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ArlesLacoste [Costa]
 
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Arles

[Arelate]

Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France

Coordinates: 43° 40' 41" N, 4° 37' 46" E

Cathedral city

 
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Lacoste [Costa]

Vaucluse, Provence, France

Coordinates: 43° 49' 59" N, 5° 16' 27" E

977 [953]

K. Henry 8. The history of Merindoll and Cabriers. The wretched death of Minerius.

taine fearing that myghte ensue, entred with hys men, and destroyed them all, sparing neither young nor olde.

In this meane while certaine souldiors went to ransakce, the houses for the spoyle: where they founde many poore men that had there hidden themselues in sellers and other priuy places, flying vpon them and crying out: kill, kill. The other souldiors that were without the town, killed all that they could meete with. MarginaliaAboue a 1000. Martyrs of Cabriers.The nōber of those that were so vnmercifully murdered, were about M. persons of men, women, and children. The infantes that escaped their furie, were baptised againe of their enemies.

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In token of this ioly victory, the Popes Officers caused a piller to be erected in the said place of Cabriers, in the whych was engrauen the yeare and the day of the taking and sacking of this Towne, by Iohn Miniers Lorde of Opede, & chiefe President of the Parlament of Prouince, for a memoriall for euer, of the barbarous crueltie, the like whereof was yet neuer heard of. Whereupon we withall our posterity, haue to vnderstand what be the reasons and arguments wherewith the Antichrist of Rome, MarginaliaThe argumentes wherevpō the doctrine of the popes church stādeth.is wont to vphold the impious seate of his abhomination: Who now is come to such excesse and profunditie of all kindes of iniquitie, that all iustice, equitie and veritie being set a side, he seeketh the defence of his cause, by no other thyng, then only by force and violence, terror and oppression, and sheding of bloud.

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In this meane while the inhabitauntes of Merindoll and other places thereabout, were among the mountains and rockes, in great necessitie of viccualles, and muche affliction: who had procured certaine men, whiche were in some fauour and authority with Miniers, to make request for them vnto him, that they might depart safely, whether it shoulde please God to leade them, with theyr wiues and children, although they had no more but their shirts to couer their nakednesse. MarginaliaAntichrist here plaieth the deuill.Whereunto Miniers made this aunswere: I know what I haue to doe: not one of them shall escape my handes. I will send them to dwel in hel among the deuils.

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After this there was a power sent vnto Costa, MarginaliaThe towne of Costa, destroyed. which likewise they ouercame, & committed there great slaughter. Many of the inhabitantes fledde away and ranne into an orcharde, where the souldiours rauished the women and maidens, and when they had kept them there inclosed a day and a night, they handled them so beastly, that those which had great bellies, and the younger maidens dyed shortly after. MarginaliaMartyrs of Costa. It were impossible to comprehend all the lamentable and sorrowfull examples of this cruell persecution against the Merindolians and their fellowes: In so muche that no kinde of cruell Tyrannie was vnpractised. For they whych escaped by woodes, and went wandering by mountaines, were taken and set in galleis, or else were slaine outright.

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Many which did hide themselues in rockes and darke caues, some were famished with hunger, some were smothered with fire, and smoke put vnto them. All which may more fully be vnderstand by the recordes of the Court, and by the pleas betweene them and theyr aduersaries in the highe Consistorie of the Courte of Paris: Where all the doores being set open, and in the publicke hearing of all the people, the case of this trouble and persecution was shortly after solemnly debated betwene two great lawyers: the one called Aubrius, which accused Minerius the president committed to prison, and the other called Robertus, who was the defendant against him. MarginaliaWhen the Merindolians were slaine, their cause was pleaded.The cause why this matter of Merindol was brought in plea and iudgement to be decided by the law, was this:

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Henry the second 

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French royal authorities initially applauded the success of the military operation eliminating the Vaudois villages in Provence (the French king is reputed to have commented: 'C'est une belle defaicte' and Pope Paul III awarded Meynier several honours. However, within a few years, François I's successor, Henri II was persuaded to issue letters patent requiring Meynier, Polin de la Garde and others to answer charges before the Parlement of Paris. Their trial lasted over six months until February 1551. Only one of the defendants was ultimately found guilty but it took Meynier several years thereafter to recover all his possessions. The grisly details of Meynier's death are taken from Pantaleon, fol. 145. The later activities of Meynier d'Oppède's relatives, Louis de Vaine and Pierre Duranti, against the protestants of Aix-en-Provence, were more fully related in Crespin's account (Crespin/Benoist, 1, p. 418).

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French king, which newly succeeded Fraunces his father aboue mentioned, considering howe this cruell and infamous persecution againste hys owne subiectes and people, was greatly misliked of other Princes, and also obiected both against him and his father, as a note of shamefull Tyrannie, by the Emperour hym selfe, Charles the fift, MarginaliaFraūces the Frēch king, noted of tyranny by Charles 5. Emperour. and that in the publicke Councel of all the states of Germany, for so murthering & spoyling his own naturall subiects, without all reason and mercy: he therefore to the entent to purge and cleare himselfe thereof, caused the sayd matter to be brought into the Court, and there to be decided by order of Iustice.

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Whiche cause, MarginaliaThe cause of the Merindolians after their death pleaded 50. times in the Court. after it was pleaded to and froe, in publike audience, no lesse then fiftie times, and yet in the ende, coulde not be determined, so it brake of and was passed ouer, and at length Minerius being loosed out of prisone, MarginaliaMinerius losed out of prison. was restored to his libertie and possessions agayne, vppon this cōdition and promise made vnto the Cardinal, Charles of Lorraine, that he should banish and expell these new Christians (terming so the true professors of the Gospell)out of all Prouince.

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Thus Minerius being restored, returned againe into Prouince, where hee began againe to attempt greater tyrannie, then before. Neither did his raging furye cease to proceede, MarginaliaThe iust stroke of God vpon cruell Minerius.before the iust iudgement of God lighting vpon him, brought him by a horrible disease, vnto the torments of death, which he most iustly had deserued. For he being strocken with a strange kinde of bleding at the lower partes, in maner of a bloudy flixe, and not being able to voyde any vrine, thus by little and little his guttes wythin hym rotted: and when no remedy could be founde for this terrible disease, and his entrals now began to be eaten of wormes, a certaine famous surgeon named La Motte, whych dwelt at Arles, a man no lesse godly then expert in hys science: was called for, who after he had cured him of this difficultye of making water, and therefore was in great estimation with him, before he would procede further to searche the other partes of his putrified bodye, and to searche out the inward cause of his malady, he desired þt they which were present in the chamber with Minerius, wold depart a little a side. Which being done, MarginaliaGood counsaile geuen to Minerius of his Surgeon.he began to exhort Minerius with earnest wordes, saying howe the time nowe required that he should aske forgeuenes of God by Christe, for his enormous crimes and cruelty in sheding so muche innocent blud, and declared the same to be the cause of this so straunge profusion of bloud comming from him.

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These woordes being hearde, so pearsed the impure conscience of this miserable wretch, that he was therewith more troubled then with the agonie of his disease: in so much that hee cryed out to lay hande vppon the Surgeon, MarginaliaMinerius seeketh the bloud of his Surgeon. as an hereticke. La Motte hearing thys, eftsoones conueyed him selfe out of sight, and returned againe to Arles. Notwythstanding it was not long, but he was sent for againe, being intreated by his frendes, and promised most firmely, that his comming should be without any perill or danger: and so with much ado, he returned againe to Minerius, what time all nowe was past remedy: MarginaliaThe wretched end of wretched Minerius the persecuter.and so Minerius raging and casting out moste horrible and blaspheming wordes, and feeling a fire which burnt him from the nauill vpward, with extreme stinch of the lower parts, finished his wretched life. Whereby we haue notoriously to vnderstand that God through his mighty arme, at length confoundeth such persecuters of his innocent and faithful seruaunts, & bringeth them to nought: to whome be praise and glory for euer.

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Moreouer, besides this Iustice of God shewed vpon Minerius, here also is not to be forgotten which folowed likewise vpon certaine of the other, which were the chiefe doers in this persecution vnder Minerius aforesaid, namely Lewes de Vaine, brother in lawe to the saide President, and also the brother, and the sonne in law to Peter Durāt, maister butcher of the Towne of Aix: MarginaliaThe iust plague of God vpon 3. persecuters.the which three dyd slay one an other vpon a certaine strife that fel amōg them. And vppon the same day the Iudge of Aix, who accompanied Minerius in þe same persecutiō, as he returned homewarde, going ouer the Riuer of Durance, was drowned. Ex Hist. Gallica. Henr. Pantal, & alijs.

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Notes vppon the storie of Merindoll aboue recited. 
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This is the one element of this section which Foxe added in the 1570 edition to the narrative he had provided in 1563. He also departs from his major sources, Pantaleon and Crespin. His objective was clearly to deepen the historical context to the persecution at Mérindol and Cabrières. Foxe wants to reinforce his fundamental message, announced in the preface to the 1570 edition (the 'Protestation to the whole Church of England') that it had been in the course of the early thirteenth century that persecution of God's true church had begun in earnest: 'then was the clere sunne shine of Goids word overshadowed with mists and darknes'. It was also an opportunity, however, to for him to confront what seemed to be potentially divergent accounts of the origins of medieval heresy in the region. From the earliest edition of the martyrology, Foxe had emphasised the significance of the Waldensians, placing their origins among the poor of Lyon (pp. 41-46). In so doing, he had allowed only a passing sentence or so to the Albigensian crusade. Now he doubled back briefly to the relationship between the Albigensians and the Waldensians, admitting the possibility that they might be movements with very different origins. He acknowledges that this was the view presented in Paolo Aemilio Veronensis, In Franciæ Antiqvitatem Libri Tres - but only to question it through adducing other sources, notably Bernard Lutzenburg, Catalogus haereticorum (Cologne, 1523). Both these references Foxe is most likely to have acquired at second hand through the compilation of the Magdeburg Centuries. It is with some relief that he returns to his primary source, Sleidan, once more since he had emphasised 'their continuance and doctrine' - and that was the message that Foxe wanted to leave with his readers.

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THus hast thou heard (louing Reader) the terrible troubles, & slaughters committed by the Bishops and Cardinals againste these faithfull men of Merindol, whiche for the hainous tirannie and example of the facte moste vnmercifull, maye be comparable with any of the first persecutions in the primitiue Churche, done either by Decius, or Dioclesianus.

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Nowe, touching the sayd storie and people of Merindol, briefly by the way is to be noted, that this was not the firste time that these men of this countrey, were vexed, neither was it of late yeres, that the doctrine and profession of them began. For (as by the course of time, and by auncient Recordes it maye appeare) these inhabitaunts of Prouince, and other coastes bordering about the confines of Fraunce, and Piemont, had their continuance of auncient time, MarginaliaThe Gospellers of Merindoll came first of the Waldenses.and receiued their doctrine first from the Waldenses, or Albigenses, which were (as some say) about the yeare of oure Lord 1170 or (as other doe recken) about the yeare of our Lorde 1216. whereof thou haste (gentle reader) sufficiently to vnderstād, reading before, MarginaliaVid. supra pag. 230. &c. pag. 230. Item, pag 260 Item, pag. 267. &c.

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These Waldenses, otherwise called Pauperes, de Lugduno, beginning of one Petrus Waldus, Citizen of Lyons, as is before shewed, MarginaliaVid. supra pag. 231.pag. 231. by violence of persecution being driuen oute of Lions, were disparcled abroad in diuers countreis, of whom some fled to Massilia, some to Germanie, some to Sarmatia, Liuonia, Bohemia, Calabria, and Apulia, diuers strayed to the Countreis of France, especially about Prouince, and Piemont, of whōe came these Merindolians, aboue mentioned, and the Angrogni-

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ans
OOo.j.
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