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456 [456]

Actes and Monumentes of the Church.

be persecuted with fire, MarginaliaThe slaunders of Tecel the Iacobine.and besides this he burned openly Luthers propositions, and the sermon he wrote of indulgences. This rage and hellish fury of this Frier enforced Luther to treat more amply of thinges, and to maintain the truthe.

And thus rose the beginninges of this controuersy, wherin Luther neither suspecting ne dreaming of any chaunge that might happen in the ceremonies, did not vtterly reiect the indulgences, but required a moderation in thē. And therfore they falsly acuse him, which blase that he begā with a plawsible matter, and wher by he might get praise, to the end, in proces of time he might chaunge the state of the commō weale, and purchase authority, either for hym self or other.

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And sure, he was not suborned or stirred 

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Foxe (repeating Melanchthon) is denying the charge that Luther attacked the selling of indulgences at the behest of Frederick the Wise, the duke of Saxony. In fact, Melanchthon and Foxe declare (correctly) that Frederick was alarmed by the controversy.

by them of the court (as the Duke of Brunswike wrote) in so muche that the Duke Fredericke was sore offended that such contention and cōtrouersy should arise, hauing regard to the sequele therof.

MarginaliaPrayse of Frederick Duke of Saxony.And as this good Duke Frederick was one of all the Princes of oure time that loued best quiet and common tranquilitye, neither was auaricious, but willingly bent to refer all his counsels to the common vtility of al þe world, as it is easy to be coniected diuers waies: so he neither encouraged nor fauoured Luther, but often represented semblaunce of heauines and sorow, which he bare in his hart, fearing greater dissencions.

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But as he was wise, and followed not only prophane iudgements, in stopping first beginnings be time: so taking in counsel the deuine rule, and wel deliberating there vpon, whych chiefly requireth obedience to the Gospel, and forbiddeth to resyst the truth, terming it blasphemy, horribly condempned of God, obstinatly to repugn the truth: He did that many wise and godly would haue doone, he obeyed God, committing him self to his deuine protection, he red diligently þt was wrytten, and he wold not withstand the thing which he iudged to be sincere and true. 

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Unquestionably Frederick the Wise's staunch support for Luther saved Luther numerous times, particularly in the early stages of the Indulgence controversy, later when Luther was summoned to Rome and still later after the Diet of Worms. Frederick was a wealthy and powerful prince and (crucial to Luther's safety) the Habsburgs owed Frederick large sums of money.

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I know very wel he made inquisition often times, what were the wise and learned mens opinions touching these thinges. I knowe he gently besought Erasmus 

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This whole account of Erasmus's opinion of Luther is taken from Caspar Peucer, Chronicon Carionis (Wittenberg, 1580), p. 705 and Caspar Hedio, Paralipomena rerum memorabilium (Strausburg, 1569), pp. 447-8. Foxe is including this to emphasize Erasmus's support for the Reformation and to reduce the well-known disagreements between Luther and Erasmus to the level of personality clashes.

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(in that assemblye which themperour Charles the fifte made, in the city of Colein after his coronation) frelye to tell him his opinion, if Luther had erred in those matters, wherof he principally entreated. MarginaliaErasmus approueth Luthers doctrine.Then Erasmus saide, that Luthers opynion was good: but that he desired moderation of stile in him. Wherof Duke Frederick wrot after greuously to Luther, exhortinge hym to temper the vehemency of his stile.

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It is also apparent, 

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In the 1570 edition, Foxe replaced these passages (from A famous godly history, trans. Henry Bennet [London, 1561], STC 1881, sigs. C3r-D4v) with a more detailed account of the events between 1517 and the Diet of Worms drawn from the histories of Caspar Hedio and Johnnes Sleidan (See Caspar Hedio, Paralipomena rerum memorabilium [Strassburg, 1559], pp. 447-50 and Johannes Sleidan, A famouse cronicle of our time, called Sleidanes Commentaries [London, 1560], STC 19848, sigs. 1v-10r). Apart from the greater detail in Hedio and Sleidan, there were two fundamental reasons for doing this. The first is that this narrative is rather digressive. The second is that, in trying to defend Luther from charges of stirring up rebellion and commotion, Melanchthon raises issues that Foxe would have preferred not to have been brought into the open, such as the accusation that Luther was a radical innovator or that he incited the Peasants' War.

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that Luther promised þe Cardinal Caietanus to kepe silence, prouidedalso þt his aduersaries wold do the like. Wher by we maye gather, that at that time he determined not to stirre anye newe debates, but rather coueted the commō quietnes, and that he was prouoked by little and litle to other matters, throughe the prouokinge of vnlearned wryters.

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MarginaliaDeclaof pru poyntes of Religion.Then followed disputations of the differēce betwixt deuine and humaine lawe of the horrible prophanacion of the supper of our Lord, in selling and applying the same for other purposes. Here he was forced to expres the cause of the sacrifice, and to declare the vse of the sacramentes. Now the godly and faithful Christians, closed in monasteries, vnderstandinge Images oughte to be eschued, began to abandon that wretched thraldome, in whyche they were deteyned.

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Now Luther, the plainlier to expres the doctrin of repentaunce, of remissyon of sinnes, of faith, and of indulgēces, he added also to these matters: The differēce of deuine and humain lawes, the doctrine of the vse of oure Lordes supper, of Baptisme and of vowes, and these were his principal conflictes. MarginaliaEckius.As touching the question of the Romain bishops power, Eckius was the author thereof, and for none other respect, then to inflame the firye wrathe of the Pope and Princes againste Luther. The simbole of the Apostles, also of Nice and Athanasius he conserued in their integritye. Further he declareth in diuers his workes sufficiently what innouacion is to be required in the ceremonies and traditions of men, and wherefore they oughte to be altered. And what forme of doctrin & administration of the sacraments he required and approued, MarginaliaThe confession of Ausburge.it is apparent by the confessyon whiche the elector Ihon Duke of Saxonye, and Prince Phillip Lantgraue of Hessia presented to themperor Charles the v. in the yere 1530. in the assembly at Ausburge. It is manifest also by the ceremonyes of the church in this citye, and the doctryne that is preached in our church, the summe whereof is fullye comprised in this confessyon: I alledge this, that the godlye maye consider not onlye what errors he hathe corrected and reproued, but also they may vnderstand that he comprehended also the whole doctrine necessarye for the church, he hath set the ceremonies in theyr purity, and geuen examples to the faithfull to reforme the churches, and it is necessarye for posteritye to knowe what Luther hathe approued.

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MarginaliaWho were þe cause that ceremonies wer chaunged.I wil not here reherse, who were the fyrst þt published bothe partes of the Supper of oure Lord, who first omitted priuate masses, and where first the monasteries were abondoned. MarginaliaWormesFor Luther disputed very litle of these before the assembly which was made in the town of Wormes, in the yere 1521. he chaunged not þe

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