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227 [227]

the yeare of our Lord. M.iiii.C.xiii. in the Moneth of Ianuary.

Iohn Claydone and Rychard Turmyne. 
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John Claydon and  Richard Turming, death of Oldcastle

In the Commentarii (fo. 62v), Foxe had a brief account of 'William' Claydon, which describes him being burned in 1414 as a heretic. This brief, account, including the erroneous first name of the victim, was taken from College of Arms MS Arundel 7. (See Thomas of Walsingham, Historia Anglicana, ed. H. T. Riley, 2 vols., Rolls Series 28 [London, 1863-64], II, p. 307). In the Rerum (p. 60), Foxe repeated this account, although he corrected Claydon's first name to John. Later in the Rerum (p. 109), however, Foxe gave an account of the burning of John Claydon and Richard Turmyn, for which he cited Fabyan's chronicle as the source. (And, in fact, was clearly did draw this information from Fabyan; see Robert Fabyan, The Chronicle of Fabian [London, 1559], STC 10664, p. 390). In the 1563 edition, Foxe dropped the brief entry taken from Walsingham and reprinted the notice taken from Fabyan. In 1570, Foxe greatly expanded his account of the unfortunate pair by drawing on the register of Archbishop Chichele for Claydon's background, trial and examination. (See The Register of Henry Chichele, ed. E. F. Jacob, 4 vols. [Oxford, 1943-47], IV, pp. 132-8). He also printed Arcbishop Chichele's proclamation against the Lollards from the same source (Chichele Register, III, pp. 18-19). Foxe also delved deeply into Chichele's register for other accounts of accused heretics being imprisoned, questioned and being forced to recant (Chichele Register III, pp. 15-16, 25, 44, 187- 208 and IV, pp. 138-40, 155-8, 192-3, 203-4 and 297-301). Claydon and Turmyn were the only accused heretics among this group who were executed, but these additional episodes, no matter how inconsequential, provided evidence that there were members of the True Chuch before Luther and that the Catholic clergy were zealous in persecuting them. It should also be remembered that the episodes Foxe lists (although Foxe does not make this clear) extended over thirteen years.

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Foxe intensified the theme of persecution by recording, with these other prosecutions, the arrest and execution of Sir John Olcastle. In the 1563 edition this consisted of an account of these events, previously printed in the Rerum (pp. 106-7), which was based on The Chronicle of Fabian (pp. 390 and 389 [recte 397]). To this Foxe added the account of Oldcastle's execution, which was taken from John Bale, A brefe Chronycle concerning the examination and death of the blessed martir of Christ sir Johan Oldcastel (London, 1548?), STC 1278, sigs F8v-G1r. In the 1570 edition, however, Foxe replaced this account of Oldcastle's martyrdom with a defence of him against the charge made by Nicholas Harpsfield that Oldcastle had been a traitor.

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There were no further changes made to any of this material in subsequent editions of the Acts and Monuments.

Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

ABout the same tyme there were many other, to the nomber of xxxvi. the whiche in a maner all together came of noble & gentle bloudes, the which by þe byshops were condemned for heritickes as Ihon Maior wryteth, whom this cruel law draue vnto the fire the same yere, besides þe which ther are ii. more rehersed in Fabians chronicles, Ihō Claidon a currier, and Richarde Turmine a baker, whiche by the like seuerity and cruelty of law were vndeseruedly condemned of herisie, and with like torments ended their life in Smithfield, menne surely worthy to be nombred in the Cathaloge of Martirs.

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MarginaliaIhon Maior lib vi. cap. vi. of the Scotish history. Robert Fabian in hys chronicles.Besides that I do passe ouer such whom Ihō Maior in the vi. boke of our history reporteth to be condempned for heretickes in the yere of our Lord M.CCCCxlvii. Amōgst the which such as were found to be moste constant were burned, but what the cause or names of suche as were then burned was, the certainty therof is not yet apparaunt.

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MarginaliaA Frier Minor of England.About which time also our countrye man Harding maketh mention of a certaine Frier Minor an English man, who beinge ambassadour of Pope Benedict the xiii. into Scotlād. If that he had not by spedy flight prouided for him self, he shuld hardly haue escaped the firy fagottes, whiche were prouided for him by meanes of certaine herisies, which were laide against him.

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About these times or not much aboue, there was a certain sermon wrytten, whether it be of Wickleffe, or Thorpe, or any of their posterity, it is vncertaine, neyther is there anye name expressed therin, if the nomber be true which there is mentioned to be 1388. It semeth to be of Wickleffes doing, but whether it be or not, no doubt it sauoureth of that time, and for the frute therof most worthy to come in amongst thother actes of these good men.

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A Sermon no lesse frutefull, then famous. Made in the yeare of our Lord God M.CCC.lxxxviii In these our later dayes moste necessary to be knowen. Neyther addinge to nor diminishing from. Saue the olde and rude English therof mended here and there. 
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Wimbledon's sermon

Thomas Wimbledon's Paul's Cross sermon, preached in 1387 or 1388, was circulated widely in manuscript in the late Middle Ages. Its apocalyptic tenor and impassioned call for clerical reform caught the imagination of English evangel-icals, anxious to find evidence of the True Church before Luther. These evangelicals believed that Wimbledon's sermon - and it is important to remember that they did not know that Wimbledon was the author - was a Lollard work. The sermon was first printed by an evangelical, John Maylor, sometime around 1541. (For evangelical interest in this sermon and its early printing history, see Alexandra Walsham, 'Inventing the Lollard Past: The Afterlife of a Medieval Sermon in Early Modern England', Journal of Ecclesiastical History 58 [2007], pp. 628-655). There were five editions of the sermon printed before Foxe's 1563 edition. In his first edition, however, Foxe reprinted the first edition of the sermon. This can be seen in the fact that - most unusually - reprinted most of the marginal notes, as well as the text, of this edition. However, Foxe made a careless error: he reprinted the title page of the work, but where the title page stated that the sermon was preached in MCCCLXXXVII, Foxe stated that it was preached in 1388. In the 1563 edition, Foxe tentatively speculated that the sermon was authored by John Wiclif. While working in the records of Archbishop William Courtenay between the 1563 and 1570 edition, Foxe discovered 'an old worne copy' of the work and learned that it had been written by Richard Wimbledon. Foxe printed his discovery in the 1570 edition, replacing the sixteenth century version he had reprinted in 1563. He also identified Wimbledon as the author. Interestingly, as Alexandra Walsham has observed, although Foxe knew that the sermon was preached around 1388, he printed it just after the account of William Thorpe, thereby subtly associating Wimbledon's sermon with persecution and martyrdom. The 1570 version of the sermon, and its placement, were repeated in all subsequent editions of Foxe.

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Thomas S. Freeman,
University of Sheffield

Redde rationem villicationis tue. Luce. xvi.

CHrist the authour and doctour of all truthe, in his Gospel, likeneth the kingdom of heauen, to a housholder, sayinge on thys wyse. Like is the kingdome of heauen to a hous-holding man, that went forth first in the mornynge, to hyre workmen into his vineyarde: so did he about the thyrd hour, the sixthe, the ninthe, and the eleuenth. And as he found men standing idle, he saide to them, whye stand ye here vnoccupied? Go ye into my vineyard, and that, that is duety, I shal geue you. And when the daye was ended he called his stewarde, and bidde that he should geue euery man a penny. Spiritually, this housholder is our mayster and Lord Christe the true housholder, and head of his church here in earth, which calleth men in diuers hours of the day, that is in diuers ages of the world. As in the time of nature, he called by inspiratiō, Abel, Enoch, Noe, Abrahā, & other lyke In tyme of the old lawe, he called Moses, Dauid, Esay, and Ieremy, wyth the Prophettes. And in the time of grace he called the Apostles, martyrs, confessors, and virgins. He called also some in childhode as Ihon Baptist. Some in their youth, as Ihon the Euangelist, some in myddle age, as Peter and Andrew: Some in their later dayes. As Gamaliel and Ioseph of Arimathye. And al those he called to labour in the Lordes vinyard that is his churche, yea and that sondry wayes. For ryght as ye see, that in trimming of this materiall vine, there be diuers labourers. For some cut awaye the braunches that be voyde. Some vnderset, and lay abrode the vine. yea, some pare away thold earth, and lay new to the rote, which offyces, al be so necessarye to the vine: that if anye of them fayle, or want it shalbe either let or vtterly destroy the growing of the vine. For onles the vine be cut, she will waxe wilde except she be rayled vp and layed abrode, wedes and nettels will soone ouergrow her. And if the rote be not fatted wyth new and fresh dong, for feblenes, she wil waxe barrain. No lesse nedeful in Christes church be these three offycers, Priesthode, Knighthode, and labourers. To priestes or preachers, it behoueth to cut away the void braunches of sinne, wyth the sword of Gods word. To knights it falleth to set wrongs, and the hestes to be done, and to maintain Goddes law and them that be teachers therof, yea and to kepe the lande from insurrection, and inuading of other lands. The labourers must laboure bodilye and with sore sweat get out of thearth bodily sustenaunce bothe for them selfe and for other Anp al these estates be so neapeful to the churche: that none maye wel be wythoute other. For if Priestes wantep the people for defalt of knowlepge of Gods worp, wold waxe wild in vices, and so die ghostly. And were not knighthode, and men to rule the people by law and hardnes, theues and enemyes would so encrease that no man coulde liue in peace. Anp but for labourers, both Priestes anp Knightes must becom artificers, plowmen and heardes: or els must for defaut of bodely sustenaunce, die. And therfore sayeth the greate clarke Auicenna. That euerye vnreasonable beast, if it haue that, that nature and kinde hath ordained for it, as kynde geueth it, is suffycient to lyue there hym selfe, wythout any other of the same kinde. As if there were but one horse, or one shepe in the worlde, yet if he had corne and grasse, as nature and kinde hath ordained for such a beast, he shoulde liue wel inoughe. But yf there were but one man in the world, although he had al the godd that is therein, yet for defaut he shuld die or hys lyfe should be worse then if he wer not. And the cause is thus, for that thynge that kynde hathe ordayned for mans sustenance, wythout other preparing, or altryng then it hath of kynde, accordeth not to hym. As if a mā haue corne, as it commeth from the earthe, yet it is no meat accorpynge to hym, vntyl it be by mannes crafte chaunged into bread. And though he haue flesh or fish, yet while it is raw, and not by mannes laboure sodden, roste, broyled, or baken, it accordeth not to mannes sustenaunce. Euen so the wol that the sheepe beareth must nepes by dyuers craftes be altered, and chaunged, or it be able to cloth any man. And truelye a manne by him self shoulde neuer doe those thynges. And therfore saith this clarke, that it is nedeful that some be husbād men, some men of occupations, some Marchauntes to

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