys own order. Which thyng the pope perceauing, and fearing that the sayde Hierome, which was now in great reputation amōgst al men, shold diminish or ouerthrow his authoritie, he ordained his vicar or prouinciall to see reformatiō of these matters: which vicare wt great superstition began to reforme thinges, but the sayd Hierome did alwayes withstand hym, wherupon he was complayned of to the Pope, and because that contrary vnto þe popes commaundement, he did wtstand hys vicare, he was accursed. MarginaliaProphesie of Hie. Sauonarola against Italy.But for all that Hieronimus lefte not of preaching, but threatned Italy with þe wrath and indignation of God, and prophecied before vnto them, that the land should be ouerthrowne for the pride and wickednes of þe people, and for the vntruth, hipocrisie and falshood of þt clergy, which God would not leaue vnreuēged, as ofterward it came to passe, when as king Charles came into Italy and to Rome, and so straitly beset the pope Alexander, MarginaliaPope Alexāder besieged by Charles the French king. þt he was forced to make composition with the king.

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Now for somuch as the said Hierom would not leaue of preaching, he was commaunded to appeare before the pope, MarginaliaSauonarola cited to appeare before the Pope to geue accompt of his new learning, (for so thē they called the truth of the Gospell,) but by meanes of the manifold perilles, he made his excuse that he could not come. Then was he againe forbidden by the pope to preach, MarginaliaThe doctrine of Sauonarola condemned because he would not come before the Popeand his learning pronounced and condemned as pernicious, false and sedicious.

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This Hieronimus, as a man worldly wise, foreseeing the great perils and daungers that might come vnto him, for feare, left of preaching. But when as the people, which sore hungred and longed for Gods word, were instant vpon him that he would preach agayne, he began agayne to preach in the yeare of our Lord. 1496. in the Cittie of Florence, MarginaliaSauonarola preacheth contrary to the Popes commaūdement.and albeit þt many counsailed him that he should not so do without the Popes commaundement, yet did he not regard it, but went forward freely of his owne good will. When as the Pope and his shauelinges 

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This is a prejorative term for priest.

heard newes of this, they were greuously incensed and inflamed agaynst him, and now againe cursed him, as an obstinate and stifnecked hereticke. But for all that, Hieronimus proceeded in teaching and instructing the people, saying that men ought not to regard such curses, whiche are agaynst þe true doctrine and the cōmon profite, whereby the people shold be learned and amended, Christ kingdome enlarged, and the kindome of the deuill vtterly ouerthrowne.

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In all his preaching he desired to teach no other thing then the onely pure and simple word of God, making often protestation that al men should certifie him if they had heard him teach or preach anye thing contrary thereunto, for vpon his owne conscience he knew not þt he had taught anye thing but the pure word of God. What his doctrine was all mē may easely iudge by his bookes þt he had writtē.

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MarginaliaHieron. with 2. other Friers cōmitted to prisō.After this, in the yeare of our Lord. 1498. he was takē and brought out of S. Markes cloyster, & two other Fryers with hym, named Dominicke and Siluester, whiche fauoured hys learning, and was caried into prison, MarginaliaThe commentarie of Hierome Sauon. vpon the Psalme beginning: In te domine speraui.wheras he wrote a godly meditation vpon that most comfortable 31. psalme In te Domine speraui non confundar in æternū sed in iusticia tua libera me. Wherein he doth excellently describe and set forth, the continuall strife betweene the flesh and the spirite.

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After this the Popes Legates came to Florence, & called forth these three good men, threatning thē marueilously but they continued still constant. Then came the chief coūsailers of the citty, with the popes commissioners, whiche had gathered out certain Articles against these men, wherupon they were condemned to death: MarginaliaArticles obiected against Hierome & the two Fryers. the tenour of which Articles hereafter ensue. 

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The first eight of these articles come from Matthias Flacius, Catalogustestium veritatis (Basel, 1562), p. 565. The remaining six are culled from the accountof Savanorola in Philippe de Commynes, De Carlo Octavo…et bello Neapolitano Commentarii [Paris, 1561], pp. 105-7, where they are not, however, presented as articles objected against Savanorola.

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1. The first article was as touching our free iustification through fayth in Christ.

2. That þe communion ought to be ministred vnder both kyndes.

3. That
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