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Thematic Divisions in Book 5
1. Preface to Rubric 2. The Rubric 3. Mary's First Moves 4. The Inhibition5. Bourne's Sermon 6. The True Report7. The Precept to Bonner 8. Anno 15549. From 'The Communication' to 'A Monition' 10. Bonner's Monition11. Mary's Articles for Bonner 12. The Articles 13. From Mary's Proclamation to the 'Stile'14. From the 'Stile' to the 'Communication' 15. The 'Communication' 16. How Thomas Cranmer ... 17. Cranmer18. Ridley 19. Latimer20. Harpsfield's Forme 21. 1563's Disputational Digest22. Political Events up to Suffolk's Death 23. Between Mantell and the Preacher's Declaration 24. The Declaration of Bradford et al 25. May 19 to August 1 26. August 1 - September 3 27. From Bonner's Mandate to Pole's Oration 28. Winchester's Sermon to Bonner's Visitation 29. Pole's Oration 30. From the Supplication to Gardiner's Sermon 31. From Gardiner's Sermon to 1555 32. From the Arrest of Rose to Hooper's Letter 33. Hooper's Answer and Letter 34. To the End of Book X 35. The Martyrdom of Rogers 36. The Martyrdom of Saunders 37. Saunders' Letters 38. Hooper's Martyrdom 39. Hooper's Letters 40. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 41. Becket's Image and other events 42. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 43. Bonner and Reconciliation 44. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 45. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 46. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White47. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 48. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 49. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 50. Judge Hales 51. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 52. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 53. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 54. The Letters of George Marsh 55. The Martyrdom of William Flower 56. Mary's False Pregnancy57. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 58. John Tooly 59. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]60. Censorship Proclamation 61. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 62. Letters of Haukes 63. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 64. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain65. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 66. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 67. Bradford's Letters 68. William Minge 69. The Martyrdom of John Bland 70. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 71. Sheterden's Letters 72. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 73. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 74. John Aleworth 75. Martyrdom of James Abbes 76. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 77. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 78. Richard Hooke 79. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 80. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 81. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 82. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 83. Martyrdom of William Haile 84. Examination of John Newman 85. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 86. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 87. William Andrew 88. William Allen 89. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 90. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 91. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 92. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 93. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 94. John and William Glover 95. Cornelius Bungey 96. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 97. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 98. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 99. Ridley's Letters 100. Life of Hugh Latimer 101. Latimer's Letters 102. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed103. More Letters of Ridley 104. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 105. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 106. William Wiseman 107. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 108. John Went 109. Isobel Foster 110. Joan Lashford 111. Five Canterbury Martyrs 112. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 113. Letters of Cranmer 114. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 115. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 116. William Tyms, et al 117. The Norfolk Supplication 118. Letters of Tyms 119. John Hullier's Execution120. John Hullier 121. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 122. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 123. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 124. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 125. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 126. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 127. Thomas Rede128. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 129. William Slech 130. Avington Read, et al 131. Wood and Miles 132. Adherall and Clement 133. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 134. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow135. Persecution in Lichfield 136. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 137. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 138. John Careless 139. Letters of John Careless 140. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 141. Guernsey Martyrdoms 142. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 143. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 144. Three Men of Bristol145. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 146. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 147. John Horne and a woman 148. Northampton Shoemaker 149. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 150. More Persecution at Lichfield 151. Exhumations of Bucer and Phagius along with Peter Martyr's Wife152. Pole's Visitation Articles for Kent153. Ten Martyrs Burnt at Canterbury154. The 'Bloody Commission'155. Twenty-two Prisoners from Colchester156. Five Burnt at Smithfield157. Stephen Gratwick and others158. Edmund Allen and other martyrs159. Edmund Allen160. Alice Benden and other martyrs161. Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs162. Ambrose163. The Martyrdom of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper164. Rose Allin and nine other Colchester Martyrs165. John Thurston166. Thomas More167. George Eagles168. Richard Crashfield169. Fryer and George Eagles' sister170. John Kurde171. Cicelye Ormes172. Joyce Lewes173. Rafe Allerton and others174. Agnes Bongeor and Margaret Thurston175. Persecution at Lichfield176. Persecution at Chichester177. Thomas Spurdance178. Hallingdale, Sparrow and Gibson179. John Rough and Margaret Mearing180. Cuthbert Simson181. William Nicholl182. Seaman, Carman and Hudson183. Three at Colchester184. A Royal Proclamation185. Roger Holland and other Islington martyrs186. Richard Yeoman187. John Alcocke188. Alcocke's Epistles189. Thomas Benbridge190. Stephen Cotton and other martyrs191. Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver192. Three at Bury193. The Final Five Martyrs194. William Living195. The King's Brief196. William Browne197. Some Persecuted at Suffolk198. Elizabeth Lawson199. Edward Grew200. The Persecuted of Norfolk201. The Persecuted of Essex202. Thomas Bryce203. The Persecuted in Kent204. The Persecuted in Coventry and the Exiles205. Thomas Parkinson206. The Scourged: Introduction207. Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax208. Thomas Greene209. Bartlett Greene and Cotton210. Steven Cotton's Letter211. Scourging of John Milles212. Scourging of Thomas Hinshaw213. Robert Williams214. Bonner's Beating of Boys215. A Beggar of Salisbury216. John Fetty217. James Harris218. Providences: Introduction219. The Miraculously Preserved220. Christenmas and Wattes221. Simon Grinaeus222. John Glover223. Dabney224. Alexander Wimshurst225. Bosom's wife226. The Delivery of Moyse227. Lady Knevet228. Crosman's wife229. Congregation at Stoke in Suffolk230. Congregation of London231. Robert Cole232. Englishmen at Calais233. John Hunt and Richard White234. Punishments of Persecutors235. Tome 6 Life and Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth236. The Westminster Conference237. Nicholas Burton238. Another Martyrdom in Spain239. Baker and Burgate240. Burges and Hoker241. Justice Nine-Holes242. Back to the Appendix notes243. A Poor Woman of Exeter244. Those Burnt at Bristol: extra material245. Priest's Wife of Exeter246. Gertrude Crockhey
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1426 [1357]

The order and maner of the examination of Doctor Ridley, and Maister Latimer, had the. xx. daye of September. 1555. 
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The Final Examinations and Martyrdoms of Ridley and Latimer

There were relatively brief accounts of the examinations of Ridley and Latimer, on both 30 September and 1 October, in the Rerum (pp. 705-08). These accounts were clearly based on the commission to examine the two bishops, the articles on which they were interrogated and brief versions of their replies. Foxe obviously had copies of the first two documents in exile, supplemented with what may well have been a copy one of the notarial records of the examinations. Curiously, there was nothing in the Rerum on the condemnation and degradation of Ridley and Latimer and only a terse note of their executions (Rerum, p. 538).

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This deficiency was made good in the 1563 edition. The entire accounts of the examinations, condemnations, and executions of the two martyrs were first printed in this edition as well as the accounts of Ridley's degradation and his behaviour on his final night on earth. These accounts, apart from one famous, almost certainly apocryphal, remark first attributed to Latimer in the 1570 edition,were substantially unchanged in subsequent editions.

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What were Foxe's sources for this wealth of information? Ridley's examinations may have been written by Ridley himself; if not, they were certainly written by a co-religionist. But Ridley could not have recorded Latimer's examinations as he was not present at them; they were probably recorded by a sympathetic observer, quite possibly at Ridley's instruction. (They do not appear to have been written by Latimer himself; for one thing, the detailed descriptions of Latimer's dress and appearance suggest that the bishop did not describe his own examinations). Ridley's condemnation, degradation, behaviour in his final days and his execution were all recounted to Foxe by George Shipside, Ridley's devoted brother-in-law. (Shipside is specifically mentioned as being present on each of these occasions and the accounts frequently address a concern of his: Ridley's efforts to have leases bestowing property on Shipside's wife honoured by Mary). Augustine Bernher, Latimer's amanuensis, was very probably present at the bishops's execution and he may well have been a source for Foxe as well.

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MarginaliaExamination of doctor Ridley and maister Latimer. MarginaliaSeptember 20.FIrst you shall consider and vnderstande that maister Iohn Whyte Bishop of Lincolne, and Doctour Brockes Bishop of Glocester, & Doctor Holman Bishop of Brystow came to Oxforde at sondry times for the execution of theyr owne proper busines, as the vulgare talke reported, and at all theyr beings there, euen the. xxviii. of September was sente 

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From here down to the words 'all such heresy and schism' Foxe is clearly quoting from the commission to examine the bishops.

from my Lorde Cardinall Poole Legat a Latere  
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There are three types of papal (personal representatives of the pope): a legatus natus, a nuncio and a legate à latere. A legatus natus is the holder of an office (e.g., the archbishopric of Canterbury before the reformation) which automatically confers legatine status on the officeholder. Today a numcio is a diplomatic representaive from the Holy See, but in the sixteenth century he was a papal official with the authority to collect revenue due to the papacy from a particular province. Legates à latere acted as deputies for the pope on important missions. They have full papal power in much the same way as a viceroy has royal powers. The trials of Ridley and Latimer were conducted under Cardinal Pole's legatine authority.

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to the Popes holinesse a commission to the rehearsed persons, to all and singuler of them. The contentes of the whiche were, that þe said Iohn of Lincolne, Iames of Glocester, & Iohn of Bristow, they, or two of them shoulde haue ful power and autoritie to ascite, examine, and iudge maister Hugh Latimer, and maister doctor Ridley, pretensed  
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Mary's government refused to accept the validity of ordinations conducted under the 1550 ordinal, which included the episcopal ordinations of Latimer and Ridley.

Bishops of Worcester & London, for diuers and sondry erroneous opynions, whiche the said Hugh Latimer, and Nicholas Ridley did holde, and maintaine, in opē disputations had in Oxford, in the monethes of May, Iune, and Iuly, in the yere of our lorde 1554. as lōg before in the time of perdition,  
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The period between Henry VIII's break with Rome and Mary's accession.

and sithen, the which opinions yf the named persōs would now recant, geuing and yelding themselues to the determination of the vniuersal, and Catholike churche, planted by Peter in the blessed sea of Rome, that then the deputed iudges by the said authoritie of theyr commissyon should haue power to receiue the said penitent persones, and foorthwith minister to them the reconciliation of our holy father the Pope. but if þe said Hugh Latimer, & Nicolas Ridley shall stoutly and stubbornely defēd & maintein these their erroneous assertions, þt then þe said lords by their cōmission shoulde procede in forme of iudgement according to þe law of Heretikes, þt is, degradating thē frō their promotiō, & dignitie of Bishops, priestes, & al other ecclesiastical orders should pronounce thē as heretikes, and therfore cleane to cut them of frō the churche, & so to yelde them to receiue punishment, due to all suche heresy & schisme. Wherfore the last of Septēber, the said two persōs Nicolas Ridley & Hugh Latimer wer ascited to appeare before þe said Lordes, in the diuinitie schole at Oxford at eight of the clock, at what time thither repaired þe lordes,  
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The bishops trying Ridley and Latimer: Bishop White of Lincoln, Bishop Brooks of Gloucester and Bishop Holyman of Bristol.

placing thēselues in an high seat, made for publike lectures & disputations, accordyng to the vsage of that schole, being thē fayr set, and trimmed with clothe of Tissewe, and cushynges of veluet: & after the said lords wer placed and sette, the sayde Latimer and Ridley wer sent for: and first appeared maister Doctor

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Ridley, and anone maister Latimer. But because it semed good seuerallye 

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Separately.

to examine thē, maister Latimer was kept backe, vntil maister Ridley was throughly examined. Therefore soone after the comming of maister Ridley into the schole, the commission was published by an appointed Notarye, and openly red. But maister Ridley standing bareheaded, humbly expecting the cause of that his appearaunce, eft sones  
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Repeatedly.

as he had hard the Cardinall named, and the Popes holinesse, put on his cap. Wherefore after the cōmissiō was published, in forme and sense aboue specified, my lord of Lincolne spake in sense folowyng.

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Linc. Maister Ridley, although neither I, neither my Lordes here for any respect of our own persons doe loke for cappe or knee, yet because we beare and represent such persons as we do, that is, my Lord Cardinall his grace, Legate a latere to the Popes holinesse, as wel in that he is of a noble parentage, (and therwith mayster Ridley moued his cap wt lowly obeysance) descending from the regall bloud, as in that he is a man worthy to be reuerenced with all humilitie, for his great knowlege and learning, noble vertues and godly life, and especiallye in that he is here in England deputie to þe Popes holinesse, it should haue becommed you at hys name to haue discouered your head. Wherfore except you will of your owne selfe take þe paynes to put your hand to your head, and at the nomination, as well of the sayd Cardinall, as of the Popes holynesse vncouer the same, least that this youre contumacye 

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Contempt, disrespect.

exhibited now before vs shoulde bee preiudiciall to the said most Reuerende persones, whiche thyng we may in in no case suffer, you shall cause vs to take the paynes to cause some manne to plucke of your cappe from you, to whome maister Ridley, makyng his peticion for licence, aunswered.

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Rid. As touching þt you said (my lord) þt you of your own persons desire ne cap ne kne, but only require þe same in cōsideratiō þt you represēt þe Cardinals graces person, I doe you to wit, & therevpō make my protestation þt I did put on my cap at the naming of the Cardinals grace, neyther for anye contumacye that I beare towardes youre owne persones, neither for anye derogation of honour towarde the Lorde Cardinall his grace. For I know him to be a manne worthy of all humilitie, reuerence, and honor, in that he came of the moste regall bloude, and in that hee is a manne endued with manyfolde graces of learnyng and vertue: & as touchyng these vertures and pointes, I with al humilitie (therwt he put of his cap, & bowed his kne) & obeysāce þt I may, wil reuerēce & honor his grace but in þt he is Legat to þe B. of Rome, (& therwt put on his cap) whose vsurped supremacy, and abused autoritie I vtterly refuse, and renoūce,

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