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Thematic Divisions in Book 5
1. Preface to Rubric 2. The Rubric 3. Mary's First Moves 4. The Inhibition5. Bourne's Sermon 6. The True Report7. The Precept to Bonner 8. Anno 15549. From 'The Communication' to 'A Monition' 10. Bonner's Monition11. Mary's Articles for Bonner 12. The Articles 13. From Mary's Proclamation to the 'Stile'14. From the 'Stile' to the 'Communication' 15. The 'Communication' 16. How Thomas Cranmer ... 17. Cranmer18. Ridley 19. Latimer20. Harpsfield's Forme 21. 1563's Disputational Digest22. Political Events up to Suffolk's Death 23. Between Mantell and the Preacher's Declaration 24. The Declaration of Bradford et al 25. May 19 to August 1 26. August 1 - September 3 27. From Bonner's Mandate to Pole's Oration 28. Winchester's Sermon to Bonner's Visitation 29. Pole's Oration 30. From the Supplication to Gardiner's Sermon 31. From Gardiner's Sermon to 1555 32. From the Arrest of Rose to Hooper's Letter 33. Hooper's Answer and Letter 34. To the End of Book X 35. The Martyrdom of Rogers 36. The Martyrdom of Saunders 37. Saunders' Letters 38. Hooper's Martyrdom 39. Hooper's Letters 40. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 41. Becket's Image and other events 42. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 43. Bonner and Reconciliation 44. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 45. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 46. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White47. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 48. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 49. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 50. Judge Hales 51. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 52. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 53. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 54. The Letters of George Marsh 55. The Martyrdom of William Flower 56. Mary's False Pregnancy57. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 58. John Tooly 59. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]60. Censorship Proclamation 61. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 62. Letters of Haukes 63. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 64. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain65. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 66. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 67. Bradford's Letters 68. William Minge 69. The Martyrdom of John Bland 70. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 71. Sheterden's Letters 72. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 73. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 74. John Aleworth 75. Martyrdom of James Abbes 76. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 77. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 78. Richard Hooke 79. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 80. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 81. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 82. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 83. Martyrdom of William Haile 84. Examination of John Newman 85. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 86. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 87. William Andrew 88. William Allen 89. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 90. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 91. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 92. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 93. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 94. John and William Glover 95. Cornelius Bungey 96. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 97. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 98. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 99. Ridley's Letters 100. Life of Hugh Latimer 101. Latimer's Letters 102. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed103. More Letters of Ridley 104. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 105. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 106. William Wiseman 107. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 108. John Went 109. Isobel Foster 110. Joan Lashford 111. Five Canterbury Martyrs 112. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 113. Letters of Cranmer 114. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 115. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 116. William Tyms, et al 117. The Norfolk Supplication 118. Letters of Tyms 119. John Hullier's Execution120. John Hullier 121. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 122. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 123. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 124. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 125. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 126. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 127. Thomas Rede128. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 129. William Slech 130. Avington Read, et al 131. Wood and Miles 132. Adherall and Clement 133. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 134. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow135. Persecution in Lichfield 136. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 137. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 138. John Careless 139. Letters of John Careless 140. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 141. Guernsey Martyrdoms 142. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 143. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 144. Three Men of Bristol145. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 146. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 147. John Horne and a woman 148. Northampton Shoemaker 149. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 150. More Persecution at Lichfield 151. Exhumations of Bucer and Phagius along with Peter Martyr's Wife152. Pole's Visitation Articles for Kent153. Ten Martyrs Burnt at Canterbury154. The 'Bloody Commission'155. Twenty-two Prisoners from Colchester156. Five Burnt at Smithfield157. Stephen Gratwick and others158. Edmund Allen and other martyrs159. Edmund Allen160. Alice Benden and other martyrs161. Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs162. Ambrose163. The Martyrdom of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper164. Rose Allin and nine other Colchester Martyrs165. John Thurston166. Thomas More167. George Eagles168. Richard Crashfield169. Fryer and George Eagles' sister170. John Kurde171. Cicelye Ormes172. Joyce Lewes173. Rafe Allerton and others174. Agnes Bongeor and Margaret Thurston175. Persecution at Lichfield176. Persecution at Chichester177. Thomas Spurdance178. Hallingdale, Sparrow and Gibson179. John Rough and Margaret Mearing180. Cuthbert Simson181. William Nicholl182. Seaman, Carman and Hudson183. Three at Colchester184. A Royal Proclamation185. Roger Holland and other Islington martyrs186. Richard Yeoman187. John Alcocke188. Alcocke's Epistles189. Thomas Benbridge190. Stephen Cotton and other martyrs191. Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver192. Three at Bury193. The Final Five Martyrs194. William Living195. The King's Brief196. William Browne197. Some Persecuted at Suffolk198. Elizabeth Lawson199. Edward Grew200. The Persecuted of Norfolk201. The Persecuted of Essex202. Thomas Bryce203. The Persecuted in Kent204. The Persecuted in Coventry and the Exiles205. Thomas Parkinson206. The Scourged: Introduction207. Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax208. Thomas Greene209. Bartlett Greene and Cotton210. Steven Cotton's Letter211. Scourging of John Milles212. Scourging of Thomas Hinshaw213. Robert Williams214. Bonner's Beating of Boys215. A Beggar of Salisbury216. John Fetty217. James Harris218. Providences: Introduction219. The Miraculously Preserved220. Christenmas and Wattes221. Simon Grinaeus222. John Glover223. Dabney224. Alexander Wimshurst225. Bosom's wife226. The Delivery of Moyse227. Lady Knevet228. Crosman's wife229. Congregation at Stoke in Suffolk230. Congregation of London231. Robert Cole232. Englishmen at Calais233. John Hunt and Richard White234. Punishments of Persecutors235. Tome 6 Life and Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth236. The Westminster Conference237. Nicholas Burton238. Another Martyrdom in Spain239. Baker and Burgate240. Burges and Hoker241. Justice Nine-Holes242. Back to the Appendix notes243. A Poor Woman of Exeter244. Those Burnt at Bristol: extra material245. Priest's Wife of Exeter246. Gertrude Crockhey
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1206 []

To the same prison about the same tyme, (after the sentence of excommunication and condemnation, was pronounced against him) was Laurence Saunders broughte: where these two prisoners had such christian conferēce, that whatsoeuer the breathe of the bishoppes blustered, and the tickle eares of the people to lightly beleued, 

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Foxe is rather skillfully obscuring the fact that Cardmaker had promised to recant.

in the ende they both shewed them selues constant confessors, and worthy martyrs of Christ: as of Laurence Saunders, it is already written: After whose departure, Cardmaker, remayned there prisoner, to be bayted of the papistes, which would nedes seeme to haue a certayn hope that Cardmaker was become theirs. 
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Foxe is rather skillfully obscuring the fact that Cardmaker had promised to recant.

Continuall and great conference diuers of thē had with him, with reasoninges, persuadings, threatninges, and all to none effecte. To the ende that their doyngs might appeare, he required theym to put their reasons in writing, and promised by writyng to answer them.  
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Cardmaker and Warne

Most of the glosses in this section are the usual narrative pointers. There are glosses mocking the articles alleged against the martyrs ('The beliefe of the Popes Catholicke church'; 'To speake naturally of the naturall body of Christ, these two canot stād together at one tyme, vnles we graunt Christ to haue 2. bodyes'; 'That Christ neuer willed, neyther can the Scriptures beare it'; 'Heresye for laughing at a Spaniell shorne on the head'). A gloss which records that Warne was pardoned under Henry VIII makes the useful (implicit) point that the religious policy of his daughter was even more conservative. As ever, constancy is the signature of the martyrs as portrayed in the glosses ('Iohn Warne constant agaynst the Bishops persuasions'; 'Iohn Cardmaker standeth constantly to the fier'; 'The reioycing of the people at Cardmakers constancye'), and there is also a gloss recording the (as it emerged, groundless) fears of the people about Cardmaker's constancy ('The people afrayd at Cardmakers recanting').

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MarginaliaDoctor MartineDoctour Martine, a greate dooer in that tyme, tooke vpon him to be the chiefe doer by writing, whose longe vnsauerie letters and rude reasons for transubstanciation, and such papistical trashe, this Cardmaker aunswered largely, learnedly, & substācially, confuting the same, opening the falshode of his argumentes, and delyueryng the sentences of the fathers, which Martin abused for his purpose, to their true vnderstanding: which his answeres, I would had come to oure handes. Thus constantly abode this man of god all the enemies doings as he did also the deathe which he suffred in Smithfeld in Londō: At the daye of execution, he and one Warne whose faith foloweth, were broughte to the place, and when they were come to the stake, the shirifes Called Cardmaker asyde, and talked with hym secretly, so long, that in the meane time Warne had made his prayers, was chained to the stake, and had wood and reede set about him, so that nothyng wanted, but the fyryng, but still aboad Cardmaker talkyng with the Shiriffes. 
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Tantalizingly, a surviving copy of the narrative which was Foxe's source for the execution breaks off here, with three-quarters of the page blank (BL, Harley 425, fol. 68v). But the Rerum account continues down through the crowd crying out in acclamation of Cardmaker (Rerum, p. 443) and the original narrative probably went down to that point also.

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The people which before had heard that Cardmaker would recante, and beholdyng this manner of doyng, were in a meruelous dompe, and sadnes thinking in dede that Cardmaker should nowe recāt at the burning of Warne. At lēgth Cardmaker departed from the shiriffes, and came towardes the stake and (in his garmentes as he was,) kneled downe, and made a long prayer in silence to himself: yet the people confyrmed thēselues in their fantasie of his recantyng, seyng hym in his garmentes praying secretly, and semblaunce of burnyng. His praiers beyng ended, he rose vp, put of his clothes vnto his shert, went with bold courage to the stake: and kyssed it swetly: he toke Warne by the hand, and comforted him hartely, and so gaue him selfe to bee also bound to the stake most gladly. The people seyng this so soodenly done, contrarye to theyr fearefull expectation, as men deliuered out of a greate doubt of euill into the possession of the contrary ioye, cryed out for ioye (with so greate

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a shoute as hath not lightly bene harde a greater) saying: God be praysed, the lord strengthen thee Cardmaker, the lord Iesus receiue thy spirite. 

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The Venetian ambassador observed that crowd at Cardmaker's execution sympathised with the martyr (C.S.P. Ven., VI, I, pp. 93-94).

And this continued while the executioner put fire to them, and they both through the fyre passed into the ioyes of heauē, where now they liue and reigne for euer.

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The Martyrdoms of Cardmaker and Warne

The executions of Cardmaker and Warne mark a point at which the Marian persecution began to go wrong in two ways. In the case of Cardmaker, the effort to secure a recantation from a prominent evangelical was initially succesful, only to backfire and produce a martyr instead. In the case of Warne, the persecution was beginning to turn away from prominent clerics to ordinary layfolk, although admittedly in Warne's case, layfolk with long-standing heretical views which were outspokenly expressed. Foxe does not say exactly what brought Warne to the attention of the authorities in Mary's reign, although the articles brought against Warne suggest he publicly derided the Marian religious reforms.

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In the Rerum, Foxe printed an account of Cardmaker's arrest with William Barlow, of Barlow's refusing to recant, thanks to the persausive influence of Laurence Saunders, Cardmaker's debates in prison with Thomas Martin and of Cardmaker's execution along with John Warne, a citizen of London (Rerum, pp. 442-43). This material was reprinted, with only minor changes, in all editions of the Acts and Monuments. It was derived from a narrative account of these events which was probably sent from a protestant in London to a co-religionist in exile and which was obtained by Grindal or one of his associates. This narrative - or more accurately, a copy of it - survives among Foxe's papers as BL, Harley 425, fol. 68r-v. There was also a passage in the Rerum (p. 443), stating that Warne had made a confession of faith which commented on the Apostle's Creed. Foxe probably had the document at this time, but he did not print it.

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In the 1563 edition, Foxe added the articles put to Cardmaker and Warne, along with their answers as well as an account of Bishop Bonner's examination of Warne. All of these were obtained from Bonner's records. Foxe also printed the confession of faith to which he had alluded in the Rerum.

In the second edition, Foxe added details of Cardmaker's background - that the martyr had been an Observant Franciscan and that he was a reader in St Paul's - undoubtedly obtained from oral sources. This may well have included the unnamed friend to whom Cardmaker sent a letter, which was printed for the first time in 1570. Foxe also added a note relating a final attempt, by Thomas Beard, to secure a recantation from Cardmaker. Cardmaker probably sent this account to a friend, possibly the same one to whom he had sent the letter.

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There were no changes made to the narrative of Cardmaker and Warne in the third or fourth editions of the Acts and Monuments.

VVhere before in the history of Iohn Cardmaker, mētiō was made of Iohn Warn vpholster of the parishe of S. Iohnes in Walbroke, which was burnte wt the said Cardmaker: ye shall first vnderstand that this Iohn Warne was sent for by the king and Quenes Commissioners, and from thence was brought before Bonner Bishop of London. the 23. day of the month of May, who beyng there examined for his religion, especiallye for his opinion cōcerning their verity of Christes presence in þe sacrament: stoutly & with great constancie stood to the defence of his affection conteyned in the articles obiected vnto hym by the B. as here after shall appeare. Wherupon the bishop exhortyng him with many wordes to leaue his heresies (as he called them) and to returne to the bosome of his mother the holy church, commaunded hym to appeare againe the next day, beyng the xxiii. day of the same month.

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who so doing, and answering as he did before was willed to come thither again at afternoon, and so he dyd: where and at what time he was earnestly exhorted by the sayd B. to recant his opinions, to whom he answered: that he would not depart from his receiued professiō vnles he were thervnto throughly persuaded by the holy scriptures. Vpon which answer he was willed to com again the next day, being the 25. day of the same month, at one of the clock in the after noone: At whiche daye and houre the bishop examined him againe vpon all his former articles before obiected, to the whiche he most constantly did sticke, with this farther answer, therunto added. I am persuaded (quoth he) to bee in the right opinion, and that I see no cause to repent: for all filthines and idolatry is in the churche of Rome: the bishop then seyng that notwtstanding al his fayre promises & terrible threatninges (whereof he vsed store) he could not any thing preuaile: finished this examinatton with the definitiue sentence of condēnation pronoūced against the said Iohn Warne, and so charged the shirifes of London wt him, vnder whose custody he remained in the prison of Newgate, vntil the 30. day of the same month of May: in þe which he ended his life in the company of maister Cardmaker most like a constant martyr, as ye haue already heard.

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Articles obiected by Edmund bishop of London against Iohn Tailor, alias Cardmaker vvith his aunsvveres vnto the same. 
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The articles put to Cardmaker, and his answers to them, came from records of Bishop Bonner, probably a separate act book, now lost.

FIrst, I Edmund bishop of London, obiect against thee sir Iohn Tailor, alias Cardmaker, that thou was & art of the citie and

dioces
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