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Archer

Shoemaker of Coventry. Martyred for teaching his children 4 April 1519

Archer, with others accused of teaching their children, was brought back to Coventry on Palm Sunday and condemned for relapse. 1563, pp. 420-21; 1570, p. 1107; 1576, p. 946; 1583, p. 973.

 
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Friar Stafford

Warden of Greyfriars, Coventry 1519

[The warden who 'surrendered' the house to Dr London in 1538 was John Stafford (VCH Warwick, vol. 2 (1908), pp. 103-4)]

The children of those who were accused of teaching heresy were taken to the house of the Greyfriars in Coventry and examined by the warden. He warned them to have nothing to do with the Lord's Prayer, creed and ten commandments in English. 1563, pp. 420-21; 1570, p. 1107; 1576, p. 946; 1583, p. 973.

 
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Geoffrey Blyth

(c. 1470 - 1530 [ODNB]

Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield (1503 - 30)

Those in Coventry accused of teaching heresy to their children were condemned by the bishop and burnt. 1563, pp. 420-21; 1570, p. 1107; 1576, p. 946; 1583, p. 973.

 
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Hawkins

Shoemaker of Coventry. Martyred for teaching his children 4 April 1519

Hawkins, with others accused of teaching their children, was brought back to Coventry on Palm Sunday and condemned for relapse. 1563, pp. 420-21; 1570, p. 1107; 1576, p. 946; 1583, p. 973.

 
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Hugh Spens

(d. 1534) [Scottish Fasti]

Official of St Andrews (1505 - 16); provost of St Salvator's College, St Andrews (1505 - 34)

Hugh Spens was one of those who, with Bishop Beaton, persecuted Patrick Hamilton. He was one of those who passed the sentence definitive against him. 1570, pp. 1107-09; 1576, pp. 947-48; 1583, pp. 974-75.

 
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James Beaton

(c. 1473 - 1539) [ODNB]

Administrator; archbishop of St Andrews (1522/23 - 39)

Patrick Hamilton was brought before James Beaton and his colleagues for examination. He was condemned and burnt. 1563, p. 460; 1570, p. 1107; 1576, p. 947; 1583, p. 974.

[In the 1563 edition, Foxe incorrectly identifies him as David Beaton, cardinal and archbishop of St Andrews (1539 - 46)]

 
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Joan Smyth

Widow of Coventry. Martyred for teaching her children 4 April 1519

Joan Smyth was initially spared from burning, but was discovered by the bishop's summoner to have the Lord's Prayer, the articles of faith and the ten commandments in English on her person. She was immediately returned to the bishop and burnt with the others. 1563, pp. 420-21; 1570, p. 1107; 1576, p. 946; 1583, p. 973.

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Landesdale

Hosier of Coventry. Martyred for teaching his children 4 April 1519

[Joan Smyth lent books to Roger Landesdale. Richard Landesdale had been her first husband and taught her (Thomson)]

Landesdale, with others accused of teaching their children, was brought back to Coventry on Palm Sunday and condemned for relapse. 1563, pp. 420-21; 1570, p. 1107; 1576, p. 946; 1583, p. 973.

 
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Mother Halle

of Bagington, Coventry. Familiar with the Lollards of Coventry

Mother Halle testified that the Coventry Lollards who were burnt for heresy displayed devotion at the elevation of the sacrament. 1570, p. 1107; 1576, p. 946; 1583, p. 973.

 
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Patrick Hamilton

(c. 1504 - 1528) [ODNB]

Theologian; protestant martyr

University of Paris 1517/18; MA 1520; at University of St Andrews 1524; University of Marburg 1527; returned to preach; subjected to a slow, horrific burning

Patrick Hamilton was the first at the University of Marburg to set up conclusions for disputation. He returned to Scotland to preach and was brought before Bishop Beaton and his colleagues. He was condemned the same day and burnt. 1563, p. 460; 1570, p. 1107; 1576, p. 947; 1583, p. 974.

 
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Robert Hatchet

Shoemaker of Coventry [Thomson]; confessed 1511; lent books to others; martyred for teaching his children 4 April 1519

Robert Hatchet, with others accused of teaching their children, was brought back to Coventry on Palm Sunday and condemned for relapse. 1563, pp. 420-21; 1570, p. 1107; 1576, p. 946; 1583, p. 973.

 
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Robert Silkby

(d. 1522) [Thomson]

Lollard leader, shoemaker of Coventry; given penance 1511; burnt as a relapsed heretic

Robert Silkby had fled in 1519 when other Coventry Lollards were arrested, condemned and burnt. Two years later he too was apprehended, condemned as a relapsed heretic and burnt. 1563, pp. 420-21; 1570, p. 1107; 1576, p. 946; 1583, p. 973.

 
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Simon Mourton

Summoner to Geoffrey Blyth, bishop of Coventry

When Joan Smyth was dismissed and sent home, Simon Mourton offered to go with her as it was getting dark. He found a scroll in her sleeve containing the Lord's Prayer, articles of faith and ten commandments in English. He immediately returned her to the bishop to be burnt. 1563, pp. 420-21; 1570, p. 1107; 1576, p. 946; 1583, p. 973.

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Thomas Bond

Shoemaker of Coventry. Martyred for teaching his children 4 April 1519

Thomas Bond, with others accused of teaching their children, was brought back to Coventry on Palm Sunday and condemned for relapse. 1563, pp. 420-21; 1570, p. 1107; 1576, p. 946; 1583, p. 973.

 
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William Dawson and John Hykkys

Sheriffs of Coventry (1518 - 19) [PRO List of Sheriffs]

After the Lollards had been burnt in Coventry, the sheriffs immediately went to their houses and took all their belongings, leaving nothing for their wives and children. 1570, p. 1107; 1576, p. 946; 1583, p. 973.

 
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Wrigham

Glover of Coventry [Ogle, A. The Tragedy of the Lollards' Tower (1949), p. 122 n]. Martyred for teaching his children 4 April 1519

Wrigham, with others accused of teaching their children, was brought back to Coventry on Palm Sunday and condemned for relapse. 1563, pp. 420-21; 1570, p. 1107; 1576, p. 946; 1583, p. 973.

 
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Baginton [Bagington]

Warwickshire

OS grid ref: SP 345 745

 
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Constantinople

(Byzantium, Istanbul) [Bizance]

Turkey

Coordinates: 41° 0' 44" N, 28° 58' 34" E

 
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Coventry
Couentry
NGR: SP 340 790

An ancient city and a county of itself, locally in the county of Warwick. 10 miles north-east from Warwick, 18 miles south-east from Birmingham. The city comprises the parishes of St. Michael, Holy Trinity and St. John Baptist, all in the Archdeaconry of Coventry, diocese of Coventry and Lichfield. St. Michael and Holy Trinity are vicarages. St. John is a rectory not in charge, annexed to the headmastership of the free school

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Marburg

[Marpurge]

Hesse, Germany

Coordinates: 50° 48' 36" N, 8° 46' 15" E

 
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Maxstoke Priory [Mackestocke]

Warwickshire

Augustinian house founded 1331

OS grid ref: SP 234 868

 
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St Andrews

Fife, Scotland

Historic cathedral city; university town

OS grid ref: NO 515 165

 
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St. Andrews
S. Andrewes, S. Androwes
NGR: NO 510 165

A city, the seat of a university, and anciently the metropolitan see of Scotland; in the district of St. Andrews, county of Fife. 39 miles north-north-east from Edinburgh. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the Presbytery of St. Andrews and the Synod of Fife. The living is collegiate, consisting of two charges. The ancient cathedral is a ruin

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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996 [972]

K. Henry. 8. The Martyrdome of a godly Christian Iewe in Constantinople.

mercyfully and victoriously the MarginaliaNote how the Lord blessed the Waldois, standing to their owne defence.Lorde God omnipotent fought with his people, or rather for his people, they but turning almost their faces vnto their enemies, no otherwise then he fought in times before, with Iosue agaynst the heathen, with the Israelites against the Phelistians, with the Macabees, against Antiochus and the Sirians.

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This hystorie caryeng with it a true narration of things done in the sayd country of Piemont, and written (as it semeth) by certayne of the Ministers, whiche were at the doyng thereof, with the like faith and simplicitie we haue collected partly out of the Italian, partly out of the French tongue: for in both the languages it is written, although in the French tongue, it is much more largely discoursed, which booke most principally heerein we haue followed. The title whereof thus beginneth, MarginaliaEx Histor. Gallica. & Italica.Histoire des persecutions & Guerres faites contre le peuple appellé Vaudois, &c.

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Now that we haue finished these forreine Histories, concerning suche matters as haue bene passed in other Realmes and nations of Germanie, Italie, Spaine, Fraunce, and Sauoy: consequently it remayneth after this degresse, to returne and reduce our story againe, to our owne countrey matters, heere done and passed at home, after that first we shall haue added one forreine storie more, concerning þe Martyrdome of a Christian Iewe, which suffered about these yeares in Constantinople, among the Turkes, in this wise as foloweth.

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¶ The story of a christian Iew in Constantinople martyred by the Turkes. 
Commentary  *  Close

This story first appeared in the 1563 edition of Foxe's martyrology (1563, p. 440). We have not located it in any of the common sources that Foxe used, and its origin is something of a mystery, but it was commonly repeated in English martyrologies after Foxe as a striking example of persecution being attributable to the Turks.

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Persecutors.Martyrs.The causes.
MarginaliaA Christian Iewe, Martyr.TO these forreyne
Martyrs aforesayd
A Iew chri-we wil also adioine the
stened andHystorie of a certayne
Martyred.Iew, who in the yeare
of oure Lorde 1528. MarginaliaAnno. 1528.
dwelling in the Citie
The Turkesof Constātinople, and
of Constā-there receyuing the sa-
tinople.crament of Baptisme,
was conuerted, and
became a good Christi-
At Con-an. When the Turkes
stantinople.vnderstoode heereof,
they were vehemently
An. 1528.exasperated agaynste
hym, that he forsaking
his Iewishnes, should
bee regenerate to the
faith of Christ: and fea-
ring least his conuer-
sion shoulde be a detri-
mente to theyr Maho-
meticall lawe, they
sought meanes howe
to put hym to deathe,
whiche in shorte tyme
after they accompli-
shed. And for the grea-
ter infamie to be done
vnto the man, they cast
his dead corps into the
streetes, commanding
that no man should be
so hardy as to bury the
same.

¶ The story of a christian Iew in Constantinople martyred by the Turkes.
woodcut [View a larger version]
Commentary on the Woodcuts  *  Close
This example of a narrative small cut succeeds in conveying the text's narrative as well as local colour in the Turks' appearance in the confined space of the two scenes. CUL copy: additional flecks of blood are added in red to this image.

MarginaliaThe Martyrdome of a Christian Iewe.Wherein the maruelous glorye and power of Christ appeared. For the dead corpse lyeng so by the space of nyne dayes in the middest of the streetes, reteined so hys natiue colour, and was so fresh, without any kynde of filthines or corruption, and also not without a certeine pleasaunt and delectable sent or odour, as if it had bene lately slayne, or rather not slayne at all: which when the Turkes beheld, they were thereat maruelously astonied, and beeyng greatly afrayde, they themselues tooke it vp, and caried it to a place neere without the towne, and buryed it.

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HAuing thus comprehended the troubles and persecutions of such godly Saintes, and blessed Martyrs, which haue suffered in other foreine nations aboue mentioned, heere now endyng with them, and beginning the eyght booke, MarginaliaThe contents of the booke folowing. we haue (God willing) to returne agayne to our owne matters, and to prosecute such Actes and recordes, as to our owne countrey of England do appertayne. In the proces whereof among many other thyngs, may appeare the maruelous worke of Gods power and mercy in suppressing and banishing out of thys Realme, the long vsurped supremacie of the Pope: also in subuerting and ouerthrowing the houses of Monkes, and Friers, with diuers other matters perteyning to the reformation of Christes true Church and Religion. All which things as they haue bene long wished, and greatly groned for in tymes past of many godly learned men: so much more ought wee nowe to reioyce and geue God thankes, seeyng these dayes of reformation, which God hath geuen vs. If Iohn Husse, or good Hierome of Prage, or Iohn Wickliffe before them both, or William Brute, Thorpe, Swynderby, or the Lord Cobham, if Zisca, with all the company of the Bohemians, if the Earle Raymundus, with all the Tholossians, if the Waldoys or the Albingensis, with infinite other, had bene eyther in these our times now, or else had seene then thys ruyne of the Pope, and reuealing of Antichrist, MarginaliaAntichrist longe hyd, and now reueled. which the Lord now hath dispensed vnto vs, what ioye and triumph would they haue made? Wherefore now beholding that thyng which they so long tyme haue wished for, let vs not thinke the benefite to be small, but render therefore most humble thankes to the Lorde our God: Who by his mightie power and brightnes of his word, hath reuealed this great enemie of his so manifestly to the eyes of all men, who before was hid in the Church so coulourably, that almost few Christians could espye him. For who would euer haue iudged or suspected in hys mynde, the Byshop of Rome (commonly receyued and beleeued almost of all men, to be the Vicare and Vicegerent of Christ heere in earth) to be Antichirst, and the great aduersary God, whome S. Paule so expresly prophesieth of in these latter dayes to be reuealed by the brightnes of the Lords commyng, as all men now for the most part may see is come to passe. Wherefore to the Lord and Father of lightes, who reuealeth all things in hys due tyme, be prayse and glory for euer. Amen.

[Back to Top]The ende of the seauenth Booke.
The
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